Tip & Glow Radioactive Waste Amendment in the State Budget Bill Webinar


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Originally Presented: Monday, May 13, 2013 11:00 AM

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Tip & Glow Radioactive Waste Amendment in the State Budget Bill Webinar

  1. 1. Shale Gas Wastes: RadioactiveDecay, NORM & TENORM forMarcellus and Utica ShalesJulie Weatherington-Rice, PhD, CPG,CPSSBennett & Williams EnvironmentalConsultants Inc.An Ohio Fracture FlowWorking Group PresentationApril 24, 2013Adj. Asst. Prof,Ohio State U.Food, Ag & BioEng.
  2. 2. 2013 Focusing on Shale Gas Wastes2013 Focusing on Shale Gas Wastes• Ground Shale Rock:Ground Shale Rock: hydrocarbons, heavy &hydrocarbons, heavy &radioactive metals, Ohio–NORM,radioactive metals, Ohio–NORM, US EPA-TENORMUS EPA-TENORM• Drilling Muds:Drilling Muds: who knows what,who knows what, TENORMTENORM• Fracking FluidsFracking Fluids :: water, sand, who knows what, iwater, sand, who knows what, ifrecycled, are theyrecycled, are they TENORM?TENORM?• Brine:Brine: salts, hydrocarbons, heavy & radioactivesalts, hydrocarbons, heavy & radioactivemetals, Ohio-NORM,metals, Ohio-NORM, US EPA-TENORMUS EPA-TENORM• Drilling Site Wastes & Accidental Releases:Drilling Site Wastes & Accidental Releases:who knows what is being releasedwho knows what is being released• Where are they coming from?Where are they coming from?• Where are they going?Where are they going?
  3. 3. Why the Current Concern?Why the Current Concern?• Blacks shales are early sources of UraniumBlacks shales are early sources of Uraniumore for the “Atomic Age”ore for the “Atomic Age” (Chattanooga Shale, TN;(Chattanooga Shale, TN;USGS, 1960 & 1961)USGS, 1960 & 1961)• Black shales like coal are full of heavy andBlack shales like coal are full of heavy andradioactive metals:radioactive metals: 232232Th toTh to 228228Ra &Ra & 238238U toU to 226226Ra areRa aremost common seriesmost common series• 228228Ra,Ra, 238238U &U & 226226Ra water soluble, also in brinesRa water soluble, also in brines• US EPA limit on Uranium mill tailings, 5 pCi/gUS EPA limit on Uranium mill tailings, 5 pCi/gbecause of the Radium:because of the Radium: > LLRW Landfill, Utah or> LLRW Landfill, Utah orWashington State accept NORMWashington State accept NORM• US EPA Drinking Water MCLs 5 pCi/l forUS EPA Drinking Water MCLs 5 pCi/l for
  4. 4. Figure 1. Graph from Radioactive Elements in Coal and Fly Ash:Abundance, Forms, and Environmental Significance. U.S.Geological Survey Fact Sheet FS-163-97. October, 1997
  5. 5. Why the Current ConcernWhy the Current ConcernCont?Cont?• Very limited chem dataVery limited chem data (gamma)(gamma) for Uticafor Uticashale,shale, TENORMTENORM & brines:& brines: 100’s to 1,000’s X 5100’s to 1,000’s X 5pCi/g or LpCi/g or L• PA DEP NOTPA DEP NOT ConfidentConfident with their monitoringwith their monitoringprograms at landfillsprograms at landfills• PA DEP Marcellus Shale U content:PA DEP Marcellus Shale U content: 10-10010-100ppmppm• Uranium-238 content:Uranium-238 content: ~3.4 to 34 pCi/g~3.4 to 34 pCi/g• Radium-226 content:Radium-226 content: ~ 3.4 to 34 pCi/g~ 3.4 to 34 pCi/g• Frac Water Ra-226:Frac Water Ra-226: 300 to 9,000 pCi/l300 to 9,000 pCi/l• PA Marcellus brine chemistry up to 3,609 xPA Marcellus brine chemistry up to 3,609 xMCLs for radioactivity:MCLs for radioactivity: 5 pCi/l US EPA5 pCi/l US EPA
  6. 6. GammaSpec DataWater Soluble
  7. 7. SampleDescriptionDateAnalyzed (initialsampleanalysis)NuclidesObservedAboveMinimumDetectionActivity(21 dayhold)Thorium-232 /Radium-228series(FromRa-228decay5.8yrs.)Actinium-228(6.1hrs)(FromRa-224decay3.6 day)Pb-212(10.6hr)(FromRa-224decay3.6day) Bi-212 (61min)Uranium-238 /Radium-226series(FromRa-226decay,1602yrs) Pb-214 (27min)Bi-214(19.7min) Units NotesUnused Sand10/4/2012    0.0536+/-0.002910.0561+/-0.003440.0393+/-0.00509  0.118+/-0.004780.116+/-0.00435 pCi/gThis sampleshould be free ofUtica ShalecontaminationFlow Back10/4/2012    88.4 +/-3.419.08 +/-0.949 N/A  116 +/-4.3195.6 +/-3.75 pCi/LSome level ofmixing of frackwater and radiumsfrom the brineMud10/4/2012    224 +/-6085173 +/-10.9132 +/-20.2  611 +/-19.8663 +/-13.5 pCi/Lsome level ofmixing of drillingmud with radiumsfrom the brine"ProductionWater"11/20/2012    1070 +/-27.5 N/A N/A  947 +/-29.6838 +/-31.3 pCi/LIs this actually"brine" or somecombination pffrack water andbrines?Vertical (Mud)12/3/2012     N/A159 +/-16.2 N/A  566 +/-27.3 N/A pCi/LSome mixing ofdrilling mud withbrine, dont knowwhere in holeHorizontalMud12/3/2012    264 +/-026.7171 +/-016.3229 +/-59.5  601 +/-28.6578 +/-34.3 pCi/LSome mixing ofdrilling mud withbrine but from thehorizontal sectionof the boringMud12/6/2012    206 +/-24.7205 +/-15.1 N/A  630 +/-28.0662 +/-27.4 pCi/LSome mixing ofdrilling mud withbrine, dont knowwhere in holeData Summary from ODH Samples
  8. 8. Why the Current Concern Cont?Why the Current Concern Cont?• NY brine up toNY brine up to 15,000 pCi/L15,000 pCi/L226226RaRa• Hard scale in usedHard scale in useddrilling pipes up todrilling pipes up to 6,0006,000pCi/gpCi/g 226226Ra and up to 2,000 pCi/gRa and up to 2,000 pCi/g228228RaRa• Ohio still contaminatedOhio still contaminatedfrom the Manhattanfrom the ManhattanProjectProject– we know better nowwe know better now
  9. 9. Radioactivity = TOC = GasRadioactivity = TOC = Gas• Gamma RayGamma Raysignature showssignature showshighest levels ofhighest levels ofradioactivity in theradioactivity in theshaleshale• Horizontal lateralsHorizontal lateralsinstalled in hottestinstalled in hottestzoneszones• Shale cuttings areShale cuttings arefrom hottest areasfrom hottest areas
  10. 10. 5 pCi/l MCL: Why the Health5 pCi/l MCL: Why the HealthRisk?Risk?Because water-soluble Radium replacesCalcium in your bones if you drink it
  11. 11. Legal disposal forshale rock cuttings,drilling muds andassociated wastesHB 59 requireddownblending if Ralevels above MCLs forTENORM only,removed from bill,expected back this fallPress releases do notindicate that chemicalbinding of radioactiveLandfilling the WastesLandfilling the Wastes
  12. 12. Radium can beBound in Barite• But Ra will stilldecay in landfill &release radon gas• Radon gas is noblegas, collected ingas collectionsystem but NOTdestroyed at flair,simply released• Radon gasgenerationcontinues until allTh, U & Ra is spentin landfill• New soluble Ra, notbound, is formedfrom Th & U inlandfill from rockChemical precipitate of flow-back water: Dr. RadisavVidic, PE presentation U
  13. 13. But are they LLRWBut are they LLRWLandfills?Landfills?• No solid wasteNo solid wasteand C&DD wasteand C&DD wastelandfills in Ohiolandfills in Ohiomeet our siting &meet our siting &design criteria fordesign criteria forLLRW disposalLLRW disposal• OSU ExtensionOSU ExtensionResearch “Low-Research “Low-Level RadioactiveLevel RadioactiveWaste Fact SheetWaste Fact SheetSeries” (RER-00)Series” (RER-00)explains whyexplains whyCement vaults above ground,wastes drummed,overpacked and sealedOhioline.osu.edu/rer-fact/
  14. 14. How Long to Protect from HumanInteraction if We use Michigan’s50 pCi/g Landfill Limit• 50 pCi/g to 25 pCi/g to 12.5 pCi/g to 6.25pCi/g to 5 pCi/g• 50 pCi/g Radium-226 (1,609 yrs/1/2 life) to 5pCi/g is 3+ half lives, ~5,000 yrs, back to thebeginning of Egypts pyramids• 50 pCi/g Uranium-238 (4.468 Billion yrs/1/2life, from almost the birth of the earth untilnow is one ½ life) to 5 pCi/g, so 3+ half-lives,back to the beginning of the Universe• 50 pCi/g Thorium-232 (14.05 Billion yrs/1/2life, longer than the age of the Universe untilnow one ½ life) to 5 pCi/g, ~45 Billion years,
  15. 15. Contacts for this presentation &Contacts for this presentation &Ohio Journal of Science PapersOhio Journal of Science PapersOFFWG,OFFWG, Dr. Julie Weatherington-Rice, B&W,Dr. Julie Weatherington-Rice, B&W,OSU FABE,OSU FABE, weatherington-ri.1@osu.eduweatherington-ri.1@osu.eduOFFWG,OFFWG, Dr. Ann Christy, OSU FABE,Dr. Ann Christy, OSU FABE,christy.14@osu.educhristy.14@osu.eduBennett & WilliamsBennett & Williams , Linda Aller RS,, Linda Aller RS,Laller@bennettandwilliams.comLaller@bennettandwilliams.comOhio Journal of Science Web Link atOhio Journal of Science Web Link atOSU,OSU,https://kb.osu.edu/dspace/handle/1811/686https://kb.osu.edu/dspace/handle/1811/686Ohio EPAOhio EPA Division of Drinking and GroundDivision of Drinking and GroundWaters Source Water Assessment andWaters Source Water Assessment andProtection Program,Protection Program,www.epa.ohio.gov/ddagw/swap_ssa.aspxwww.epa.ohio.gov/ddagw/swap_ssa.aspxKeeping Ohio’s Water CleanOhio Fracture Flow WorkingGroup