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Quality of education and training workshop: FES

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Curriculum workshops took place in autumn 2018. Videos on aspects of Ofsted’s curriculum research were produced http://ow.ly/frvY30n1Qfm. These presentation slides accompany the videos and discuss quality of education and the curriculum in further education and skills.

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Quality of education and training workshop: FES

  1. 1. Quality of education and training workshop: further education and skills Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 1
  2. 2. Introduction  The education inspection framework (EIF) 2019  The research informing the new framework  The findings from Ofsted’s curriculum review Towards the education inspection framework 2019 ...and what does this all mean for FES? Slide 2
  3. 3. Towards the education inspection framework 2019 A new framework: the EIF Slide 3
  4. 4. Towards the education inspection framework 2019 The EIF will be one of the main ways in which we implement Ofsted’s strategy Slide 4
  5. 5. The case for change Accountability is important, but the system as currently constructed can divert education providers from the real substance of education. An industry has arisen around data: what students and apprentices learn is too often coming second to the delivery of performance measures. This data focus also leads to unnecessary workload for teachers and trainers, diverting them from the reason they chose to enter the profession. Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 5
  6. 6. The case for change It is therefore time for Ofsted to stop making separate judgements about learners’ outcomes. Any conversation about learners’ outcomes should be part of a larger conversation about the quality of education they receive. Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Let’s talk quality of education Okay Slide 6
  7. 7. Ofsted’s working definition: The curriculum is: a framework for setting out the aims of a programme of education, including the knowledge and understanding to be gained at each stage (intent); for translating that framework over time into a structure and narrative, within an institutional context (implementation) for evaluating what knowledge and skills learners have gained against expectations (impact). Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 7
  8. 8. The importance of the curriculum ‘…programmes must do more than give learners a qualification and develop personal and social skills, valuable as these are. They ought to have a clear line of sight to jobs or meaningful further study. As we have seen in other elements of our curriculum research, there is a risk of putting overall achievement rates ahead of both student and educational needs and their employment prospects.’ Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Association of colleges annual conference, November 2017 Slide 8
  9. 9. More focus on education; less focus on data Towards the education inspection framework 2019 ‘In the new framework, we’re thinking about how we can take the inspection conversation even further on education itself and less on data.’ HMCI, Education Policy Institute conference, July 2018 Slide 9
  10. 10. An evolution, not a revolution Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 10
  11. 11. Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Quality of education Personal development Leadership and management Behaviour and attitudes Judgement areas: our working hypothesis Slide 11
  12. 12. Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Judgement areas: our working hypothesis Slide 12
  13. 13. Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Quality of education Personal development Leadership and management Behaviour and attitudes Intent  Curriculum design, coverage and appropriateness Implementation  Curriculum delivery  Teaching (pedagogy)  Assessment (formative and summative) Impact  Attainment (qualifications and assessments)  Progress  Knowledge and skill development  Destinations  Enrichment  FBV  Careers guidance  Health and well-being  Citizenship  Equality and diversity  Preparation for next steps  Vision and ethos  Staff development  Staff workload and well-being  Student experience  Governance/oversight  Safeguarding  Attitudes to learning  Behaviour  Employability  Attendance and punctuality  Respect Judgement areas: our working hypothesis Slide 13
  14. 14. Keeping our focus on safeguarding Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 14
  15. 15. In summary: Criteria will be based on the evidence relating to educational effectiveness A single, overall judgement Continue to emphasise safeguarding appropriately Have common key judgements in different remits Reduce focus on data Retain the current four-point grading scale Wherever possible, reduce the workload of teachers, leaders and inspectors Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 15
  16. 16. What next? Share the developing thinking with partners across the FES sector and invite their thoughts and views Consult on the substance and detail of the new framework over Spring term 2019 Publish the final framework in Summer 2019 and implement from 1 September 2019 Research is ongoing on the curriculum and a wide range of other topics Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 16
  17. 17. What does the research tell us? Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 17
  18. 18. Research into educational effectiveness What factors have the greatest impact on learners’ attainment? Strongest sources of evidence are from research into the school sector. However, pedagogies for vocational training show parallels. Evidence points towards certain curriculum and teaching factors having greatest impact on learners. It also shows the importance of top-level leadership of teaching, learning and assessment. Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 18
  19. 19. What did the curriculum survey find? Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 19
  20. 20. What does the research tell us? Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 20
  21. 21. What curricular thinking has Ofsted’s research team been looking at? Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 21
  22. 22. Ofsted’s curriculum research Skills (cognitive AND practical) and knowledge Progress Curricular goals and sequencing Long-term memory Challenge Assessment Schema Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 22
  23. 23. Skills and knowledge: a false binary Skills Knowledge Progress Progress 23
  24. 24. Skills Knowledge Progress Progress Knowledge Skill (capacity to perform) Progress 24
  25. 25. Powerful knowledge and skills: apprenticeship standard – carpentry and joinery level 2 Core knowledge: Understand how to form specific joints required for site carpentry work, such as mitres, butt and halving joints. Core skill: Install door and window frames, door and hatch linings, floor joist coverings, straight partitions and straight staircases. Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 25
  26. 26. Powerful knowledge and skills: apprenticeship standard – personal trainer level 3 Knowledge of: human movement, such as biomechanics; anatomy and physiology, such as the cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, nervous and endocrine systems. Skills: ability to apply appropriate techniques to facilitate clients’ desired physiological goals. Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 26
  27. 27. Progress means knowing more and remembering more Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 27
  28. 28. Towards the education inspection framework 2019 What does it mean to ‘get better’ at bricklaying, mathematics, customer service or psychology? What do we mean when we talk about progress? Slide 28
  29. 29. Ofsted’s curriculum research   Curricular goals and sequencing Long-term memory Challenge Assessment Schema Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 29
  30. 30. Towards the education inspection framework 2019 To get better at marathon running you might: 1. Develop a plan. 2. Stick to the plan. 3. Start with some shorter runs and build up distance to longer runs. 4. Build in some speed work. 5. Build in some strength training. 6. Develop appropriate nutrition and hydration. 7. Monitor improvements in each of these activities. Slide 30
  31. 31. What is needed for a marathon? Composite performance. (The actual marathon) Component = knowledge of diet for race (knowledge). Component = awareness of technique/ running style (knowledge). Component = awareness of muscle strengthening (knowledge). Component = awareness of appropriate clothing/footwear (knowledge). Component = knowledge of diet over time (knowledge) . Component = awareness of muscle strengthening (knowledge). Component = awareness of nutrition needed (knowledge). Component = mental strength required/running strategies, for example, Fartlek. Component = stretching techniques (skill). Component = practice in types of running (speed/endurance). Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 31
  32. 32. Concepts that matter when debating the curriculum The curriculum must be considered for its intent, implementation and impact. The outcomes achieved through the curriculum may not resemble the individual activities or component parts. Progress and challenge must be considered in relation to curricular goals and valid evidence. The purpose of assessment must be clearly defined and the means of assessment designed to achieve this purpose. Towards the education inspection framework 2019 32
  33. 33. The importance of (curricular) sequencing Are providers thinking explicitly about what should be learned to ‘get better’ at hairdressing, catering, functional mathematics or English – or any other learning programme? Are providers thinking about what additional content should be taught to provide challenge to those learners who can aim for higher outcomes? Any data is only useful if it measures the most useful knowledge learned as the learner progresses through their subject course. Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 33
  34. 34. Ofsted’s curriculum research    Long-term memory Challenge Assessment Schema Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 34
  35. 35. ‘The purpose of instruction is to increase the store of knowledge in long-term memory. If nothing has changed in long-term memory, nothing has been learned’ Sweller, J., Ayres, P., & Kalyuga, S. (2011). Cognitive load theory. Springer Science & Business Media. Why is it important that learners remember what they learn? Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 35
  36. 36. Principle 1: Deciding what content needs to be deeply embedded in long-term memory Principle 2: Considering what learners pay attention to Principle 3: Avoiding overloading working memory Principle 4: Providing spaced repetition for ‘overlearning’ Four key principles about memory Towards the education inspection framework 2019 36
  37. 37. Why is it important that learners remember what they learn? Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 37
  38. 38. Principle 1: Deciding what content needs to be deeply embedded in long-term memory Principle 2: Considering what learners pay attention to Principle 3: Avoiding overloading working memory Principle 4: Providing spaced repetition for ‘overlearning’ Four key principles about memory Towards the education inspection framework 2019 38
  39. 39. English lesson ‘to read and order instructions’ 4. Turn on the tap 1. Find a cup 3. Pour a small amount of squash into the cup 2. Open the squash bottle 5. Fill the cup with cold water Towards the education inspection framework 2019 39
  40. 40. ‘Whatever you think about, that’s what you remember. Memory is the residue of thought.’ Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 40
  41. 41. Principle 1: Deciding what content needs to be deeply embedded in long-term memory Principle 2: Considering what pupils pay attention to Principle 3: Avoiding overloading working memory Principle 4: Providing spaced repetition for ‘overlearning’ Four key principles about memory Towards the education inspection framework 2019 41
  42. 42. Hacking into your working memory Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Chunking Slide 42
  43. 43. Why the checking of what has been learnt is important VS too easy Activities should not be pitched too low for learners’ capability but conversely, should not overload learners’ working memory. Towards the education inspection framework 2019 43
  44. 44. Principle 1: Deciding what content needs to be deeply embedded in long-term memory Principle 2: Considering what pupils pay attention to Principle 3: Avoiding overloading working memory Principle 4: Providing spaced repetition for ‘overlearning’ Four key principles about memory Towards the education inspection framework 2019 44
  45. 45. The struggle of trying to retrieve is what makes memory stronger Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 45
  46. 46. Consider which of these study patterns researchers found was most likely to result in long-term learning? 1. study, study, study, study – recall 2. study, study, study, recall – recall 3. study, study, recall, recall – recall 4. study, recall, recall, recall – recall The word ‘recall’ here means any kind of recall exercise, not just formal or national testing. What the research says… Towards the education inspection framework 2019 46
  47. 47. Accuracy is not a sufficient criterion for security of learning or ‘fluency’ ACCURACY + FREQUENCY (speed) = ‘FLUENCY’ Increased fluency in component knowledge improves: - retention - endurance (persistence) - application and performance in composite tasks. Accuracy vs frequency of learning Towards the education inspection framework 2019 47
  48. 48. ‘Learning matters’: Ofsted’s curriculum research     Challenge Assessment Schema Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 48
  49. 49. Challenge should be judged in terms of curricular goals, not the general categories of ‘activity’ or ‘activities’ used in the lesson. The appropriateness of learning activity depends on how it contributes towards achieving curricular goals. Activities are not appropriate just because of their generic nature. Progress may not be seen in each activity. Towards the education inspection framework 2019 What do we mean by challenge? Slide 49
  50. 50. ‘Learning matters’: Ofsted’s curriculum research      Assessment Schema Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 50
  51. 51. Assessment as learning Assessment for learning Assessment of learning Assessment can serve different purposes Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 51
  52. 52. Assessment: Going beyond the data Towards the education inspection framework 2019 52
  53. 53. “Learning the training” “Meeting the standards” “Achieving the assessment criteria”“What the data shows” Sometimes the purpose of assessment is lost in discussions of progress Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 53
  54. 54. What is an assessment? 1. Tools used by people to generate information *Inferences are a combination of both assessment information and teacher/trainer judgement 2. A process for making inferences* Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 54
  55. 55. ‘Learning matters’: Ofsted’s curriculum research       Schema Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 55
  56. 56. Knowledge does not sit as isolated ‘information’ in learners’/apprentices’ minds. 56
  57. 57. Knowledge does not sit as isolated ‘information’ in learners’/apprentices’ minds. 57
  58. 58. What happens when learners don’t learn the knowledge they need? Knowledge deficits accumulate when layered on top of one another in a curriculum sequence. This accumulation of dysfluency (gaps) limits and may even prevent acquisition of complex skills that depend on them. This problem is called ‘cumulative dysfluency’. Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Fisher, W. W., Piazza, C. C., & Roane, H. S. (Eds). (2011). Handbook of applied behavior analysis. Guilford Press. 58
  59. 59. Key points Progress means knowing more and remembering more. Knowledge is generative (or ‘sticky’), i.e. the more you know the easier it is to learn. Knowledge is connected in webs. Knowledge is when humans make connections between the new and what has already been learned. Towards the education inspection framework 2019 59
  60. 60. Intent For example: Is the curriculum sufficiently broad and ambitious for all learners? Is it relevant to local/regional priorities? Is it planned and sequenced to give learners the skills and knowledge they need to progress? Do learners receive their full curriculum entitlement? Design Coverage Appropriateness Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 60
  61. 61. Plenary Progress is knowing more and remembering more. A curriculum builds comprehension of new material on prior knowledge: sequencing matters. The curriculum and knowledge is at the heart of education and training – and needs to be led. Progress and challenge must be considered in relation to curricular goals and valid evidence. Data is a starting point. Data used by leaders to monitor progress needs to be collected from valid and reliable assessments. Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 61
  62. 62. Ofsted on the web and on social media www.gov.uk/ofsted https://reports.ofsted.gov.uk www.linkedin.com/company/ofsted www.youtube.com/ofstednews www.slideshare.net/ofstednews www.twitter.com/ofstednews Towards the education inspection framework 2019 Slide 62

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