Invasive Species


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Invasive Species

  1. 1. Invasive Species
  2. 2. Non-Native Species <ul><li>Can you name a species that lives in Ontario but is not native to Ontario? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think that species has an impact on the natural environment? </li></ul><ul><li>How and why did the species get here? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Non-Native Species <ul><li>The introduction of non-native or exotic species to an ecosystem by humans is a major cause of species loss . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Non-Native Species <ul><li>Introductions of non-native species usually fail because so few species can tolerate an entirely new environment . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Non-Native Species <ul><li>Remember that for a species to survive it must be within its tolerance range for all abiotic factors. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Non-Native Species <ul><li>Even if a species is adapted to the abiotic environment, it may have difficulty finding food or may be unable to compete with native species . </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Occasionally, an introduced species is successful in its new environment… </li></ul>zebra mussels
  8. 8. <ul><li>The new ecosystem may lack population controls for the new species, such as predators and diseases. Native species may not be able to compete with the introduced species. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>When a population is unchecked , it gains an advantage over native species. It can increase rapidly and become invasive . </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Invasive species are introduced species with growing populations that spread and have a negative effect on their environment. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Non-Native Species <ul><li>There are well over 3000 invasive species in Canada. In the Great Lakes, there are over 185 invasive species. </li></ul>
  12. 12. European Earwig
  13. 13. European Starling
  14. 14. Carp
  15. 15. Non-Native Species <ul><li>Invasive species have significant environmental and economic impacts. </li></ul><ul><li>These species change natural ecosystems and cost Canadians billions of dollars annually just to control their population size . </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>It is impossible to predict which introduced species will become invasive . </li></ul><ul><li>Preventing the accidental introduction of a non-native species is ideal but difficult. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Insects can arrive as adults , larvae , or eggs in imported foods and containers from around the world. </li></ul>fruit infested with citrus codling moth
  18. 19. <ul><li>Small seeds are equally difficult to detect… </li></ul>
  19. 20. Controlling Introduced Species <ul><li>Once an introduced species is established , it may be difficult to control . Elimination is unlikely, however there are three types of control measures. </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Perhaps the most widely used control method is the use of pesticides . </li></ul>
  21. 22. Chemical Control <ul><li>Pesticides are used mostly on forest and agricultural pests because trees and crops have significant economic value. </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Pesticides dramatically reduce crop damage, but there are environmental risks. They may kill non-target native species and pollute the air, water and soil. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Mechanical Control <ul><li>Some invasive species may be controlled with physical barriers or removal. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Mechanical Control <ul><li>Invasive plants can be cut down, burned , or even removed by hand. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Mechanical Control <ul><li>Invasive animals can be hunted or trapped . </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>For example, in Hamilton harbour, barriers were constructed to protect valuable wetland from carp , an invasive fish species. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Biological Control <ul><li>Biological control is a challenging but effective method of controlling invasive species. </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>Biological control uses intentionally introduced organisms to control the invasive species. </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>For example, three insect species were released in Ontario to control purple loosestrife , an invasive plant that grows in wetlands. </li></ul>