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CIRCUITS
Electric Circuits <ul><li>An electric  circuit  is a closed path along which electrons can flow from and return to an  ene...
Electric Circuits <ul><li>The two locations in a cell that must be connected to other components are the  positive termina...
Electric Circuits <ul><li>A  closed  circuit is a complete electric circuit that allows  electrons  to flow along an  unin...
Electric Circuits <ul><li>Electrons do not flow through any part of a circuit where there is a gap or  break . </li></ul><...
Electric Circuits <ul><li>For example, if a bulb is  loose  and does not make contact with the base of its socket, the cir...
Electric Circuits A break in the  filament  of an  incandescent  bulb also creates an open circuit.  (This is the most com...
Electric Circuits <ul><li>A  switch  is a control device that can complete or break a circuit it is connected to. </li></u...
Circuit Diagrams <ul><li>Engineers and designers of electrical circuits use special  symbols  that show the components and...
Circuit Diagrams <ul><li>Symbol: </li></ul><ul><li>Component:   wire </li></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>conduct...
<ul><li>Symbol: </li></ul><ul><li>Component:   cell, battery </li></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>electrical sour...
<ul><li>Symbol: </li></ul><ul><li>Component:   lamp (light bulb) </li></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>load </li><...
<ul><li>Symbol: </li></ul><ul><li>Component:   general resistor/load </li></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>general...
<ul><li>Symbol: </li></ul><ul><li>Component:   switch </li></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>opens and closes the c...
<ul><li>Symbol: </li></ul><ul><li>Component:   ammeter </li></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>measures current thro...
<ul><li>Symbol: </li></ul><ul><li>Component:   voltmeter </li></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>measures voltage ac...
<ul><li>A  series circuit  is an electric circuit that has only one path along which electrons can flow. </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>The amount of current is the  same  in all parts of a series circuit.  However, if you add more  resistors  you in...
<ul><li>For example, adding an extra  bulb  to a series of lights makes all of the bulbs  dimmer </li></ul>Series Circuits
<ul><li>In a  parallel  circuit, each component has its own path for  current . </li></ul><ul><li>The points where a circu...
<ul><li>An interruption or  break  in one pathway does not affect the other  pathways  in the circuit. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Adding a new pathway with more  resistors  does not affect the resistance of any of the other pathways. </li></ul>...
<ul><li>This might seem counterintuitive, but think about how much less  resistance  there is when you drink with two stra...
Summary Adding resistors in parallel decreases the total resistance of the circuit The current divides into different path...
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Circuits

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Circuits

  1. 1. CIRCUITS
  2. 2. Electric Circuits <ul><li>An electric circuit is a closed path along which electrons can flow from and return to an energy source </li></ul>
  3. 3. Electric Circuits <ul><li>The two locations in a cell that must be connected to other components are the positive terminal and the negative terminal . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Electric Circuits <ul><li>A closed circuit is a complete electric circuit that allows electrons to flow along an uninterrupted path </li></ul>
  5. 5. Electric Circuits <ul><li>Electrons do not flow through any part of a circuit where there is a gap or break . </li></ul><ul><li>An open circuit is one in which there is an opening that does not allow current to flow </li></ul>
  6. 6. Electric Circuits <ul><li>For example, if a bulb is loose and does not make contact with the base of its socket, the circuit is open and the bulb will not glow . </li></ul>
  7. 7. Electric Circuits A break in the filament of an incandescent bulb also creates an open circuit. (This is the most common reason why a bulb doesn’t glow)
  8. 8. Electric Circuits <ul><li>A switch is a control device that can complete or break a circuit it is connected to. </li></ul>A switch is not essential for a circuit to operate, but it is usually included for convenience.
  9. 9. Circuit Diagrams <ul><li>Engineers and designers of electrical circuits use special symbols that show the components and connections in a circuit. </li></ul><ul><li>These symbols make it easier to plan and analyze a circuit before you build it </li></ul><ul><li>A drawing made with these symbols is called a circuit diagram . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Circuit Diagrams <ul><li>Symbol: </li></ul><ul><li>Component: wire </li></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>conductor </li></ul><ul><li>allows electrons to flow </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Symbol: </li></ul><ul><li>Component: cell, battery </li></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>electrical source </li></ul><ul><li>longer side is the positive terminal, shorter side is the negative terminal </li></ul>Circuit Diagrams
  12. 12. <ul><li>Symbol: </li></ul><ul><li>Component: lamp (light bulb) </li></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>load </li></ul><ul><li>converts electricity to light and heat </li></ul>Circuit Diagrams
  13. 13. <ul><li>Symbol: </li></ul><ul><li>Component: general resistor/load </li></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>general load </li></ul><ul><li>converts electricity to heat </li></ul>Circuit Diagrams
  14. 14. <ul><li>Symbol: </li></ul><ul><li>Component: switch </li></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>opens and closes the circuit </li></ul>Circuit Diagrams open switch closed switch
  15. 15. <ul><li>Symbol: </li></ul><ul><li>Component: ammeter </li></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>measures current through a device </li></ul><ul><li>connected in series </li></ul>Circuit Diagrams
  16. 16. <ul><li>Symbol: </li></ul><ul><li>Component: voltmeter </li></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>measures voltage across a device </li></ul><ul><li>connected in parallel </li></ul>Circuit Diagrams
  17. 17. <ul><li>A series circuit is an electric circuit that has only one path along which electrons can flow. </li></ul><ul><li>If that pathway is interrupted , the whole circuit cannot function </li></ul>Series Circuits
  18. 18. <ul><li>The amount of current is the same in all parts of a series circuit. However, if you add more resistors you increase the total resistance of the circuit. </li></ul>Series Circuits
  19. 19. <ul><li>For example, adding an extra bulb to a series of lights makes all of the bulbs dimmer </li></ul>Series Circuits
  20. 20. <ul><li>In a parallel circuit, each component has its own path for current . </li></ul><ul><li>The points where a circuit divides into different paths are culled junction points . </li></ul>Parallel Circuits
  21. 21. <ul><li>An interruption or break in one pathway does not affect the other pathways in the circuit. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Adding a new pathway with more resistors does not affect the resistance of any of the other pathways. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, adding extra resistors in parallel decreases the total resistance of the circuit. </li></ul>Parallel Circuits
  23. 23. <ul><li>This might seem counterintuitive, but think about how much less resistance there is when you drink with two straws instead of one </li></ul>Parallel Circuits
  24. 24. Summary Adding resistors in parallel decreases the total resistance of the circuit The current divides into different paths Each load uses all the potential difference supplied by the battery Parallel The current decreases when more resistors are added The current is the same throughout the series circuit Each load uses a portion of the total potential difference supplid by the battery Series Resistance Current Potential Difference Circuit

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