Suitability of the Maumee River for Spawning of Bigheaded Carp

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Presented at the Aug. 2011 Lake Erie LaMP Forum hosting by the Ohio Environmental Council

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Suitability of the Maumee River for Spawning of Bigheaded Carp

  1. 1. Suitability of the Maumee River for spawning of bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) Patrick M. Kocovsky Duane Chapman USGS Great Lakes Science Center USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center Sandusky, OH Columbia, MOPhoto: Steve Morse, University of Missouri
  2. 2. Asian Carps in North America • Imported in 1970s for aquaculture and sewage treatment • Escapees in Mississippi and Arkansas Rivers by mid 1970s • Reproducing populations throughout lower Mississippi drainage http://nas2.er.usgs.gov/viewer/omap.aspx?SpeciesID=549
  3. 3. Asian Carps Invading the Great Lakes – CSSC http://www.lrc.usace.army.mil/AsianCarp/BarriersFactSheet.pdf • eDNA beyond barrier – Jerde et al. - One bighead carp captured in canal system above barrier - One bighead carp captured just below barrier
  4. 4. Asian Carps Invading the Great Lakes – Eagle Marsh - links Wabash and Maumee basins near Ft. Wayne, IN - Barrier fence erected to block passage during floods
  5. 5. Asian Carps Invading the Great Lakes – Grand Lake St. Mary’s - Roush dam on To Wabash To Maumee Wabash prevents unassisted passage -Spawning behavior observed near dam
  6. 6. Asian Carp Invading the Great Lakes http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/collectioninfo.aspx?SpeciesID=551 Capture locations of bighead carp Lake Erie N Maumee River 0 100 200 300 km Question: Do conditions favorable for spawning of Asian carp exist in Lake Erie and the Maumee River?
  7. 7. Methods •Examined literature from native and introduced populations to determine spawning requirements: 1) Minimum accumulated heat - maturation – 2,685 ADD - onset of spawning – 655 ADD15, 919 ADD15 2) Flood event - typical cue for spawning 3) Sufficient drift distance - function of velocity and water temperature Examination period: 1990-2009
  8. 8. Methods Minimum accumulated heat: Calculated total degree days (sum of mean daily temperatures) to determine when and if thermal requirements met from Leamington, ON municipal water intake (lake) Flood events: Examined USGS flow data (water.usgs.gov) - identified all flood events with minimum velocity 0.7 m/s - determined dates, event duration, peak velocity Drift distance: Calculated total length of passable river - Passable = dams have passage structure or head lower than flood stage - Predicted stream temperature from thermal model - Predicted velocity from discharge
  9. 9. Photo: Patrick M. Kocovsky, USGS Grand Rapids Dam RKM 54From USGS Water Resources:4-14-2011Q =167 m3/s (provisional)V ≈ 0.92 m/sStage ≈1.09 mDescending limb Photo: Patrick M. Kocovsky, USGS4-21-2011Q = 954 m3/s (provisional)V ≈ 1.7 m/sStage ≈ 2.7 mAscending limb Median daily Q=360 m3/s
  10. 10. Methods Drift distance: Calculated required length of stream (D, km) given incubation time and velocity: D = 3600VI/1000 = 3.6VI where: V=velocity m/s I=incubation time, h 3600=s/hr 1000=m/km If D < maximum length of passable river, event suitable for spawning
  11. 11. Thermal requirements 6000 Cumulative degree-days (oC) 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 Year • Minimum for time series 3,974 - 48% higher than minimum Western Lake Erie is thermally suitable for maturation
  12. 12. Thermal requirements • Thresholds for spawning: onset of spawning 655 DD>15 degrees reached on average 23 June ± 7 d mass spawning 919 DD>15 degrees reached on average 5 July ± 7 d Thresholds reached in early summer, similar to timing in native and invaded habitats
  13. 13. Temperature modelMean temperature: 23.4Time to hatch: 31 h
  14. 14. 1000 1990 1000 1995Flood events 800 600 800 600 400 400 200 200- 44 flood events after 0 1-May 31-May 1-Jul 1-Aug 0 1-Sep 1-May 31-May 1-Jul 1-Aug 1-Septhreshold for onset of 1000 1991 1000 1996 800 800spawning (655 DD) 600 600 400 400 200 200 2.2/yr 0 0 1-May 31-May 1-Jul 1-Aug 1-Sep 1-May 31-May 1-Jul 1-Aug 1-Sep 1000 1000 1992 1997 Discharge (m 3/s) 800 800- 27 flood events after 600 600threshold for onset of mass 400 400 200 200spawning (919 DD) 0 0 1-May 31-May 1-Jul 1-Aug 1-Sep 1-May 31-May 1-Jul 1-Aug 1-Sep 1000 1000 1993 1998 >1/yr 800 600 800 600 400 400 200 200 0 0 1-May 31-May 1-Jul 1-Aug 1-Sep 1-May 31-May 1-Jul 1-Aug 1-Sep 1000 1000 1994 1999 800 800 600 600 400 400 200 200 0 0 1-May 31-May 1-Jul 1-Aug 1-Sep 1-May 31-May 1-Jul 1-Aug 1-Sep
  15. 15. 1000 2000 1000 2005Flood events 800 600 800 600 400 40085% of years had at least one 200 200 0 0flood event after thermal 1-May 31-May 1-Jul 1-Aug 1-Sep 1-May 31-May 1-Jul 1-Aug 1-Sep 1000 1000threshold for spawning 800 2001 800 2006achieved 600 400 600 400 200 200 0 065% had multiple events 1-May 31-May 1-Jul 1-Aug 1-Sep 1-May 31-May 1-Jul 1-Aug 1-Sep 1000 1000 2002 2007 Discharge (m 3/s) 800 80080% had at least one flood 600 600 400 400event after thermal threshold 200 200for mass spawning achieved 0 1-May 31-May 1-Jul 1-Aug 0 1-Sep 1-May 31-May 1-Jul 1-Aug 1-Sep 1000 1000 2003 2008 800 80045% had multiple events 600 600 400 400 200 200 Most years had at 0 0 1-May 31-May 1-Jul 1-Aug 1-Sep 1-May 31-May 1-Jul 1-Aug 1-Sepleast one flood event suitable 1000 2004 1000 2009 800 800for spawning 600 600 400 400 200 200 0 0 1-May 31-May 1-Jul 1-Aug 1-Sep 1-May 31-May 1-Jul 1-Aug 1-Sep
  16. 16. Drift distance 3 Velocity (m/s) 2 y = 0.1513x0.353 1 R² = 0.9799 0 0 1000 2000 3000 Discharge (m3/s) Passable distance: 209 km Highest V on 23 August 2007: 2.1 m/s D = 3.6VI = 3.6*2.1*31 = 234.4 > 209 = V too fast 2nd highest V on 10 July 2003: 1.85 m/s D = 3.6VI = 3.6*1.85*31 = 206.5 < 209 = V sufficient Length of open river suffices for nearly all floods
  17. 17. Conclusions •Maumee River is thermally and hydrographically suitable for spawning of bigheaded carp - no major impediments and suitable drift conditions - Maumee Bay excellent rearing environment • NOT known: - locations and suitability of spawning microhabitats e.g., nature of flow (turbulent, laminar) • Additional research needed to identify potential spawning locations or to determine entire length is suitable for development of mitigation options •Method is being applied to six other major tributaries: Sandusky, Portage, Huron, Vermilion, Black, Grand (OH)
  18. 18. Acknowledgements • Gary Dunmore, Ontario Clean Water Agency •Keith Banachowski and Rodney Tornes, Ohio Department of Natural Resources • Andrea Stoneman, Delaware State University • Jim McKenna, USGS •USGS Great Lakes Science Center and Columbia Environmental Research Center

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