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Local Board of Health & Factory Farms


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"Local Boards of Health and Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations" presented by the National Association of Local Boards of Health.

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Local Board of Health & Factory Farms

  1. 1. Local Boards of Health and Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations Ohio Clean Water ConferenceAugust 5th, 2011
  2. 2. Definitions• Animal feeding operation (AFO) – lot or facility  g p ( ) y where animals are kept confined and fed or  maintained for 45 days or more per year. Crops,  vegetation, or forage growth are not sustained  vegetation or forage growth are not sustained over a normal growing period. • Concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) – an AFO that contains a certain number of  animals, or have a number of animals that fall  animals or have a number of animals that fall within a range and have waste materials that  come into contact with the water supply 
  3. 3. CAFO Definitions  CAFO Definitions – Size Regulatory Definitions of Large CAFOs, Medium CAFOs, and Small CAFOs Size Thresholds (Number of animals) Animal Sector Animal Sector Large CAFOS           Medium CAFOS * Small                  CAFOs* Regulatory Definitions of Large CAFOs, Medium CAFOs, and Small CAFOsLess than 300 Cattle or cow/calf pairs 1,000 or more 300‐999 Mature dairy cattle 700 or more 200‐699 Less than 200 Veal calves 1,000 or more 300‐999 Less than 300 Swine (over 55 pounds) 2,500 or more 750‐2,500 Less than 750 Swine (under 55  10,000 or  3,000‐9,999 Less than 3,000 pounds) more Laying hens or broilers 30,000 or  9,000‐29,999 Less than 9,000 more
  4. 4. History  CAFO Regulations History – CAFO Regulations• 1972 – Clean Water Act: AFOs first identified as potential  p pollutants• 1976 – AFO and CAFO definitions created by the EPA for the  National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)  N ti l P ll t t Di h Eli i ti S t (NPDES) process• 2003 – CAFO regulations updated: g p – All CAFOs must apply for NPDES permit – Large poultry operations were included – CAFOs with NPDES permits have to submit nutrient  management plan
  5. 5. Environmental Health Effects Environmental Health EffectsMost pressing public health concern with CAFOs is  p gpmanure.  – CAFO manure contains plant nutrients (nitrogen,  phosphorus), pathogens (E. coli), growth hormones,  phosphorus) pathogens (E coli) growth hormones antibiotics, chemical additives, animal blood, silage  leachate, copper sulfate.  – Manure becomes problematic in large quantities. – When too much manure is applied to fields, nutrients  p y overwhelm the capacity of the soil and run off or are  leached into groundwater. 
  6. 6. CAFOs can cause:  CAFOs can cause:• Groundwater contamination, which can affect the drinking water  supplyl• Surface water contamination, which can denigrate the ecosystem • A reduction in air quality in areas surrounding industrial farms,  which can trigger asthma  which can trigger asthma• Greenhouse gas emission, which exacerbates climate change• Foul odors• A i An increase in insect vectors i i t t• Pathogens, which can be transmitted to humans through fecal‐ oral transmission, inhalation, drinking water, or incidental water  consumption• Antibiotic‐resistant bacteria through the non‐therapeutic use of  antibiotics in animal feed• Decrease in property values p p y
  7. 7. Boards of Health Boards of Health• Authorized by state statutes to address  public health at the local level bli h l h h l ll l – Statutes establish the governmental subunits  of the state and give local governing units  f h d i l l i i authority – Detail the activities delegated to boards of Detail the activities delegated to boards of  health• 3 200 boards of health in 41 states oversee 3,200 boards of health in 41 states oversee  and support local health departments 
  8. 8. Board of Health Challenges Board of Health Challenges• Volunteers – unpaid professionals• Oth f ll ti Other full‐time commitments it t• Majority have limited to no training in public  health  No statutory requirements for formal  health – No statutory requirements for formal training in public health exist  g q y q• Meeting frequency = 1/month or quarterly y• Almost 70% are appointed nationally/100% in  many states• Multiple varied approaches to public health  governance across the country 
  9. 9. Ohio Revised Code Authorizes.. Ohio Revised Code Authorizes..• Every city, county, or district is served by a board  y y y y of health• All boards have full governance authority• Composition: City/County have five members g y y y• Term Length: City/County serve 5‐year terms. Can  serve multiple terms.• Both districts and counties require one physician• District boards are contractually determined for  composition and term length
  10. 10. Governing Boards of Health Governing Boards of Health74.4% of boards of health are governing:  – establish local ordinances and regulations – approve health department budgets and  expenditures, and fees for services, permits,  dit df f i it and licenses – hire/fire/evaluate the chief executive or hire/fire/evaluate the chief executive or  health officer – Set health department goals/strategic plan – Review progress toward established goals – Levy taxes
  11. 11. Policymaking Boards of Health Policymaking Boards of Health46.6% of boards of health are policymaking:  – given their authority by local governing units given their authority by local governing units  to set policies, goals, and priorities that guide  a public health agency
  12. 12. Advisory Boards of Health Advisory Boards of Health32.8% of boards of health are advisory:  – report to their health officer and/or county,  city, or township commissions, who then act  on that information to establish policies,  programs, and budgets for public health  operations ti
  13. 13. Board of Health Responsibilities pAll boards of health have significant responsibilities for the overall health of their  pcommunities, including:  – proposing, adopting, and enforcing public health  regulations  l ti – recommending and establishing public health  p policies – recommending health agency and community  public health priorities – imposing fees imposing fees – approving health agency budgets
  14. 14. Board of Health Involvement – Assessment• Make sure there is an effective method for  a e su e t e e s a e ect e et od o collecting and tracking public complaints about  CAFOs.• Ensure that environmental health staff are  properly trained and educated about CAFOs. • Offer services that may ease public frustration  with CAFOs: • Fl t Fly trapping program i • Testing for water quality and quantity • Monitoring emergency room exposure incidences Monitoring emergency room exposure incidences
  15. 15. Board of Health Involvement – Policy Development• Adopt health‐based regulations about Adopt health based regulations about  CAFOs.• Boards should be aware any regulations Boards should be aware any regulations  could be met with resistance (threats to  funding or lawsuits).  funding or lawsuits)• Work with other local officials to institute  regulations, e.g., zoning ordinances.  l i i di
  16. 16. Board of Health Involvement – Assurance• Advocate for or educate about better environmental  practices with CAFOs. • Hold public meetings to receive complaints and public  testimony about CAFOs. • Collaborate with other agencies that have jurisdiction for  regulating CAFOs.• Educate other local agencies and public officials about Educate other local agencies and public officials about  CAFOs. • Request a public hearing with the permitting agency of a  CAFO to express concerns about the public health effects. CAFO to express concerns about the public health effects.• Work with agricultural and farm representatives to teach  better environmental practices and pollution reduction  techniques.  techniques
  17. 17. Considerations for Boards of Health – Right to Farm Laws• Right to farm laws – created to address conflicts between  g farmers and non‐farming neighbors. • They override common laws of nuisance, which forbid  people to use their property in ways that are harmful to  people to use their property in ways that are harmful to others, and protect farmers from unreasonable controls on  farming. • All 50 states have some form of right‐to‐farm laws They All 50 states have some form of right to farm laws. They  were created in the 1970s to protect family farms from  suburban sprawl, before industrial farms were the norm. • Right to farm laws can hinder nuisance complaints against Right to farm laws can hinder nuisance complaints against  CAFOs brought about by community members and prevent  local government or health officials from regulating family  farms. 
  18. 18. Additional Resources Additional Resources• National Association of Local Boards of Health National Association of Local Boards of Health  –• NALBOH Repository of Local Environmental NALBOH Repository of Local Environmental  Health Policies – http://nalboh org/EH Local Policies htm
  19. 19. Additional Resources Additional Resources• Environmental Protection Agency – Animal feeding  operations.• Food and Water Watch.• National Agriculture Law Center.  Animal feeding operations reading room.  Animal feeding operations reading room• Pew Commission on Industrial Animal Farm  Production. Production http://www ncifap org/• Purdue Extension. Concentrated animal feeding  operations.
  20. 20. More Information More InformationNational Association of Local Boards of Health National Association of Local Boards of Health (NALBOH) 1840 East Gypsy Lane 1840 East Gypsy Lane Bowling Green, OH  43402 (419) 353‐7714 p // g/