Harmful Algal Blooms

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Harmful Algal Blooms at Ohio Public Water Supplies

Presented at the Ohio Academy of Sciences, 2012.

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Harmful Algal Blooms

  1. 1. Heather Raymond Ohio Academy of Science HABs SymposiumOhio EPA, DDAGW April 14, 2012PWS HAB Coordinator
  2. 2.  Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) A “bloom” occurs when conditions are conducive for a rapid increase in cyanobacteria There are many different genera and species of cyanobacteria, and not all produce toxins A HAB is a bloom caused by cyanobacteria that are capable of producing toxins
  3. 3. • Toxin production - Dermal toxins, neurotoxins, and hepatotoxins In Ohio in 2010 there were 48 Human Illnesses and 5 Dog Deaths• Taste and odor problems - Methylisoborneol (MIB) & Geosmin• Increased organic carbon load - Concern for water treatment and TTHMs• Dissolved oxygen dips - Can result in fish kills• Nuisance - Visual and olfactory effects can be significant• Costs to Communities Economic impacts from loss of recreation based tourism >$100,000/month for extra carbon treatment at PWSs
  4. 4.  Cyanotoxins are NOT Regulated Contaminants  Water Systems are NOT Required to Monitor for themThreshold (ug/L) Microcystin Anatoxin-a Cylindrospermopsin SaxitoxinDo Not Drink- 1 - 20 20 - 300 1 – 20 0.2 - 3All consumersDo Not Use- > 20 > 300 > 20 >3All consumersRecreation 6 80 5 .8  Ohio EPA Decides to Sample for Cyanotoxins Based on: Bloom severity, Proximity to intake, Treatment capabilities, and Other considerations: history of toxins, human illness, screening data, microcystin test kit results, etc.  Some Water Systems Voluntarily Monitor
  5. 5. Ohio Harmful Algal Blooms (2010-2011) 19 Public WaterODH Reported Illnesses related to algal toxin exposurewith Systems : toxins in raw water 41 human illnesses (probable) and 8 (suspect) 7 dog illnesses (probable) 5 of which died Drinking No Water Advisories Probable and Suspect Cases: Grand Lake St. Marys - 8 (4 dog illnesses, including 3 deaths) Western Lake Erie - 9 Burr Oak State Park - 7 (2 dog deaths) Deer Creek - 3 Lake Alma - 2Intakes with Lake Hope - 1HABsLake Loramie - (1 dog illness)Recreation UseO-Chee (Camp Wilson) - 19 Lake MacAdvisories
  6. 6. Worst Cyanobacteria Bloom in 30 YearsWestern Basin  Microcystin >1000 ppb  PWS Raw Water >5 ppb, Finished: non-detectCentral Basin  First Source Water Microcystin Detections (>100 ppb)
  7. 7.  304 Raw and Finished Cyanotoxin Samples  DDAGW analyzed 177 samples  PWSs analyzed 127 samples  No finished water detections  Cyanotoxins present in 57% of source water samples  Maximum Inland Lake Microcystin Concentration- 43.4 ug/L (Celina)  Maximum Lake Erie Intake Microcystin Concentration - >5 ug/L  Saxitoxin only detected in raw water at Akron (below threshold) Microcystin Concentrations in 2011 in Lake Erie and GLSM greater than concentrations in 2010
  8. 8. Microcystin Concentration (ug/L) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 5 1-Jan 15-Jan 29-Jan 12-Feb 26-Feb 12-Mar 26-Mar 9-Apr 46.40 23-Apr 7-May 21-May 4-Jun 18-Jun 2-Jul 43.40Date 16-Jul 30-Jul 13-Aug 27-Aug at City of Celina Intake 10-Sep 24-Sep 14.70 8-Oct 22-Oct 5-Nov 19-Nov Grand Lake Saint Mary Microcystin Concentration 3-Dec 17-Dec 2012? Series3 Series2 Series1 2011 2012 2010 2011 was 4x Higher than 2010
  9. 9. Western Lake Erie Basin Microcystin Concentrations at Public Water System Intakes > > 5 14x Higher 4.5 than 2010Microcystin Concentration (ug/L) 4 Carroll 3.5 Township 3 Oregon 2.5 Ottawa County 2 1.5 Toledo 1 0.5 0 Date
  10. 10. 9 8.8 8.6 8.4 y = 0.1472x + 8.0059 R² = 0.3497pH 8.2 8 7.8 7.6 7.4 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Microcystin Concentration (ug/L)
  11. 11. 29 27Temperature (Degrees Celsius) 25 23 y = 1.0605x + 20.54 R² = 0.4168 21 19 17 15 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Microsystin Concentration (ug/L)
  12. 12.  Celina Toxins concentrations greater at intake in 2011, when scums were not present (could be attributed to cyanobacteria genera change). Lake Erie Highest toxins detected at mainland intakes in extreme western basin prior to scum formation. Toxins detected at Put-in-Bay intake two weeks before scum formed, not detected after scums formed (microcystin concentration in scum was 340 ug/L). Akron Toxins not detected during scum-forming bloom, but detected months later when scum no longer present.
  13. 13. Grand Lake Saint Marys 2010 May23 May27 May30 May31 Jun02 Jun06 Jun15 Jun16 Jun18 Jul01 Jul04 Jul05 Jul07 Jul08 Jul11 Jul14Jul15 Jul17 Jul20 March 3, Jul23 2012 Jul27 Aug25Aug28 Aug31 Sep07 Sep09 Sep10 Sep12
  14. 14. YES
  15. 15.  Lake Erie HAB Forecasts  http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/res/Centers/HABS/l ake_erie_hab/ Inland Lakes HAB Data  http://www2.nccos.noaa.gov/COAST/Ohio/
  16. 16. Thank You!Please contact me if you haveany questions: (614) 644-2752 HABmailbox@epa.state.oh.us Heather.Raymond@epa.state.oh.uswww.epa.ohio.gov/ddagw/HAB.aspx

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