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Organizational            Change    Any alterations in the people, structure, or     technology of an organizationChara...
 External   Forces       Internal   Forces    Marketplace             Changes in    Governmental laws        organiza...
 Change  Agents   Persons who act as catalysts and assume    the responsibility for managing the change    process. Typ...
 Calm    waters metaphor According to Lewin , Success ful change can be be Planned and requires    Unfreezing the status...
 White-water      rapids metaphor    The lack of environmental     stability and predictability     requires that manage...
MANAGING CHANGE
In business improvement projects …   ChangeManagementis about ……
Initiating change involves:-       A change agent.       Identifying areas of change.       Putting change process in m...
be motivated always    look at the opportunities that change represents
Example citing change                        11
TYPES OF CHANGEstructureTechnologypeople
CHANGING STRUCTUREStructural decisions are not final but change with changing conditions and strategies.Structural compone...
CHANGING TECHNOLOGYEarly management studies dealth with efforts aimed at technological changeToday technological changes i...
Examples –changing              technology• Introduction of new equipment:-   due to competitive factors/new innovations  ...
Examples –changing             technology• Automation  tasks done by people are replaced by machines                      ...
Examples –changing             technology• COMPUTERISATION  It’s very uncommon for an office not to be computerised.      ...
CHANGING                    PEOPLEDat is changing their attitudes,expectations,perceptions, and  behaviors----isn’t   easy...
Organizational   development   techniques                                            13–19
MANAGING RESISTANCE    TO CHANGE         .
MANAGING RESISTANCE TO CHANGEWhy people resist change?  The ambiguity and uncertainty that change   introduces   The co...
Techniques for Reducing Resistance .                                       Participation      Education &     Communicatio...
TECHNIQUES FOR REDUCING RESITANCEEducation and CommunicationCommunicate with employees to help them see the logic of chan...
Cont…Facilitation and Support Provide supportive efforts such as employee counseling or therapy, new skills  training, or...
   Stress is a feeling thats created when we react to particular    events.   Its the bodys way of rising to a challenge...
• – Keeps us alert and motivates GOOD      us to face challenges, drives usSTRESS     to solve problems.         • – Occur...
   Accept   Avoid   Alter   Adapt to
SYMPTOMS OF  STRESS
   It’s all about BALANCE!BALANCE is hard to achieve, especially when you are a freshman and arehandling these responsibi...
   The key to BALANCE is to look at those things you have to do, and    those things in your day that are optional.     ...
   Strategies for managing stress (yes, we’ve all heard of them, but    many of us don’t practice them!)     Learn to ma...
   What’s one thing you’ll start doing?   What’s one thing you’ll stop doing?   What’s one thing you’ll keep doing?
   Innovation is the introduction of new ideas,    goods, services, and practices which are    intended to be useful (tho...
The Numbers Game                    60                                The Innovation process can                          ...
Why do we need Innovation?Conclusion? - - If a company does not continue to introduce newproducts periodically, or at lea...
Ideas, Creativity and Innovation  Creativity  The ability to make or otherwise bring into  existence something new, whethe...
Innovative Products
Stimulating Innovation • Creativity        The ability to combine ideas in a unique way or to         make an unusual ass...
Exhibit 13–10 Systems View of Innovation      High commitment to training      Job security      Support impractical id...
Exhibit 13–11 Innovation Variables© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.   13–46
1. The first step in the process of planned change is        a. develop the goal(s).        b. recognize the need for chan...
Managing Change Principles of management
Managing Change Principles of management
Managing Change Principles of management
Managing Change Principles of management
Managing Change Principles of management
Managing Change Principles of management
Managing Change Principles of management
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Managing Change Principles of management

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Managing Change Principles of management

  1. 1. Organizational Change  Any alterations in the people, structure, or technology of an organizationCharacteristics of Change  Is constant yet varies in degree and direction  Produces uncertainty yet is not completely unpredictable  Creates both threats and opportunities 2
  2. 2.  External Forces  Internal Forces  Marketplace  Changes in  Governmental laws organizational and regulations strategy  Technology  Workforce changes  Labor market  New equipment  Economic changes  Employee attitudes 3
  3. 3.  Change Agents  Persons who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing the change process. Types of Change Agents  Managers: internal entrepreneurs  Non-managers: change specialists  Outside consultants: change implementation experts
  4. 4.  Calm waters metaphor According to Lewin , Success ful change can be be Planned and requires  Unfreezing the status quo  Changing to a new state  Refreezing to make permanent change
  5. 5.  White-water rapids metaphor  The lack of environmental stability and predictability requires that managers and organizations continually adapt to survive. The white water metaphor is consistent with our discussion of un certain and dynamic environments. It is also consistent with a world that is increasingly dominated by information ideas and knowledge.
  6. 6. MANAGING CHANGE
  7. 7. In business improvement projects … ChangeManagementis about ……
  8. 8. Initiating change involves:-  A change agent.  Identifying areas of change.  Putting change process in motion.  Managing employee resistance to change. Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.9
  9. 9. be motivated always look at the opportunities that change represents
  10. 10. Example citing change 11
  11. 11. TYPES OF CHANGEstructureTechnologypeople
  12. 12. CHANGING STRUCTUREStructural decisions are not final but change with changing conditions and strategies.Structural components where changes can be brought are:• Terms of work specialisation.• Span of control.• Departmentalisation.• Chain of command.• Centralisation.• Decentralisation.• Formalisation.
  13. 13. CHANGING TECHNOLOGYEarly management studies dealth with efforts aimed at technological changeToday technological changes involve :Introduction of new equipment.Automation.Computerisation. 14
  14. 14. Examples –changing technology• Introduction of new equipment:- due to competitive factors/new innovations 15
  15. 15. Examples –changing technology• Automation tasks done by people are replaced by machines Installed efficient coal handling equipment 16
  16. 16. Examples –changing technology• COMPUTERISATION It’s very uncommon for an office not to be computerised. 17
  17. 17. CHANGING PEOPLEDat is changing their attitudes,expectations,perceptions, and behaviors----isn’t easy !!!! ORGANISATIONAL DEVELOPMENT(OD) It refers to all the types of changes , but essentially focuses on techniques or programs to change people and the nature and quality of interpersonal work relationships. 18
  18. 18. Organizational development techniques 13–19
  19. 19. MANAGING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE .
  20. 20. MANAGING RESISTANCE TO CHANGEWhy people resist change? The ambiguity and uncertainty that change introduces  The comfort of old habits  A concern over personal loss of status, money, authority, friendships, and personal convenience  The perception that change is incompatible with the goals and interest of the organization
  21. 21. Techniques for Reducing Resistance . Participation Education & Communication Coercion Facilitation & SupportNegotiation Manipulation & Co-optation
  22. 22. TECHNIQUES FOR REDUCING RESITANCEEducation and CommunicationCommunicate with employees to help them see the logic of change.Educate employees through one on one discussions, memos, group meetings, or reports.Appropriate if source of resistance is either poor communication or misinformation.Must be mutual trust and credibility between managers and employees.Participation Allows those who oppose a change to participate in the decision. Assumes that they have expertise to make meaningful contributions. Involvement can reduce resistance, obtain commitment to seeing change succeed, and increase quality of change decision.Negotiation Exchange something of value to reduce resistance. Potentially high costs and likelihood of having to negotiate with other resisters.
  23. 23. Cont…Facilitation and Support Provide supportive efforts such as employee counseling or therapy, new skills training, or short, paid leave of absence. Can be time consuming and expensive.Manipulation and Co-operation Manipulating is covert attempts to influence such as twisting or distorting facts, withholding damaging information, or creating false rumors. Co-operation is a form of manipulation and participation. Inexpensive and easy ways to gain support of resisters. Can fail miserably if targets feel they’ve been tricked. Can be time consuming and expensive.Coercion Using direct threats or force. Inexpensive and easy way to get support. May be illegal. Even legal coercion can be perceived as bullying.
  24. 24.  Stress is a feeling thats created when we react to particular events. Its the bodys way of rising to a challenge and preparing to meet a tough situation with focus, strength, stamina, and heightened alertness.
  25. 25. • – Keeps us alert and motivates GOOD us to face challenges, drives usSTRESS to solve problems. • – Occurs when our minds and BAD bodies overreact emotionally,STRESS intellectually or physically to changes or demands.
  26. 26.  Accept Avoid Alter Adapt to
  27. 27. SYMPTOMS OF STRESS
  28. 28.  It’s all about BALANCE!BALANCE is hard to achieve, especially when you are a freshman and arehandling these responsibilities on your own for the first time
  29. 29.  The key to BALANCE is to look at those things you have to do, and those things in your day that are optional.  You must carve out extra time from the optional tasks.  Learn to say NO – friends and family may not always understand, but they are not the ones living your life. One day, it will make sense to them!
  30. 30.  Strategies for managing stress (yes, we’ve all heard of them, but many of us don’t practice them!)  Learn to manage your time (keep your TO DO list and follow it!)  Exercise (yes, I hate it too – but it works!)  Each day, find at least 20 minutes of alone time to relax (meditate, breathing exercises, progressive muscle relaxation, soft music, etc…)
  31. 31.  What’s one thing you’ll start doing? What’s one thing you’ll stop doing? What’s one thing you’ll keep doing?
  32. 32.  Innovation is the introduction of new ideas, goods, services, and practices which are intended to be useful (though a number of unsuccessful innovations can be found throughout history). The main driver for innovation is often the courage and energy to better the world. An essential element for innovation is its application in a commercially successful way. Innovation has changed human history (consider the development of electricity, steam engines, motor vehicles, laptops). ◦ en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Innovation
  33. 33. The Numbers Game 60 The Innovation process can be depicted as a series of funnels each getting progressively smaller.NCMA PresentationSan Diego 1Dec 17, 2008 © 40
  34. 34. Why do we need Innovation?Conclusion? - - If a company does not continue to introduce newproducts periodically, or at least significant improvements onexisting products it will eventually be on a “going out of business”curve.Continuing to come up with the “right” product for the markettakes a lot of innovation (plus a lot of “perspiration!”).
  35. 35. Ideas, Creativity and Innovation Creativity The ability to make or otherwise bring into existence something new, whether a new solution to a problem, a new method or device, or a new artistic object or form. Innovation 1 : The introduction of something new 2 : A new idea, method, or deviceCreativity = (Idea + Action) (Novelty)Innovation = (Creativity+productivity)(Novelty+value)Innovation = Idea + Action + Productivity+value
  36. 36. Innovative Products
  37. 37. Stimulating Innovation • Creativity  The ability to combine ideas in a unique way or to make an unusual association. • Innovation  Turning the outcomes of the creative process into useful products, services, or work methods. • Idea Champion  Dynamic self-confident leaders who actively and enthusiastically inspire support for new ideas, build support, overcome resistance, and ensure that innovations are implemented.© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 13–44
  38. 38. Exhibit 13–10 Systems View of Innovation High commitment to training Job security Support impractical idea Organization should encourage experimentation Reward both success and failureSource: Adapted from R.W. Woodman, J.E. Sawyer, and R.W. Griffin, “Toward a Theory© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Strong innovative cultureof Organizational Creativity,” Academy of Management Review, April 1993, p. 309. 13–45 ,Celebrate mistake
  39. 39. Exhibit 13–11 Innovation Variables© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 13–46
  40. 40. 1. The first step in the process of planned change is a. develop the goal(s). b. recognize the need for change. c. diagnose the problem. d. select the method of intervention. 2. The bridge of __________ separates people from change. a. acceptance b. resistance c. economics d. opportunity (3) What is stress ? Explain the causes and symptoms of stress and how can we reduce stress in organization. (4) Short notes • Innovation variables • Types of changes 13– © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 47

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