Organizational Change Any alterations in the people, structure, or technology of an organizationCharacteristics of Change Is constant yet varies in degree and direction Produces uncertainty yet is not completely unpredictable Creates both threats and opportunities 2
Change Agents Persons who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing the change process. Types of Change Agents Managers: internal entrepreneurs Non-managers: change specialists Outside consultants: change implementation experts
Calm waters metaphor According to Lewin , Success ful change can be be Planned and requires Unfreezing the status quo Changing to a new state Refreezing to make permanent change
White-water rapids metaphor The lack of environmental stability and predictability requires that managers and organizations continually adapt to survive. The white water metaphor is consistent with our discussion of un certain and dynamic environments. It is also consistent with a world that is increasingly dominated by information ideas and knowledge.
CHANGING STRUCTUREStructural decisions are not final but change with changing conditions and strategies.Structural components where changes can be brought are:• Terms of work specialisation.• Span of control.• Departmentalisation.• Chain of command.• Centralisation.• Decentralisation.• Formalisation.
CHANGING TECHNOLOGYEarly management studies dealth with efforts aimed at technological changeToday technological changes involve :Introduction of new equipment.Automation.Computerisation. 14
Examples –changing technology• Introduction of new equipment:- due to competitive factors/new innovations 15
Examples –changing technology• Automation tasks done by people are replaced by machines Installed efficient coal handling equipment 16
Examples –changing technology• COMPUTERISATION It’s very uncommon for an office not to be computerised. 17
CHANGING PEOPLEDat is changing their attitudes,expectations,perceptions, and behaviors----isn’t easy !!!! ORGANISATIONAL DEVELOPMENT(OD) It refers to all the types of changes , but essentially focuses on techniques or programs to change people and the nature and quality of interpersonal work relationships. 18
MANAGING RESISTANCE TO CHANGEWhy people resist change? The ambiguity and uncertainty that change introduces The comfort of old habits A concern over personal loss of status, money, authority, friendships, and personal convenience The perception that change is incompatible with the goals and interest of the organization
Techniques for Reducing Resistance . Participation Education & Communication Coercion Facilitation & SupportNegotiation Manipulation & Co-optation
TECHNIQUES FOR REDUCING RESITANCEEducation and CommunicationCommunicate with employees to help them see the logic of change.Educate employees through one on one discussions, memos, group meetings, or reports.Appropriate if source of resistance is either poor communication or misinformation.Must be mutual trust and credibility between managers and employees.Participation Allows those who oppose a change to participate in the decision. Assumes that they have expertise to make meaningful contributions. Involvement can reduce resistance, obtain commitment to seeing change succeed, and increase quality of change decision.Negotiation Exchange something of value to reduce resistance. Potentially high costs and likelihood of having to negotiate with other resisters.
Cont…Facilitation and Support Provide supportive efforts such as employee counseling or therapy, new skills training, or short, paid leave of absence. Can be time consuming and expensive.Manipulation and Co-operation Manipulating is covert attempts to influence such as twisting or distorting facts, withholding damaging information, or creating false rumors. Co-operation is a form of manipulation and participation. Inexpensive and easy ways to gain support of resisters. Can fail miserably if targets feel they’ve been tricked. Can be time consuming and expensive.Coercion Using direct threats or force. Inexpensive and easy way to get support. May be illegal. Even legal coercion can be perceived as bullying.
Stress is a feeling thats created when we react to particular events. Its the bodys way of rising to a challenge and preparing to meet a tough situation with focus, strength, stamina, and heightened alertness.
• – Keeps us alert and motivates GOOD us to face challenges, drives usSTRESS to solve problems. • – Occurs when our minds and BAD bodies overreact emotionally,STRESS intellectually or physically to changes or demands.
It’s all about BALANCE!BALANCE is hard to achieve, especially when you are a freshman and arehandling these responsibilities on your own for the first time
The key to BALANCE is to look at those things you have to do, and those things in your day that are optional. You must carve out extra time from the optional tasks. Learn to say NO – friends and family may not always understand, but they are not the ones living your life. One day, it will make sense to them!
Strategies for managing stress (yes, we’ve all heard of them, but many of us don’t practice them!) Learn to manage your time (keep your TO DO list and follow it!) Exercise (yes, I hate it too – but it works!) Each day, find at least 20 minutes of alone time to relax (meditate, breathing exercises, progressive muscle relaxation, soft music, etc…)
What’s one thing you’ll start doing? What’s one thing you’ll stop doing? What’s one thing you’ll keep doing?
Innovation is the introduction of new ideas, goods, services, and practices which are intended to be useful (though a number of unsuccessful innovations can be found throughout history). The main driver for innovation is often the courage and energy to better the world. An essential element for innovation is its application in a commercially successful way. Innovation has changed human history (consider the development of electricity, steam engines, motor vehicles, laptops). ◦ en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Innovation
Why do we need Innovation?Conclusion? - - If a company does not continue to introduce newproducts periodically, or at least significant improvements onexisting products it will eventually be on a “going out of business”curve.Continuing to come up with the “right” product for the markettakes a lot of innovation (plus a lot of “perspiration!”).
Ideas, Creativity and Innovation Creativity The ability to make or otherwise bring into existence something new, whether a new solution to a problem, a new method or device, or a new artistic object or form. Innovation 1 : The introduction of something new 2 : A new idea, method, or deviceCreativity = (Idea + Action) (Novelty)Innovation = (Creativity+productivity)(Novelty+value)Innovation = Idea + Action + Productivity+value