Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Curriculum Workshop

31,516 views

Published on

Curriculum workshops took place in autumn 2018. Videos on aspects of Ofsted’s curriculum research were produced http://ow.ly/frvY30n1Qfm. These presentation slides accompany the videos and discuss the importance of the curriculum in schools and early years.

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
  • Secrets To Working Online, Hundreds of online opportunites you can profit with today! ➤➤ http://scamcb.com/ezpayjobs/pdf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • I recovered from bulimia. You can too! learn more... ●●● http://ishbv.com/bulimiarec/pdf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • The Bulimia Recovery Program, We Recovered, You CAN TOO! ●●● http://tinyurl.com/yxcx7mgo
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Want to preview some of our plans? You can get 50 Woodworking Plans and a 440-Page "The Art of Woodworking" Book... Absolutely FREE ■■■ http://ishbv.com/tedsplans/pdf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Curriculum Workshop

  1. 1. Curriculum Workshop Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 1
  2. 2. Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 2 What is curriculum and why is the quality of curriculum important?
  3. 3. Session 1: Outline How has Ofsted been researching curriculum and preparing for the new framework? What is curriculum? What is progress? What is the role of systematic and cumulative knowledge acquisition in pupils’ progress? Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 3
  4. 4. The importance of knowledge acquisition for progress has been highlighted by HMCI ‘Twelve years of education should give children a lot more than a disposition to learn and some ill-defined skills. Yet the evidence from the first stage of our research this year is that the focus on substance, on the knowledge that we want young people to acquire, is often lost… …If their entire school experience has been designed to push them through mark-scheme hoops, rather than developing a deep body of knowledge, they will struggle in later study.’ Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 4
  5. 5. The curriculum: current inspection and towards a 2019 inspection framework The quality of curriculum is part of the leadership and management judgement in our current framework. We are clear that in the proposed framework we need to take a rounded view of the quality of education offered by schools and providers. The curriculum will be at the core of the proposed framework, recognising the close connection between curricular content and the way that this content is taught and assessed in order to support children to build their knowledge and to apply that knowledge. Slide 5Curriculum workshops autumn 18
  6. 6. Curriculum research: our findings so far Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 6
  7. 7. Why the new focus on curriculum? Lack of curriculum knowledge and expertise Curriculum being confused with assessment and qualifications Teaching to the test Curriculum narrowing Social justice issues Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 7
  8. 8. The next phase of curriculum research is informing the developing framework We recently published the second phase of the curriculum research. In this phase we tried to learn lessons from schools that are particularly invested in curriculum design, with a view to developing indicators around curriculum intent, implementation and impact. We aim to use this evidence to turn the common curriculum factors leaders told us about into testable quality indicators, which will inform the draft evaluation criteria for the framework. We are now testing these indicators in schools to refine them. Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 8
  9. 9. Across the schools we visited we found several factors that may be linked to curriculum quality Focus on subject disciplines even when topics are taught Considering depth and breadth of curriculum content Seeing the curriculum as the progression model Having a clear purpose for assessment Reviewing and evaluating curriculum design Clear curriculum leadership (often distributed) and ownership Considering local context and filling gaps from pupil backgrounds Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 9
  10. 10. Activity 1: discussion What is meant by ‘curriculum’: for a school? for a subject? for a lesson? Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 10
  11. 11. At every level the curriculum is the WHAT of education Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 11
  12. 12. Distinguishing curriculum from teaching and assessment Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 12
  13. 13. “…learning the training?” “…meeting the standards?” “…achieving the next level?” “…what the data shows?” Is progress… Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 13
  14. 14. Activity 2 a) Make a long list of gardening knowledge someone would need to create the garden in the ‘after’ picture on this slide. b) Why would using the assessment levels in your handout be unhelpful as a curriculum? Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 14
  15. 15. Question… Feedback: How does this advice demonstrate the way confusing curriculum and assessment can lead to problems?  Descriptions of outcomes do not identify the specifics a pupil needs to know to improve.  The writer mistakenly assumes that a description of outcomes provides a plan (or curriculum) of what needs to be known to achieve the outcome. Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 15
  16. 16. Activity 3: Distinguishing curriculum from teaching and assessment Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 16 Assessment: An evaluation of Dickens’ description of London Curriculum Teaching activities
  17. 17. A successful evaluation of Dickens’ description of London could draw on… Knowledge of how to write evaluation questions and any specific exam requirements Knowledge of a similar description and its typical features, e.g. familiarity with archaic language Knowledge of the historical context Strong grasp of syntax, SPAG etc. Class reading of the text Pair discussion of descriptive techniques Exercises to practise correct usage of SPAG Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 17
  18. 18. Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 18 The curriculum goes beyond what is assessed
  19. 19. Ofsted’s working definition of curriculum ‘A framework for setting out the aims of a programme of education, including the knowledge and understanding to be gained at each stage (intent)… …for translating that framework over time into a structure and narrative, within an institutional context (implementation)… …and for evaluating what knowledge and understanding pupils have gained against expectations (impact).’ Slide 19Curriculum workshops autumn 18
  20. 20. The curriculum isn’t…  …just the subject or qualification offer  …the same as teaching activities: the curriculum is WHAT is taught and not how it is taught  …about devising extra or more elaborate or creative activities  …vague – it is a specific plan of what children need to know in total, and in each subject. Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 20
  21. 21. Examples of the sorts of questions inspectors might ask about curriculum quality Intent: How far do leaders consider what children need to learn and the order to teach it? Implementation: Is the curriculum for each subject designed, over time, to maximise the likelihood that children will remember and connect the steps they have been taught? Impact How well are children learning the content outlined in the curriculum? Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 21
  22. 22. Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 22 The curriculum and progress A brief explanation from cognitive psychology
  23. 23. Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 23 What is progress? What does it mean to ‘get better’ at languages, mathematics, history or English?
  24. 24. Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 24 This session will explore the following view of progress suggested by the evidence from research in cognitive psychology: Progress means knowing more and remembering more. ‘Learning is defined as an alteration in long-term memory. If nothing has altered in long-term memory nothing has been learned.’ Sweller, J., Ayres, P., & Kalyuga, S. (2011). Cognitive load theory (Vol. 1). Springer Science & Business Media.
  25. 25. Activity 4  Individually, review the passage on page 4 of the handout from a book called ‘Mountains of the Mind’ by Robert Macfarlane.  How might knowledge acquired through schooling help an adult reader to comprehend this passage? Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 25
  26. 26. Activity 4: You may have considered: Curriculum workshops autumn 18 A geographical knowledge of polar regions. A cultural knowledge of aristocratic stereotypes. Historical knowledge of the world before the technological developments of today. Biological knowledge about the human body and its reaction to extreme cold. Literary knowledge of how landscape is admired by romantics. A very rich knowledge of vocabulary. Knowledge of similar literary forms. Slide 26
  27. 27. Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 27 The importance of knowledge: vocabulary
  28. 28. Vocabulary relates to social class… Findings of the Hart and Risley landmark study:  Over four years, researchers recorded that an average child in a professional family accumulated experience of almost 45 million words; in a working-class family, 26 million words; and in a family receiving welfare, 13 million words. Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1995). ‘Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young American children’. Paul H Brookes Publishing. Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 28
  29. 29. Vocabulary size relates to academic success The reason is clear: vocabulary size is a convenient proxy for a whole range of educational attainment abilities — not just skills in reading, writing, listening, and speaking but also general knowledge of science, history and the arts. If we want to reduce economic inequality, a good place to start is the subject classroom. Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 29
  30. 30. 30 Such correlations between vocabulary size and life chances are as firm as any correlations in educational research. Simply put: knowing more words makes you smarter!
  31. 31. Schooling is crucial for increasing the breadth of children’s vocabulary  Around 90% of vocabulary is only really encountered when reading and is not used in speech.  Much fiction does not give access to the more academic vocabulary and syntax used for high-level GCSE, A level and beyond.  Academic texts provide exposure to complex vocabulary and ideas that must be grasped in order to achieve academic success. Stanovich, K. E. (1993). ‘Does reading make you smarter? Literacy and the development of verbal intelligence.’ Advances in child development and behavior, vol. 24, pp. 133 –180. Slide 31Curriculum workshops autumn 18
  32. 32. 32 What would it take for education to counter the 30 million word experience gap, identified by Hart and Risley, that predicts the educational trajectory of children when they are four years old?
  33. 33. Summary What have we learned so far about the features of a high- quality curriculum? A high-quality curriculum is based on proactive thinking. A high-quality curriculum will result from considering the sequence of content necessary for children to make progress. A high-quality curriculum will provide children with the knowledge they need for subsequent learning, e.g. knowledge of vocabulary. Slide 33Curriculum workshops autumn 18
  34. 34. Who recognises this booklet? It contained passages with challenging subject themes, syntax and vocabulary. Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 34
  35. 35. Activity 5 What might a Year 6 pupil struggle to comprehend in the passage you have been assigned? What knowledge that can be acquired through schooling would help them to comprehend this passage? Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 35
  36. 36. The Way of the Dodo: First sighted Extinct predators - All from science Paradise – from RE The Lost Queen: Ancestors Struggle for the throne Rival families Family symbols Monument - All from history study So what did you come up with on your tables? Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 36
  37. 37. What can we learn from this exercise? What we know allows us to read. In other words, it is our prior knowledge that enables us to comprehend new material. Knowledge is highly ‘transferable’ between contexts. Knowledge learned across the curriculum facilitates comprehension. This is why simple vocabulary tests are highly predictive of future academic performance. Slide 37 Curriculum workshops autumn 18
  38. 38. A school decides to add the Romans to the curriculum… 38
  39. 39. Slide 39 peninsula rebellion province economy slave worship public hygiene sacrifice Latin citizen wealthy city climate law wealthy landowner trade BC and AD republic good road social class peace and prosperity myths gods legion conquer assassination taxes senate baths crossing the Alps calendar empire elect A well-designed curriculum might deliberately stress the concepts below: Curriculum workshops autumn 18
  40. 40. These words are taken from the ‘Dodo’ passage in the key stage 2 reading test: Slide 40 extinct team of scientists predator reptile process unusual species recording prey species anatomy scientist animal freshwater natural world ‘impact on natural world’ ‘birds’ ability to survive’ unique wildlife feature ‘a variety of unusual species’ ‘unique wildlife wiped out’ flightless relative wildlife ‘helping scientists find out more’ ‘newly discovered animals’ Curriculum workshops autumn 18
  41. 41. Slide 41 Components: The building blocks that together, when known, allow successful performance of a complex task Composite: a task that requires several building blocks or components
  42. 42. Why is a focus on curriculum necessary? 1. Because knowledge allows comprehension, i.e. understanding 2. Because knowledge is generative (and thus sticky) 3. Because skills are dependent on relevant knowledge 4. Because knowledge empowers Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 42
  43. 43. Knowledge deficits accumulate when layered on top of one another in a curriculum sequence. This accumulation of dysfluency (gaps) limits and may even prevent acquisition of complex skills that depend on them. This problem is called ‘cumulative dysfluency’. What happens when pupils don’t learn the knowledge they need? Fisher, W. W., Piazza, C. C., & Roane, H. S. (Eds). (2011). Handbook of applied behavior analysis. Guilford Press. 43
  44. 44. How can we check progress over time? We can see if useful, well-chosen knowledge is building over time and enabling progress through a carefully sequenced curriculum. This means building knowledge of:  vocabulary  events, people and places  concepts  procedures. …which have been carefully selected because they are the most ‘powerful’ (useful or transferable) knowledge. Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 44
  45. 45. 45 Whose knowledge? In some subjects, like history, the selection of content can be controversial, with heated debate over content choices. School leaders should be choosing the curriculum content with thought and care.
  46. 46. Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 46 The importance of pupils’ knowledge of schemata (expanding and interconnected webs of concepts)
  47. 47. 47 Knowledge does not sit as isolated ‘information’ in pupils’ minds.
  48. 48. Experts in every field depend on rich and detailed structures of knowledge stored in their long term memory. Understanding deepens as structures of knowledge stored in long-term memory become increasingly complex Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 48
  49. 49. Why is a focus on curriculum necessary? 1. Because knowledge allows comprehension, i.e. understanding 2. Because knowledge is generative (and thus sticky) 3. Because skills are dependent on relevant knowledge 4. Because knowledge empowers Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 49
  50. 50. Connection of old knowledge to new knowledge Knowledge is generative (sticky)... Hooks/old learning Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 50
  51. 51. Knowledge stored in long-term memory frees up space to think... ‘Because experts already know a great deal one might suppose they would learn very little when they look something up, whereas the novice, with so much to learn, would learn more... But in fact it’s the expert who learns more that is new, and learns it much faster… because the human mind is able to assimilate only three or four new items before further elements evaporate from working memory... Experts... need pay attention to only one or two novel features that can be easily integrated into their prior knowledge.’ Hirsch, Why Knowledge Matters (2016) Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 51
  52. 52. Why is a focus on curriculum necessary? 1. Because knowledge allows comprehension, i.e. understanding 2. Because knowledge is generative (sticky) 3. Because skills are dependent on specific knowledge 4. Because knowledge empowers Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 52
  53. 53. Skill: the capacity to perform Examples of desirable cognitive skills: analysis evaluation problem-solving creativity independence. Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 53
  54. 54. Skills and knowledge: a false binary 54 Skills Knowledge Progress Progress ProgressSkill (capacity to perform) Knowledge
  55. 55. A treasure hunter was going to explore a cave up on a hill near a beach. He suspected there might be many paths inside the cave, so he was afraid he might get lost. Obviously, he did not have a map of the cave; all he had with him were some common items such as a torch and a bag. What could he do to make sure he did not get lost trying to get back out of the cave later? Willingham, D. T. (2007). Critical thinking. American Educator, 31(3), 8–19. Activity 6 Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 55
  56. 56. 56 Activity 7
  57. 57. Things you may have considered… Perhaps your evaluation skills would actually pick you up some GCSE marks if you reasoned that:  I know light gates or motion sensors connected to data loggers would remove the error created by human reaction time would give a significantly more accurate value. And some might really be able to show off:  I know human reaction time is the most significant weakness. The percentage of uncertainty in measuring the distance is insignificant (0.4%), whereas the percentage of error in measuring the time is approximately 20%. Things you may have considered… Slide 57Curriculum workshops autumn 18
  58. 58. 58 Which is more important… the cake or the ingredients?
  59. 59. Experts in every field depend on rich and detailed structures of knowledge stored in their long term memory. Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 59 Experts in every field depend on rich and detailed structures of knowledge stored in their long-term memory.
  60. 60. Skills are dependent on specific knowledge Since the 1940s we have known from researchers that human skills tend to be domain-specific and do not transfer readily from one domain to another. If people are very skilled in one area this won’t make them skilled in another area or domain. Willingham, D. T. (2007). ‘Critical thinking’. American Educator, 31(3), 8–19. Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 60
  61. 61. Why is a focus on curriculum necessary? 1. Because knowledge allows comprehension, i.e. understanding 2. Because knowledge is generative (sticky) 3. Because skills are dependent on specific knowledge 4. Because knowledge empowers Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 61
  62. 62. Social justice requires that we provide an education which gives the less privileged access to the knowledge they need to succeed. 62
  63. 63. is based on proactive thinking will be the product of clear consideration of the sequence of content necessary for children to make progress will provide children with the knowledge they need for subsequent learning – transferable knowledge builds deeper understanding and the capacity for skilful performance. Slide 63 In summary, a high-quality curriculum: Curriculum workshops autumn 18
  64. 64. Any questions? Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 64
  65. 65. Ofsted on the web and on social media www.gov.uk/ofsted https://reports.ofsted.gov.uk www.linkedin.com/company/ofsted www.youtube.com/ofstednews www.slideshare.net/ofstednews www.twitter.com/ofstednews Curriculum workshops autumn 18 Slide 65

×