Project management study book


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Project management study book

  1. 1. Professional certificate in projectManagement[Fast-Track] ilmEndorsed by the institute of leadership and management 11/4/2011 1
  2. 2. Project Management theory • Concept, techniques and process11/4/2011 2
  3. 3. Essential Building Blocks Project Management consists of a number of key processes and knowledge Area. In order to successfully create and deliver a project, the following ingredients are essential:11/4/2011 3
  4. 4. Essential Building blocks Full understanding of the Management components Gain mastery of the key knowledge areas11/4/2011
  5. 5. Understanding project Management To ensure we are all on the same page, we”ll start off with some key definitions: What is a project? What is project Management? Who is project Manager?11/4/2011 5
  6. 6. What is a project? A group of activities to bring about change or create a new product or service Attributes Finite defined life span Defined and measurable benefits11/4/2011 6
  7. 7. What is a projects(1) The process of bringing about a new product or service Attributes • One _off delivery • Fixed timescales i.e. start and end • Unique (no 2 projects are exactly same)11/4/2011 7
  8. 8. What is a project?(2) Introduction of change One _ off implementation Creation of a new service or product The sum of the parts needed for a total solution11/4/2011 8
  9. 9. What is a product?(2) A unique delivery _ No two projects are the same Delivery within a definite timescale i.e. definite start and end Common objective or goal to be accomplished within a time period11/4/2011 9
  10. 10. What is a project?(2) Process of bringing change in an environment within a given time. Set of activities with a defined objective and timeframe Set of tasks to achieve a goal 11/4/2011 10
  11. 11. How do project come about? A problem (or opportunity)  Inefficient or cumbersome process, financial losses An ideal  Wouldnt it be easier or better if….. Industry requirement or change  Industry solution e.g. the ISA product11/4/2011 11
  12. 12. How do projects come about? Statutory requirement Government initiative e.g. New taxation etc Technologising Taking advantage of innovations and technology Automating manual business processes etc Business expansion New branch. Expanding premises or office11/4/2011 12
  13. 13. How do projects come about?(2) Process oStep 1 oStep2 oStep3 oRequirement oIdea oRequest oProblem or opportunity11/4/2011 13
  14. 14. Examples of projects… Abby National _ ISA IT Systems_ Banking system to support the sale of ISA products _covering all banking components e.g. DD, cash payment etc. Rover Group_Y2K Compliance: To ensure all IT systems compliant with the new millennium11/4/2011 14
  15. 15. Examples of projects…. Charles Schwab _ To establish 3 new branches or investment centres in the United Kingdom CCL _ To develop a study management system for a global green field company IBM_ To e_Enable cable and wireless”s business (internet, intranet and extranet applications) 11/4/2011 15
  16. 16. 4 Examples of projects youveworked on Project 1… Project 2… Project 3… Project 4… Just name them.11/4/2011 16
  17. 17. Looking at projects fromdifferent angles Categories, Types and Environments11/4/2011 17
  18. 18. Objectives We are going to look at different ways of carrying projects to ensure we approach the project in a structure way with clear boundaries. This importance to facilitate effective communication, role assignment and reporting form the start of the project to the end.11/4/2011 18
  19. 19. Project Types and Categories Internal project _ within an organization •E.g. Rover Group ,Marketing Department External project _clients •E.g. cable and wireless global (IBM responsible for delivery)11/4/2011 19
  20. 20. Project Environment_3_tier Industry Technology The project is the core11/4/2011 20
  21. 21. Class Exercise Projects you” worked on• List projects (refer to earlier exercise)• Categories into internal or External groupings• Give a 5minute summary of one of one projects using the profile below: Project Name Project Objective Project Deliverable Your contribution and responsibilities11/4/2011 21
  22. 22. Managing Projects Now we all have good understanding of projects, lets talk about “managing projects” What is project? What is project management? Who is project manager?11/4/2011 22
  23. 23. Managing Projects A complete definition11/4/2011 23
  24. 24. What is project Management?  Project Management is the planning, coordination and control of activities and resources to meet a defined objective within a given timescale.  Overseeing in a (controlled manner)the workings involved in delivering an objective ensuring effective and efficient use of resources and time.11/4/2011 24
  25. 25. What is Project Management?(2) Overseeing the development of a new product to the final stage of delivery Organization of activities, tasks resources over a scheduled period with a defined deliverable Monitoring the development of a goal from start to end The art of applying an effective methodology or strategy to an activity from inception to completion.11/4/2011 25
  26. 26. Project Management is ….  A skill or competence  Comprises techniques, concepts and processes  The equation for successful PM is  Knowledge and Experience Mentoring11/4/2011 26
  27. 27. Why is project Managementneeded? Ensure timely delivery Ensure efficiency _ cost, people, equipment Ensure synchronized effort _ not a scattered approach Eliminate noise (project interference and politics) reducing conflict and delays _ always on the central part A specialist skill _people, planning, problem _ solving in ONE11/4/2011 27
  28. 28. Why is a Project Managementneeded?Effective control(time, cost, scope, resource, quality)Time ManagementScope definition or scope creep preventionTo achieve goal set with agreed timeframeEnsure correctness or quality of the end_product11/4/2011 28
  29. 29. Acquisition of PM skill How? Techniques and concept can be acquired by studying the subject and mastered by experience By knowledge attending courses, reading books on the subject etc. . By experience _ watch, do fall and learn PM Tip: knowledge and experience go hand _in _ hand and cannot be separated11/4/2011 29
  30. 30. Checkpoint • 2 definition blocks down, 1 to go What is project? What is project management? Who is a project manager?11/4/2011 30
  31. 31. The Chief Aim of this course To ensure you attain the Knowledge + Experience Required to successfully manage project Getting the balance right course and workshops work Experience11/4/2011 31
  32. 32. The project Manager Who is responsible?11/4/2011 32
  33. 33. Who is a project Manager? The individual accountable for the successful delivery of a project (usually from inception to completion). Simply a clever juggler of time, money, people, requests or requirements to meet an objective etc.11/4/2011 33
  34. 34. Who is a project Manager? Other Definitions Agent responsible for managing the process of change Oversees the development of a new product Is fully responsible for a project11/4/2011 34
  35. 35. Project Manager _ JobDescription Experience of Defining and scoping a project Planning activities scope or extent Managing resources(both human and non human) Co_ordination Issue, risk and change management.11/4/2011 35
  36. 36. Project Manager _JobDescription Experience of Reporting to senior management (and all levels) Excellent communication skills(oral and written) Excellent presentation and documentation skills PM or planning sw user _MS project 2000|2 Methodology _PRINCE2 Note the key words as a clue to areas of focus11/4/2011 36
  37. 37. Why are the project Managersneeded? To turn the clients dream into reality Single accountability Leadership _ no matter how highly experienced or technically sophisticated team still needs a leader for coherence and symphony Provide direction to team of experts11/4/2011 37
  38. 38. Why are project managersneeded?Single point of contact between client andsenior management and team.Effective use of resource _”in and out”approachWork out project requirement_effort, resources, timescales11/4/2011 38
  39. 39. Why are Project Managers needed? Allow the business champions carry on with business as usual Allow idea _ generators to get on with the development of other ideals The executives want to get on with decision _ making and solving business issues not low level management To ensure successful delivery of projects11/4/2011 39
  40. 40. How do project Managersoperate?Full understanding of objective(thinking clearly on one’s feetAttention to detailDont blow over emails, read through carefullyand respond straightawayA sense of urgencyProactive communication and problem solving(Nick the problem in the bud)11/4/2011 40
  41. 41. How do project managersoperate?With a methodologyA guide from the start to the endFull of factsImpromptu project updates and briefsA people _ personWatching out for the people and not just the projectTight deadlines with limited resources howeverPEOPLE are not machines.11/4/2011 41
  42. 42. A PROJECT manager’s personality Excellent leader Negotiator (turns impossibilities into possibilities) Good judgment(premised on SMART information) Fair _listens to both (all)sides Organized (structured and in control)11/4/2011 42
  43. 43. A Project Managers personality Team builder (focus on team synergy) Great communication _ spoken written, body language etc People skill _ Tall level I e. client, senior management, peer, team…etc Instils confidence _”can-do and “does _ do” attitude •SMART: specific, Measurable, Accurate, reliable and timely11/4/2011 43
  44. 44. The “Organized” project MangerProject file and project bookA categorized record of the projectdocumentation IN ONE PLACEYour note and observations IN ONE PLACEMedium: Manual, Electronic, System or web11/4/2011 44
  45. 45. The mindset for deliveryEvery project Manager is expected to think onhis or her feet at all times proactively with aproblem _ solving and tackling attitude.Two tools or technique a PM must master totackle projects of any size or complexity are:Strategy (clear and structured thinking)Breakdown structures11/4/2011 45
  46. 46. Thank You11/4/2011 46
  47. 47. Why PM The relevance of project Management in 21st Century industry11/4/2011 47
  48. 48. Why project Management? Organizations(commercial and charitable) in every industry havenew initiatives, requirements which must be implemented to:Keep Customers satisfied“stay ahead of the game” etc.E.g.Banking are in competitionE _ banking solutionCost Effective call centres (24hrs service)Charities want to improve their serviceTo ensure Donor or Funder confidenceUnforeseen circumstances and natural disastersIn summary ,PM is needed for orchestrated deliveryMeet objectivesDelivery a product or serviceMake or introduce changes11/4/2011 48
  49. 49. Every industry requires PM Because it is the preferred method of delivery in the 21st century Why? Accountability One p.mgr Stakeholder involvement Guaranteed Achievement Tried and tested PM techniques and methodologies Effective use of resources Cross department synergy Everyone gets involved Overall company growth Stimulates learning New opportunities11/4/2011 49
  50. 50. PM is not a new skillAn age old practicePeople of the past practiced projectmanagement techniquesHistoric AchievementsEgypts pyramidsNoahs art(Religion)Roman bathsGreeks (Olympics)Asian TemplesGreat wall of chaina11/4/2011 50
  51. 51. The profession Formalised Standardised Fine-tuned Master or Expert and specialist11/4/2011 51
  52. 52. Learning opportunity Give me Examples of PMPs Produce job descriptions for each11/4/2011 52
  53. 53. Developed versus Developing WorldAdvancement throughnew technology andInnovationFosters anEnvironment to breedNew ideal andCreativityProactive“Fresh blood” Strong dependence For basic delivery Borrowed ideas Bread_ and _butter Solutions 11/4/2011 53
  54. 54. “project conscious” PM Facts …. •Organizations are becoming more project _conscious because they have acknowledged the benefit of well “orchestrated devilery.”competitor Analysis •There has always been a large demand for PM but these days it is becoming more and more prominent. •Employers and Employment Agencies find it very difficult to fill PMP vacancies •The good PMPs continue to charge or demand premium rates as PM skills are premium •You are at the cutting edge of new phenomena!11/4/2011 54
  55. 55. Project opportunities Globalisation Tesco is expanding across the globe Natural Disasters Tsunami December 2004 Defence or Homeland security North Korea USA Research Medical cancer11/4/2011 55
  56. 56. Learning opportunity Analyse opportunities in project Management Magazine11/4/2011 56
  57. 57. The 21st Century is fuelled by ….rapid achievement Creativity, innovation and new concepts must be backed up by effective project management if the esteemed products and services are to be realised11/4/2011 57
  58. 58. Working with innovators • The following skill are essential… • Consultancy • Organization • Planning • People • Specialists need to be coordinated effectively to deliver • Delivery • Ability to execute to plan with precision • Project Management Is the art or tool of achievement11/4/2011 58
  59. 59. Learning Opportunity What I am going to do to promote innovation in the workplace? Brainstorm11/4/2011 59
  60. 60. Project Management versus… Business Administration and General Management11/4/2011 60
  61. 61. The Executive Syndrome Many executives fail because of their inability to executive strategy. This is because most MBA and business Degree holders are trained in the “art of strategy” and not the “art delivery” For project success, it is important to realise the two arts go together and cannot be substituted for one another.11/4/2011 61
  62. 62. The Unusual Executive In rare cases, you come across the Executive with PM background and this is when project success is guaranteed. Project success is achieved when the Executive understands or realises the following: •The need for all (or key) staff to be trained in PM concept, techniques and methodologies whether directly or indirectly involved in project i.e. PM training is non _ negotiable requirement for staff development •Empower staff to deliver work in projects to leverage marketplace share •Fosters a culture of teamwork through project delivery and leads by example i.e. project management in action thus shaping organizational behavior and crating a culture where personnel delivery by nature •The need for an effective and efficient project office which is well invested in serving as the focal point for project operation across the organization11/4/2011 62
  63. 63. The Executives Friend Bill Gate, Richard Branson, Anita Roddick, Alan Sugar, Donald Trump, Oprah Winfrey The Project Manager11/4/2011 63
  64. 64. Learning Opportunity Analayse PM or JM print out11/4/2011 64
  65. 65. Relevance to you….Opportunity to become a “cutting _edge”professionalEarn premium salariesSet up your own Consultancy •Once you have acquired enough experience“World Development” opportunities •The Developing world •Worldwide11/4/2011 65
  66. 66. Premium Salaries Worldwide Project manager, Recovery Date Centre Move Exciting role for individual in challenging environment. Candidate will have experience of hands on project management of successful data centre installation commissioning and movement. Must have technical issues affecting a data centre from security to practical building works, powers, air conditioning ,alarm, networks, telecoms, UPS systems and general operations. Experience of working overseas essential especially within more: Type :contract location :Riyadh country : Saudi Arabia Start : ASAP salary or Rate: 750 or Day posted:03|05|2005 17:29:5511/4/2011 66 Reference: JS_TT000414
  67. 67. Premium Salaries Worldwide Project office Support Six month contract to work on one of the most prestigious change programmes within an insurance environment. Working for the programme office team, and interfacing with the business and also a team of consultants(Accenture)this will be a varied and demanding role for an experience project office or programme office manager who has a proven track record in financial services. The successful candidate will have a minimum of 4 years experience in handing full reporting for a programme _budget more: Type: Temporary location: Gatwick, west Sussex Country: England start ASPA salary or rate :350 _400|day posted:06|05|2005 16:57:11 reference : is _AG _POS311/4/2011 67
  68. 68. Premium Salaries Worldwide Project Support Office Our client requires a project office support person for a 3 month (renewable)contract in their prestigious Chester office. The role will include preparing forms using MS word, raising purchase requests in oracle financial 11i and maintaining tracking sheets in MS Excel. Liaising with various department will be required so strong communication skills are essential. A good working knowledge of Microsoft office and oracle financial is needed, as us a minimum of 5 years practical experience of more : type :contract location: Chester country: England start ASPA salary or rate: 100| day posted: 06|05|2005 13:41:53 Reference JSHELj02739211/4/2011 68
  69. 69. Homework Write a report on the ff: The relevance of project management in the 21st century Max. No. Pages _511/4/2011 69
  70. 70. People in project Management It take people to make your payment level tide11/4/2011 70
  71. 71. Learning objectives It take people to make the Project wheel turn Project clock tick Join a project or workplace and know who to ask what, their role and responsibilities and how they interconnect11/4/2011 71
  72. 72. Who are the people in projectManagement• Class discussion11/4/2011 72
  73. 73. The Client The client _ I wont have a job without him |her| them11/4/2011 73
  74. 74. Learning Opportunity Ministry of Education, Zimbabwe invited consultants of GCS to create a business cases for introducing PM to the educational curriculum.11/4/2011 74
  75. 75. Every industry requires PM  The orchestrator  Chief coordinator  Master planner  People specialists  ……………..etc11/4/2011 75
  76. 76. The Executives Friend Bill Gate, Richard Branson, Anita Roddick, Alan Sugar, Donald Trump, Oprah Winfrey The project Manager11/4/2011 76
  77. 77. The supplier  It is unlikely I will have all the resources in every project situation  Who plugs the gaps?  Supplier of • Goods and service • Give an example of the above11/4/2011 77
  78. 78. Technical Consultant Industry sector or Technical Environment in which the project is being delivered Class Exercise Fill in the gaps11/4/2011 78
  79. 79. Global Teams11/4/2011 79
  80. 80. Government The Laws and authorities of the land Planning consents Rules and Regulations Unwritten RULE culture11/4/2011 80
  81. 81. Non _Government Organisations What are the consideration? How can they help? Class discussion11/4/2011 81
  82. 82. protocol Piece of the cake mentality11/4/2011 82
  83. 83. Business FunctionsMarketing Accounts purchasing or procurement information or technologyLegal and compliance Strategic and team Strategic resource Fill in the gaps How does the project Team work with existing business functions?11/4/2011 83
  84. 84. Homework  Write a report on the ff.:- The relationship between The project organisation and normal business functions  Max. No Pages=511/4/2011 84
  85. 85. Contracting Versus Permanent employment11/4/2011 85
  86. 86. Learning Objectives You should be in a position to make an informed decision regarding the type of employment suitable for you To start with and And as time goes by Enter into the world of work informed about the differences in the Employment Types and manager expectation As a result of the above, you should b in a position to go into the workplace with a winning attitude… and win11/4/2011 86
  87. 87. Types of employment Permanent Employment Company Employee Consultant Self Employment Contractor freelancer11/4/2011 87
  88. 88. Permanent Employment What is it •Registered on the payroll •On a lifetime/indefinite employment contract •Become part of the corporate family •Regular fixed wages i.e. weekly or monthly Why •Job security corporate benefits •Learning tolerances •Training and professional development How •Job adverts Newspapers •Agencies Speciality  Government • Job websites Whom •Seeking experience •Confidence building •Industry specialism11/4/2011 88
  89. 89. The contractor What is it •Short term employment Why • financial remuneration •Profession freedom How •Agencies •Head _ hunt Whom •Risk_ takers •Good at what they do •Seeking fast _track experience •Similar to permanent employment •Difference •Intolerance, you must get it right •Short term •Positives •Paid thric as much as your PE counterparts (Uk estimates) •Learn more due to varied short term contracts •Swot to succeed _ fast track special _precocious •Evolve into a consultant • •11/4/2011 89
  90. 90. The consultant  What is it  Short/long term employment  Why  No mistake mentality  Time saving  Extra quality  How  Consultancies  Head _ hunt  Agencies(least popular)  Whom  Expert at what they do  Seeking value adding experience  Years of experience and a qualified advisor  Difference  You are expected to work twice as hard  Intolerance, you must get it right  Short term  Positives  Paid thrice as your PE counterpart  Learn more due to varied short term contracts  Swot to succeed _ fast tack specialist11/4/2011  90 Evolve into a super _ consultant
  91. 91. The freelancer What is it As _you _ like employment Why Financial remuneration Professional confidence Personal freedom How Agencies Head_ hunt Whom Risk _ takers Good at what they do Seeking fast track experience Free_ roaming consultant Own their own time11/4/2011 Seek their own opportunities on the professional track 91
  92. 92. Learning opportunity Research into the world of contracting and debate the following? Contracting is better than permanent employment11/4/2011 92
  93. 93. Employment Matters11/4/2011 93
  94. 94. Small vs. Large organisation11/4/2011 94
  95. 95. Employment Agencies Agency11/4/2011 95
  96. 96. Tax Considerations PAYE Self -Employed CompanyNICPAYEcorporation11/4/2011 96
  97. 97. Homework Write a report on the ff.:- My preferred choice of employment and why Max. No Pages= 511/4/2011 97
  98. 98. Project Roles and Responsibilities11/4/2011 98
  99. 99. Learning objectives At end of this session, you should.. Appreciate the importance of roles and responsibilities in the workplace Have a better understanding of “Roles and responsibilities” in the project terms Know what is expected of you as a project professional i.e. your role and how your role interrelates with other roles11/4/2011 99
  100. 100. Introduction As we learnt on the “project personnel” course, people…Are the lifeblood of projectsMake projects tickA project organisation as an entity performs a role i.e. “improve school infrastructure in Malaysia”… which is a sum of individual roles11/4/2011 100
  101. 101. Role Every individual in an organisation or on a project must have a purpose for being part of an organisation i.e. Role To be effective, your role and corresponding responsibilities must be clear and well defined to Prevent duplication/overlap Prevent redundancy Save on cost . . . Class to fill in the blanks with lecturer(15mins)11/4/2011 101
  102. 102. A Definition _ Role A brief description of the expectation (e.g. major assignments, tasks) of each individual or group resource assigned to the project Your role is …. The “part played” on the project Every role entail…. Duties and obligation known as “responsibilities”11/4/2011 102
  103. 103. Your role is your first concern My responsibilities Secondly, you should also understand the role of your team mates and carefully manage any dependencies/linkages11/4/2011 103
  104. 104. Project Roles-example A PROJECT ROLE UNIVERSITY TITLE Project sponsor Director of Security Project Director Assistance Director of Identity Management Project Manager Project Coordinator Identity Management Team Members Engineers, Training, Costumer Support, Marketing Customers Security SIG Members Customer Representatives Security SIG Members Stakeholders All the above, plus IT Policy Director, Consultant Advisor for HR Records11/4/2011 104
  105. 105. Project Roles-example B Executive sponsor Project sponsor/directors Steering committee Project manager Vice president & academic service Vice president for information technologies Vp student & academic service Associate provost, admission &enrolment office11/4/2011 105
  106. 106. The Job Description Roles and Responsilities of a particular job are formalised into a document called ”Job Description” The job description is A written statement that defines the duties, relationships and results expected of anyone in the job. An overall view of what is to be done in the job.11/4/2011 106
  107. 107. Typically it includes Job Title Title of immediate supervisor Statement of the purpose of the job Primary Responsibilities List of typical duties and responsibilities General information related to the job Training requirements Tools use Location e.g. local or global projects Signature of the person who has prepared the job description Date11/4/2011 107
  108. 108. Person Specification When filing a vacancy not only are in addition to qualifications, technical competence and experience employers seek for Professionalism Personality Special aptitudes Can do11/4/2011 108
  109. 109. Example Person Specification• PROFESSIONALISM A diplomatic project manager able to work at board level on a global scale• PERSONALITY Strong decisive leader Perfectionist• SPECIAL APTITUDES what aptitudes would be useful to the job. Excellent English communication (2way), assertiveness, able to work under pressure, articulate, able to follow procedures and suggest improvements Lecturer to discuss each point with class giving examples 10911/4/2011
  110. 110. Your role in action… You should be a “walking and talking “ version of your job Description and Person Specificification Tips A lot of professionals are on their best behavior at interviews and have learnt the tactics of ‘getting the job” Your behavior throughout the projects must consistently reflect the agreement you mage with organization at the onset. If the person specification details the need for a leader, you must be seen to act as a leader at all times.11/4/2011 110
  111. 111. What is the importance of “Role and Responsibilities”?11/4/2011 111
  112. 112. Assigning responsibilities… Documents the relationship between participants involved in the project Ensure adequate resources are available and Notifies each individual what is expected of them. Prevents Confusion i.e. who should be doing what if things go wrong or a challenge is being faced Duplication of effort due to lack of role clarity etc. Errors or substandard work products i.e. ensures the right person(skis, experience etc) is assigned to the job Classroom discussion Discuss the pros and cons of “Role creep” and “Evolving roles”11/4/2011 112
  113. 113. How are roles created?11/4/2011 113
  114. 114. The approach Identify what needs to be done (e.g. major assignment, tacks.) Create a list of necessary roles for the project. Identify the best resource/staff to serve in these roles. Obtain resource commitments. Create a list that includes the name and contact information for each person serving in ach role, along with the key responsibilities associated with each role. Lecturer to discuss each point with class11/4/2011 114
  115. 115. Role Management11/4/2011 115
  116. 116. Remits and Boundaries Roles have to be carefully managed(formally and informally) to ensure project success i.e. team members may have their roles and responsibilities clearly defined on paper however in reality weak leadership and/or team personalities can affect the dynamics of a project team Project management should watch out for individuals who (most times subconsciously)tread on other peoples territories i.e. crosses boundaries and creep into other people space. This could have a negative effect on the success of the project or hamper progress11/4/2011 116
  117. 117. Learning opportunity Class discussion Why would anyone creep into their team members role/responsibilities when they have their own work to get on with? Why does this happen in the work place11/4/2011 117
  118. 118. Project Success or FailureA project can succeed or fail depending on thecharacter of the community formed by its membersi.e. the corporate or team cultureIt is the members who contribute their effort andtime to realize the projects ideas and goals.Accordingly, because the project members are soimportant to the eventual success of the project, itis important that the project manager clearlyestablish the rules and guidelines determiningmember participation, including their roles, andarticulate what they can expect from the project.11/4/2011 118
  119. 119. Project Role Hierarchy To effectively manage the different roles in a project/organization, reporting lines must be established and adhered to Reporting lines are essential Effective communication Effective problem _solving and issue resolution Progress monitoring Lecturer to discuss each point with class11/4/2011 119
  120. 120. Project people Network Project sponsor Project manager project board E_ business consultant web developer database specialist Graphics design Marketing Networking your people into a clear framework _ OBS, OC Organization breakdown structure Organization chart11/4/2011 120
  121. 121. Learning opportunity Scenarios Youve been giving the role of project coordinator to assist on a new imitative and are facing the following problems three weeks into the job:- The project manager (PM)does not invite you to key meetings and you feel in the dark about project matters The PM hogs all the work leaving you to do the filing only PM is permanently stressed and this is reflecting badly on you because people keep referring to you as the PM”s deputy and yet there is little or no improvement in his over _ stretched schedule You feel you are not adding any value What do you think the problem could be? How would you tackle the above to ensure a win _ win with the PM? Classroom Exercise11/4/2011 121
  122. 122. Homework Write a report on the ff:- The importance of clearly defined roles in relation to project success covering approach for effective “Role Management Max . No. pages=511/4/2011 122
  123. 123. The project Administrator11/4/2011 123
  124. 124. The project Administrator This role is key to the smooth running of a project especially where paperwork and data/information management are concerned The project manager is on board to:- Coordinative the team Solve problem Make decision Keep the client/board satisfied and Ultimately deliver the product/service With the above responsibilities, it is key project manager has the right administrative support to stay focused ensuring an effective and efficient delivery. The administrative support role is kwon as the project administrator11/4/2011 124
  125. 125. Project Management Professional (PMP) The project administrator role can be described as the :- Most junior PMP or First rung on the PMP ladder Entry level for novices11/4/2011 125
  126. 126. Project Administrator-org. chart A• Project manager• Project coordinator• Technical consultant• Project admnistrator• Technical team A• Technical team B• Technical team N11/4/2011 126
  127. 127. Project Administrator Summary The project administrator This has general administrative responsibilities, but may also require a focus on a particular area, such as finance or human resources administration. The project administrator may provide support to all people at the project, as determined by the engagement lead. Will need to have administrative experience, excellent organisational and communication skill and the ability to mange a11/4/2011 127 diverse workload
  128. 128. Getting a job as a project AdministratorTo become a project administrator, some knowledge ofprojects of project management is ideal but not essential.However, if the project is large, specialist and/or complex, anexperienced individual may be required.Candidates with formal PM qualifications stand a higherchance of success when applying for project admin. RolesThe essential qualities are:-Excellent communication skills(spoken and written)Accuracy, reliability and attention –to-detailConscientiousness and diligenceExcellent time managementA practical understanding of administration and organisation11/4/2011 128
  129. 129. Programme Administrator11/4/2011 129
  130. 130. Programme AdministratorThe programme Administrator is a more senior form ofthe project Administrator. In this role, you are expectedto:-Support multiple project managersWork on multiple project plansFacilitate monitoring and controlling of the programmeportfolioManage interdependencies (internal and external)To be effective, you would usually work with one or moreproject administrator to cope with the demands of theprogramme.11/4/2011 130
  131. 131. Programme Admin. –org. chart BProgramme managerProgramme coordinatorProgramme administratorTechnical expert industry specialist.11/4/2011 131
  132. 132. Programme Administrator SummaryThe programme administrator handles day-to-dayfunctions and serves as the liaison betweencontractors, architects, and program managers.Outstanding organization and communication skill arerequired for rapid feedback and issue resolution, helping tokeep projects on schedule and within budget.Work as part of a team who get things done. You will beassisting the project managers in this lager organizationpreparing reports and documents, maintaining internalrecords, and constantly meeting strict deadlines.11/4/2011 132
  133. 133. prG Admin. – Key ResponsibilitiesAct as central information source by maintaining anddistributing project detail e.g. contact details/organizationcharts and contractual details.Provide administrative assistance to the project team (e.g.workspace issues, equipment, facilities issues, and voicemail.Research, compile, process and coordinate project data entry, report generation and work plans.Prepare correspondence, reports, and high qualitypresentations.Handle extensive travel and accommodation arrangements(including leases for housing and cars) and prepare itinerariesfor analysts, consultants and executives on the engagement.11/4/2011 133
  134. 134. prG Admin.- Specific responsibilitiesSpecific responsilities include assisting project mangers with allaspects of project administration including, but not limited to:Prepare and edit requests for proposals, and contractsPrepare reports and spreadsheetsTypes and distribute meeting minutesCompile and update budget reports for projectsMaintain contact information and act as liaison betweenowners, architects, and contractorsReview for approval purchase requests, invoices, and changeordersMaintain project drawings and specificationMaintain all project files11/4/2011 134
  135. 135. Person SpecificationEssential At least 1year office experience• Outstanding organizational and administrative abilities• Excellent written and verbal communication skills• Able to priorities and manage multiple tasks• Flexible, conscientious and team-oriented• Strong computer skills, including proficiency in Microsoft word, excel and power point• Good sense of humor and eagerness to learn11/4/2011 135
  136. 136. prG Admin.-RequirementsRequirements:1. A solid team player.2. Able to work well within different organizational cultures.3. Ability to be resourceful and multi-task.4. Ability to work well independently and in a virtual team environment.5. Excellent written and oral communication skills6. Advanced knowledge of outlook, word excel and PowerPoint applications.11/4/2011 136
  137. 137. prG Admin.-QualificationsMust have five years administrative experience, with minimum one yearin the administration of design/construction contracts forstate, federal, and country governments.Must have demonstrated consistent successful prior performance inadministration of small to larger size projects, base on projectperformance including budget an schedule, client satisfaction, projectteam satisfaction, and business unit expectations.PMP certification is preferred but not required.Must have demonstrated proficiency with project managementsoftware as well as MS outlook, and internet explorer.Experience with MS project, PowerPoint, and project is a plus, officemanagement experience is beneficial11/4/2011 137
  138. 138. prG Admin.-job. Spec.Title :programme AdministratorDepartment :programmeReports to: promgrammeLocation : LondonOverall purpose of the jobThe programme administrator post is an important role withinthe UK programme department. Reporting to the programmemanager, the programme administrator will work closely withthe programme team to provide administrative support toORBIS UK,s programme department and volunteermanagement portfolio. This is a new position, ideal forsomeone who enjoys being part of a dynamic team andmanaging a diverse workload. 11/4/2011 138
  139. 139. Cont…Main responsibilities:Provide day to day administrative support to theprogramme team including photocopying, word processingand data entryManage telephone calls, programme enquiries and visitorsProvide support during the recruitment processHanding equipment and supplies ordersFilling all relevant and accurate information using in-houseproject systemsEnsuring databases maintain accurate detail using in-houseproject systemsSupporting programme management portfolio by: 11/4/2011 139
  140. 140. The project office(PO)How does the project/Programme Administratorrole relate to the po?11/4/2011 140
  141. 141. Project Admin and The POProject and prograM Administrators are sometimes basedin the project office (po).This is prevalent on large, complex or multiple projects.The project administrator will work with the po team i.e.project/prograM office Manager, planners to facilitateeffective monitoring and control of the initiativesExperience project/prograM Administrators with training in PM methodologies and tools usually evolve into project support officer (pso) or project office managers 11/4/2011 141
  142. 142. HomeworkThese two roles are sometime based in theproject officeProject manager project coordinatorTechnical consultantProject administratorTechnical team ATechnical team BTechnical team N11/4/2011 142
  143. 143. The PSO(Project Support Officer) RESPONSIBILITIES The PSO will provides essential service to the members of the project team. The potholders will have experience of working with multi-disciplinary teams, good communication and organizational skills and a good general grounding in project/ Programmes in IT environment. You will also have excellent knowledge of MS office e.g. word, excel, access and have the ability to write clear, concise reports, minutes and documents. Attention to detail is essential as is an understanding of project management terminology, ideally prince 211/4/2011 143
  144. 144. HomeworkWrite a report on the ff:-The roles of a project and programmeadministrators and how , in your opinion, theseroles facilitate project successMax . No Pages =511/4/2011 144
  145. 145. The Technical Consultant (TC)11/4/2011 145
  146. 146. At the end of this session:You should have an appreciation of:The technical consultant role and how it fit intothe project management frameworkThe relevance/ importance of the technicalconsultant where project are concernedThe job description of a technical consultantThe hallmarks of a technical consultant11/4/2011 146
  147. 147. The Technical Consultant Project manager Project coordinator Technical consultant Project administrator Technical team A Technical team B Technical team N11/4/2011 147
  148. 148. Why do we need a TC?Project span across all industries and areas of specialism.For this reason, project managers are needed to deliverthese initiatives on time to budget and quality standardsirrespective of their technical orientation or lack of it.Project managers with the right experience and skills- setshould be able to deliver any initiative whether they aretechnically inclined w.r.t to the project or unfamiliar withthe industry.Where a project manager does not have prior technical orindustry experience on board to provide guidance andexpertise in this respect.11/4/2011 148
  149. 149. Hallmarks of a TC A Tc is a technical specialist in a particular field or industry e.g. construction, oil and gas, information technology who can be described using the following phrases… “Risen through the rank” “cream of the crop” “been there done that” See the chart on the next slide Classroom discussion(10mins.)11/4/2011 149
  150. 150. Career Progression –Ogr Chart Examples• Information technology career progressionTechnical project managerTeam leaderTechnical architectAnalystJunior analystBuilding –career progressionSite managerSite supervisorForemanPlasterer /decoratorLabourerClassroom discussion (10mins.)11/4/2011 150
  151. 151. Importance of the TC role This role is key to the project mangers success in the following ways:-The TC responsibilities in summary are:- Deputy and advisor (on technical matters)to the project manager Assists with recruiting and coordinating the technical team Involved in the quality assurance of the technical aspects of the project11/4/2011 151
  152. 152. The TC”s Scope 1. Reporting to the project manager 2. Coordinating the technical the team 3. E.t.c. Project manager Project coordinator Technical consultant Project administration Technical team A Technical team B Technical team N11/4/2011 152
  153. 153. A true expert The TC is an expert because he /she has… Started from the most junior role of the area of specialism and risen to the top and therefore “seen it all” Worked with related specialist on various projects and understands the interrelationships between the technical roles Progressed up the specialist ladder and posses a deep understanding of the potential problems, risks and challenges and how to overcome them An overview and in-depth knowledge in the area of specialism or industry 11/4/2011 153
  154. 154. Learning Opportunity Lecturer to discuss the 2 sample job descriptions in detail with the class11/4/2011 154
  155. 155. Homework Write a report on :-The importance of the technical consultant role in relation to industry success where projects are concernedMax. No. Pages= 511/4/2011 155
  156. 156. The projectCoordinator(PC)11/4/2011 156
  157. 157. At the end of this session: You should have an appreciation of: The project coordinator role and how it fits into the project management framework The relevance/importance of the project coordinator role i.e. to ensure project success The job description of a project coordinator The hallmarks of a project coordinator11/4/2011 157
  158. 158. Project coordinator A PC can be described as a project managers deputy To qualify for this role, individuals should have:- Experience the full lifecycle of at least one project office personnel Posses the core skills of a project manager such as leadership, team-building, people management, time management Though the project manager is ultimately accountable for the project, the project coordinator is responsible for the smooth running of the project and helps the project manager attain success See the chart on the next slide Classroom discussion(10mins.)11/4/2011 158
  159. 159. The project coordinator –org. chart1. Reporting to the project manager2. Coordinating the entire team.Project managerProject coordinatorTechnical consultantProject administratorTechnical team ATechnical BTechnical N11/4/2011 159
  160. 160. Importance of the PC roleProject FactsThe project manager role in any industry can be a quitea challenging one. This is true because even project uniqueand will have unforeseen problems and “unknown”aspects. This require the PM to be proactive and solutiondriven it all timesSuccessfully delivering a project of considerable sizerequires a varied team of individuals and each individualjoin the team with their peculiar personalities therefore itcan be quite a job managing the team(motivation, effective communication e.t.c} and in additionto this managing time, budget, quality e.t.c11/4/2011 160
  161. 161. Project Coordinator HallmarksA PC can be described using the following phrases…Thoroughly understands PM concepts and methodsHas “Effective leader”People personTeam playerPlanning specialistHas “PM potential”11/4/2011 161
  162. 162. Career progression-Org Chart ExamplesCareer progression Examples 1Project coordinatorProgramme plannerProject plannerJnr. Project plannerProject administratorCareer progression example 2Project coordinatorProgramme office coordinatorProject office analystProject plannerProject office administrator11/4/2011 162
  163. 163. Why do we need a PC? Manager projects can be very demanding and stressful hence the need for a deputy to carry out the secondary tasks whilst the PM focuses on his/her primary responsibilities. These primary responsibilities include:- Decision-making Meeting with the board/client Authorizing Expenditure Resource management The above must be performed by the project manager and cannot be delegated to anyone else.11/4/2011 163
  164. 164. Why do we need a PC(2)? However, secondary tasks such as:-Preparing presentations and other project reportsAnalysing the project plan for deviationsReviewing the issues, risk and change logsAnalyzing CVs and preliminary interviewing Can be performed in full or part by the PC giving the PM more time to effectively and efficiently perform the primary non-transferable tasks. The PMs efforts should be focused on the core aspects of managing the project to ensure success 16411/4/2011
  165. 165. PC Responsibilities The PC responsibilities in summary are:- Deputy and advisor(on project and people matters)to the project manager Assists with recruiting the project team i.e PMPs Assists with coordinating the entire team(PMPs and technical/specialist) Involved in careful management of the project plan Attends certain project meetings (e.g. supplier meetings, sub-project team meeting e.t.c)on the PMs behalf A human early-warning –system … informs the PM of unrecorded issues, risk, grievance gleaned from the “grapevine”11/4/2011 165
  166. 166. Learning OpportunityLecturer to discuss the 2 sample jobdescriptions in detail with the class11/4/2011 166
  167. 167. HomeworkReport objective:-Compare the role of a project coordinator and project administrator highlighting similarities and differences Max. No Pages = 511/4/2011 167
  168. 168. Assisting the PMThe PC is in a position to assist the project managerbecause he/she has…Started from the most junior PMp role ,has shadowed anumber of project managers and learnt from themWorked on various projects, understands the uniquenessof projects and how to achieve project successPractical understanding of project planningWorking knowledge of project control and monitoringmethods/ eyetems 11/4/2011 168
  169. 169. Learning opportunity Lecturer to discuss the 2 sample job descriptions in detail with the class11/4/2011 169
  170. 170. HomeworkReport objective:-Compare the role of a project coordinator andproject administrator highlighting similaritiesand differentMax. No Pages=511/4/2011 170
  171. 171. The Research Analyst( RA)11/4/2011 171
  172. 172. At the end of this session:You should have an appreciation of:The Research Analyst role and how it fits intothe project management frameworkThe relevance/importance of the ResearchAnalyst where project are concernedWhere project description of a ResearchAnalystThe hallmarks of a Research Analyst11/4/2011 172
  173. 173. Who is a Research Analyst? An individual expert at gathering, synthesizing and compiling data into useful information for decision-making This individual is on a mission to "seek and find”11/4/2011 173
  174. 174. Why do we need a RA? The RA or Research Team assists the entire project with finding “SMART” information i.e. facts and figures Specific Measurable Accurate Reliable/relevant Timely The research Analyst feeds useful information to the team which can be further analyzed by senior management and used for decision –making This resource is used especial where tendering is concerned i.e. consultancies analyze vast amounts of information to formulate the best solution to win project bids/ clients11/4/2011 174
  175. 175. RA cont… Whilst the project manager concentrates on… Managing people(the team, clients, suppliers)etc Problem –solving and decision-making Communication activities The Research Analyst is on point to ”fact -find” without interruptions. Having a dedicated RA role is key to ensuring the quality of data/information especially when running a project management consultancy.11/4/2011 175
  176. 176. Research Skills and Projects Aside from normal project operations, it is ideal to ensure you have effective research analysis capabilities on the team either in the form of a dedicated role or across the team. The RA role could also be a joint one i.e. Technical consultant /Research Analyst or Project coordinator/Research Analyst See org. chart on the next slide11/4/2011 176
  177. 177. The Research Analyst Project manager Project coordinator (Research Analyst) Technical consultant(Research Analyst) Project administrator Technical team A Technical team B Technical N11/4/2011 177
  178. 178. RA job Description - SummaryApart from information gathering i.e. facts andfigures, the RA is expected toAssist with problem –solving i.e. presenting possiblesolutions to problems faced on the project.Have a good understanding of the project objective andthe ability to think out-of-the-boxIt is essential you recruit an individual with the rightproject / technical experience to be in a position toeffectively perform the RA role and support the projectteam11/4/2011 178
  179. 179. Hallmarks of an effective RA In addition to research skills, a RA should have/fit the following qualities/phrases:-MeticulousDetailedAccurateTime consciousThink-out-the-boxSolution-driven Classroom discussion(15mins.)11/4/2011 179
  180. 180. A RA is expected to…Work from a sketchy outline/requestHave meeting with key staff to understand theResearch request/ information requirement orproblemPerform thorough searches using:-Multiple search engines to obtain a wide amount of information/search resultsOther source of information such as library, archives etc.Compare information and present most reliable pictureRead through vast amounts of information, performanalyses and make conclusions11/4/2011 180
  181. 181. Sources of information The main source of information today is the INTERNET WHY? Easy access Non-location specific-can work from home Save printing reams of paper Easy processing –copy and paste information into your report tool Accurate data from company and government websites Saves money11/4/2011 181
  182. 182. Importance of the RA role 10 reasons the RA role is essential to project success Classroom Exercise11/4/2011 182
  183. 183. Project Management Professionals“research Analysis” is key skill which everyproject management personnel/ professionalshould possessEvery project manager is expected to have goodresearch skills even when he/she has a dedicatedRA on board.Classroom discussion (10mins)11/4/2011 183
  184. 184. Research lifecycle -outline Request Information requirement research request Understand request have clarification meeting where required Plant the research task Report produce and publish research report Synthesis and consultant Commence research11/4/2011 184
  185. 185. Learning opportunityLecturer to discuss the 4 sample jobdescriptions in detail with the class11/4/2011 185
  186. 186. Homework Write a report on:-Write a detailed job description of a Research AnalystsMax. No. Pages = 211/4/2011 186
  187. 187. The project Manager Who is accountable?11/4/2011 187
  188. 188. Session Objective:You should already have an appreciation of theproject managers role from the e-learning andstandard certificate PM modules.This module serves as a refresher and amethod of confirming your understanding ofthe project manager roleThe lecturer will question the class throughoutthe session to test the student understanding ofthis role.11/4/2011 188
  189. 189. Who is a project Manager?The individual accountable for the successful delivery of aproject(usually from inception to completion).Simply a clever juggler of timemoney, people, requests/requirements to meet an objective etcOther DefinitionsAgent responsible for managing the process of changeOversees the development of a new productIs fully responsible for a productClassroom Exercise:Each student should, in their own words, give a uniquedefinition of the term “project manager”15mins11/4/2011 189
  190. 190. The project manager-org. chartProject managerProject coordinatorTechnical consultantProject administratorTechnical team ATechnical team BTechnical N11/4/2011 190
  191. 191. Why are project manager needed To turn the clients dream into reality Single accountability Learning ship-no matter how highly experience or technically sophisticated the team still needs a leader for coherence and symphony Provide direction to team of expert Single point of contact between client/senior management and team. Effective use of resource- in and out approach Work out project requirements –effort, resource, timescales Allow the business champions carry on with business as usual Allow ideas-generators to get on with development of other ideas 11/4/2011 191
  192. 192. Project Manager –Job DescriptionExperience ofDefining & scoping a projectPlanning activitiesManaging resourcesCo-ordinationIssue, risk and change managementReporting to senior management(and all level)Excellent communications skill (oral & written)Excellent presentation & documentation skillsPM/ planning s/w user – MS project 2000/2Methodology –PRINCE2Class to fill in the blanks 11/4/2011 192
  193. 193. How do project management operate?Full understanding of objective(thinking clearly on ones feet)Attention to detailDont blow over email, read through carefully and respondstraightawayA sense of urgencyProactive communication & problem solving (nick theproblems in the bud)With a methodologyA guide from the start to the endFull of facts11/4/2011 193
  194. 194. A Project Managers PersonalityExcellent leaderNegotiator (turns impossibilities into possibilities)Good judgment (premised on SMART information)Fair – listens to both (all) sidesOrganised (structured and in control)Team builder (focus on team synergy)Great communicator – spoken written body language etcPeople skills-at all level i.e. client ,seniormanagement, peers, team…etcInstills confidence – can do and does do attitude 11/4/2011 194
  195. 195. The “Organised” Project Manager Operates with a project file & project book A categorized record of the project documentation IN PLACE Your note and observation IN ONE PLACE Other medium: In addition to manual records and electrons devices, computer or web- based systems can be used to log and manage project information, events etc. examples include:- PDAs Bespoke in – house project systems, MS outlook Online project solution etc11/4/2011 195
  196. 196. The mindset for deliveryEvery project manager is expected to think onhis/her feet at all times proactively with aproblem – solving and tracking attitude.Classroom discussionWhat else is required for successful delivery?11/4/2011 196
  197. 197. Homework  Report objective:- Compare the role of a project manager and general manager highlighting similarties and differences. Max. No. Pages = 511/4/2011 197
  198. 198. Project Management concepts11/4/2011 198
  199. 199. At the end of this session:You should have an appreciation of the key PMconcepts i.e.1.Project definition2.Project strategy & work breakdown structure3. Project management methodologies4.PM software tools5. Project control6. Project success 11/4/2011 199
  200. 200. 1. Project Definition11/4/2011 200
  201. 201. Project DefinitionA project definition describes exactly the common understanding, its extent and nature, among the key people involved in a project.The definition provides a foundation upon which successful project are built.In many cases a definition serves as a sort of contract between the parties participating in a project, clearly stating expectation for project time, resource11/4/2011 201
  202. 202. Who develops a project Definition?A project manager drafts a projectdefinition, but its development is a team effort.The definition is an agreement among keyparticipants in a project, and must have inputfrom all of those participants.11/4/2011 202
  203. 203. What kinds of projects need a project definition?All projects need to go through the definitionprocess. Lack of a definition leads to unclear andambiguous goals, confusion,misunderstanding, and poor communication.Failure to formalise and documentscope, goals, and expectations puts a project atrisk before it even beings.11/4/2011 203
  204. 204. Getting StartedTo get started with the project definitionprocess, the project manager needs tounderstand and be able to communicate thefollowing information tosponsors, customers, management prospectiveteam members (much of this information will bederived from the project managers interactionwith these same people)11/4/2011 204
  205. 205. Project Definition Template FormA project definition template is available to help getyour project started. The process of completing thistemplate is intended to raise questions that willrequire effort to find the answers. The morecomplete the answers the better the projectdefinition.See the attached.Class exercise: using the attached project definitiontemplate produce a project definition for theongoing JCH project11/4/2011 205
  206. 206. 2. Project Strategy & Work breakdown Structures a) Strategy (clear and structure) b) Breakdown structures11/4/2011 206
  207. 207. Project strategy6 key questionsWhat?Why?How?When?Who?Where?11/4/2011 207
  208. 208. How?.......... The Approach• safety11/4/2011 208
  209. 209. Project Strategy (2) The 6 key question forms the basis for most project documentation Answering these question ensure all area are assessed and addressed objectively Facilitates clarity of thought and feasibility Facilitates communication of the projects importance to stakeholders Basis for working out the project benefits Guarantees a more successful outcome11/4/2011 209
  210. 210. Project Strategy - Example6 key questionsWhat: become a project managerWhy: professional development and higherremunerationHow: attend a training course & gain work experienceWhen: march 2003Who:Where: united kingdomPM TIP –thinking it through before stepping forward11/4/2011 210
  211. 211. Breakdown StructuresSuccessfully getting to the end point by design and not accidentCan –do attitude – I can do all thingsThe art of chunking for easier assimilation i.e.Disintegrating and de-categorizationCategorization and re- integratingEnabling effective delegationAnd perfecting then consolidating for successThe sum of the parts makes the whole – sanity checkGrouping into similar themes-creating orderEnsuring all parts are covered – completeness checkEvery aspect has a home = “no lost action”11/4/2011 211
  212. 212. Why Breakdown Structures?  See the trees from the forest  Motivation to act and deliver  Eases delegation, scheduling and cating  Counters project failure  Chaos  Crisis  Confusion  Fear (being overwhelmed)  Street map – code of recognition  Effective control & monitoring  Identifying and solving problems  Manager dependencies11/4/2011 212
  213. 213. Breakdown Structure-Success by design  Used to form the basis for Writing project documents Producing plans Project breakdown i.e. for scoping Producing budgets Preparing agendas Designing workshops And so on………..11/4/2011 213
  214. 214. Breakdown Structures-TechniquesBottom –up design Starting with the objective, Brainstorm activities and then order logically top down Chunk the project work into smaller sections/departments/area Further chunk to the lowest level of details (task) 11/4/2011 214
  215. 215. Breakdown Structures – how?Bottom-upBrainstorming- listing out activities required with people involvedNo missing componentsGroup according to common thread/theme i.e. dept. location.etcCreate a skeleton and hang the piecesDoes it all add up? Top down Analyze the objective Create logical homes 1st level compartments De- compartmentalization11/4/2011 215
  216. 216. Breakdown Structure Class exercise: Produce a work breakdown structure for the ongoing JCH project11/4/2011 216
  217. 217. 3. Project ManagementMethodologies11/4/2011 217
  218. 218. Project Management Project management is a carefully planned and organized effort to accomplish a specific (and usually) one-time effort, for example, construct a building or implement a new computer system. Project management includes developing a project plan, which includes defining project goals and objectives, specifying tasks or how goals will be achieved, what resources are need, and associating budgets and timelines for completion. It also includes implementing the project plan, along with careful controls to stay on the “critical path” that is, to ensure the plan is being manager according to plan.11/4/2011 218
  219. 219. Project ManagementMethodologies 1Modern thinking leads systems developers to havea plan of their project, so that various phases can beidentified and dealt with in an orderly and effectivemanner.Methodologies have been developed to effectorderly delivery in the systems world and beyondi.e. where projects are concernedThere has been written criticism in the I.S literaturestating planning is stifling innovative project work. 11/4/2011 219
  220. 220. Project Management Methodologies 2 PM theory (and practice) does not agree with the above as planning is a key PM technique for successful delivery. The innovation and delivery teams should work hands in hand to delivery innovative solution/projects on time. This is usually achieve through the use on an appropriate methodology(technical and/or PM)11/4/2011 220
  221. 221. PM Methodologies cont… This section covers a number of “methodologies” for delivery projects. Some are developed “in-house” by companies for their own environment and are considered to be commercial-in-confidence releasing little information into the public domain. Others are developed commercially and require a license fee before more information is released. Each methodologies will be discussed to highlight the similarities and reinforce the benefits of organized project delivery.11/4/2011 221
  222. 222. prompt Project Resource organization management & planning technical A project management framework develop originally by the central computing and telecommunications Agency(CCTA- the civil service technical branch)in response to an outcry that computer projects were over-running on time estimated for completion and initial budgets are set in the feasibility study. Factors of double, treble and even ten-times were experienced. PROMPT was an attempt to set down guideline for the stage flow through a computer project as follows: 11/4/2011 222
  223. 223. Cont….Feasibility Study- to determine whether the project should bedone/can be done/will work if it is done.Initial Stage- where the project organization is set up.Specification stage- in which the user specification was detailed.Design Stage- where the logical and from this the physical design ofthe computer system was designed in detailDevelopment Stage- the system is built and tested.Installation Stage- the user accepts (hopefully) a working system.Operation Stage-when the system is tuned for the work in hand.This led on to the development of PRINCE11/4/2011 223
  224. 224. PRINCEProject IN controlled Environments:Produced in 1989 by the central computing andTelecommunications Agency (CCTA) a government agency forthe development and implementation of IS/IT projects.The main features are:A defined management structure.A system of plans for resourcing and technical issuesA set of control proceduresA focus on products-deliverable to the customer andproject deliverables for the management of the project.11/4/2011 224
  225. 225. PRINCE cont….Business assurance co-ordinator known as the BAC whose function is tomonitor that the project is in line with the business mission of thecompany, and to report back at progress meetings. This assures that theproject stays in the best interests of the company and other work in otherprojects.Technical Assurance co-ordinator who monitors the technical aspects ofthe project and assures that it does not get into technical difficulties.User Assurance co-ordinaor who represents the eventual user. Noticethat this is done all through the project and not left (as in days gone by)to the last minute after software has been developed and hardwarepurchased.All in all a sensible and workable syetem 11/4/2011 225
  226. 226. PRINCE cont(2)… However the PRINCE methodologies developed a reputation as being too unwieldy too rigid and applicable only to large projects. In our experience this method can and should be adapted to the company culture and project in hand, and has been used on a variety of project right down to single person projects. It can work to the great advantage of managing a project. But equally people can misuse it to draw opposite conclusions. It is true that a few determined people can persuade the majority away from PRINCE11/4/2011 226
  227. 227. Useful web site for PRINCE{PRINCE 2}{PRINCEusers’ Group}{covers PRINCE 2}{PROMS-G}http://www.spoce.com11/4/2011 227
  228. 228. IDEALInitiation1. Set context2. Build sponsorship/support3. Character infrastructure Diagnostics1.Characteris current and desired states2.Develop recommendations Establishing1.Set priorities2deveiop approach3.Plan actionsAction1.Create solution2.Pilot and test solution3.Refine solution4.Improve solution 11/4/2011 228
  229. 229. BPMMBATES project Management Methodology5 major planning steps as follows:Project charterWBS(work Breakdown structure)Work package planProject scheduleProject budgetWeb site : http:/ 229
  230. 230. Prodigy Prescribing RatiOnally with Decision-support in General practice studY Relating to the Nation Health Service and medical industry. Project management group consist of who are responsible for strategy Project manger Project team leader PMO from the NHS Executive Branch head from NHS Executive SMO from NHS Executive Branch head from NHS Executive11/4/2011 230
  231. 231. 5 STEPS 5 steps To Ensure Project Success 5- STEP is a structure methodology designed to assist individual project teams deliver the project on time within budget. The focus is on developing a realistic schedule for a project and then managing it. Each step must be validate by all participants before moving to the next step. The 5 step must be executed sequentially in this order: Organize the project Structure the process model Set reasonable objectives Gain commitment. Manage the project.11/4/2011 231
  232. 232. SUPRAThe framework for SUPRA is similar to PRINCEand consists of the following:Project organization structure –which is brokendown into: Overall project level Work package levelTechnical plan.Project monitoring and control.Quality assurance. Document management.11/4/2011 232
  233. 233. Impoverished Leader (low task, lowrelationship)A leader who uses a “delegate and disappear” management style.Since they are not committed to either task accomplishment ormaintenance they essentially allow their team to do whatever it wishesand prefer to detach themselves from the team process by allowing theteam to suffer from a series of power struggles.The most desirable place for a leader to be along the two axes at mosttimes would be a 9 on task and a 9 on people- the team leader. However , do not entirely dismiss the other three. Certain situationmight call for one of the other three to be used at times. For example, by playing the impoverished leader, you allow your team to gain self-reliance. Be an authoritarian leader to instill a sense of discipline in anunmotivated worker. By carefully studying the situation and the forceaffecting it, you will know at what points along the axes you need to beorder to achieve the desired result.11/4/2011 233
  234. 234. LeadershipStyles11/4/2011 234
  235. 235. Styles of leadershipThere are ways to lead and every leader has his or her own style. Someof the more common styles includeautocratic, bureaucratic, democratic, and laisssez-faire.In the pas several decades, management experts have undergone arevolution in how they define leadership and what their attitudes aretoward creative, participative approach. Somewhere along the line , itwas determined that not everything old was bad and not everything newwas good. Rather, different styles were needed for different situationsand each leader needed to know when to exhibit a particular approach.Four of the most basic leader styles are:AutocraticBureaucraticLaissez-fairedemocratic 11/4/2011 235
  236. 236. Autocratic Leadership Style This is often considered the classical approach. It is one in which the manager retains as much power and decision- making authority as possible. The manager does not consult employees, nor are they allowed to give any input. Employees are expected to obey orders without receiving any explanations. The motivation environment is produced by creating a structured set of rewards and punishments. This leadership style has been greatly criticized during the past 30 years. Some studies say that organizations with many autocratic leaders have higher turnover and absenteeism than other organizations. Certainly Gen X employees have proven to be highly resistant to this management style.11/4/2011 236
  237. 237. Autocratic Leader Style - 2 These studies say that autocratic leader: Rely on threats and punishment to influence employees Do not trust employees Do not allow for employee input Yet, autocratic leadership is not all bad. Sometimes it is the most effective style to use. These situations can include: new, untrained employees who do not know which tasks to perform or which procedures to follow Effective supervision can be provided only through detailed orders and instructions Employees do not respond to any other leadership style11/4/2011 237
  238. 238. Autocratic Leader Style -3There are high- volume production needs on a basisThere is limited time in which to make a decisionA managers power is challenged by an employeeThe area was poorly managedWork needs to be coordinated with another department or organizationThe autocratic leadership style should not be used when:Employees become tense, fearful, or resentfulEmployees expect to have their opinions heardEmployees begin depending on their manager to make all theirdecisionsThere is low employee morale, high turnover and absenteeism andwork stoppage 11/4/2011 238
  239. 239. Bureaucratic Leadership StyleBureaucratic leadership is where the manager “by the book”everything must be done according to procedure or policy. If it isntcovered by the book, the manager refers to the next level above him orher.This manager is really more of a police officer than a leader: he or sheenforces the rules.This style can be effective when:Employees are performing routine tasks over and over.Employees need to understand certain standards or procedures.Employees are working with dangerous or delicate equipment thatrequires a definite set of procedures to operate.Safety or security training is being conducted.Employees are performing tasks that required handling cash.11/4/2011 239