Species Diversification inSpecies Diversification in
Brackish Water SectorBrackish Water Sector
Directorate of Fisheries, OrissaDirectorate of Fisheries, Orissa
• To develop a sustainable brackish waterTo develop a sustainable brackish water
culture practiceculture practice
• Utilize the abandoned water area andUtilize the abandoned water area and
shrimp ponds for better economicshrimp ponds for better economic
INLAND SECTORINLAND SECTOR
Tanks & PondsTanks & Ponds 1.211.21 Lakh ha.Lakh ha.
ReservoirsReservoirs 2.02.0 Lakh ha.Lakh ha.
Lakes/ SwampsLakes/ Swamps 1.801.80 Lakh ha.Lakh ha.
Rivers & CanalsRivers & Canals 1.711.71 Lakh ha.Lakh ha.
TOTALTOTAL 6.726.72 Lakh ha.Lakh ha.
BRACKISHWATER (BW) SECTORBRACKISHWATER (BW) SECTOR
Area suitable for coastal aquacultureArea suitable for coastal aquaculture 0.330.33 Lakh ha.Lakh ha.
Back WatersBack Waters 0.08 Lakh ha.0.08 Lakh ha.
LakesLakes 0.79 Lakh ha.0.79 Lakh ha.
EstuariesEstuaries 2.98 Lakh ha.2.98 Lakh ha.
TOTALTOTAL 4.184.18 Lakh ha.Lakh ha.
MARINE SECTORMARINE SECTOR
Total coast line of the StateTotal coast line of the State 480 Kms.480 Kms.
Continental Shelf areaContinental Shelf area
in different depth zonein different depth zone 24,000 Sq. Km.24,000 Sq. Km.
Maximum Sustainable YieldMaximum Sustainable Yield 1.61 Lakh MT1.61 Lakh MT
Fishing Fleet size:Fishing Fleet size:
Mechanised craftMechanised craft 1872 Nos.1872 Nos.
Motorised country craftMotorised country craft 4579 Nos.4579 Nos.
Country craftCountry craft 2842 Nos.2842 Nos.
TOTALTOTAL 9293 Nos.9293 Nos.
Coastal Aquaculture PotentialCoastal Aquaculture Potential
SlSl ResourcesResources Water AreaWater Area
(Lakh ha)(Lakh ha)
Total ProductionTotal Production
potentiality (inpotentiality (in
lakh MT)lakh MT)
producytion levelproducytion level
(in lakh MT)(in lakh MT)
11 Area suitable forArea suitable for
coastal aquaculturecoastal aquaculture
0.330.33 0.330.33 0.110.11
22 LakesLakes 0.790.79 0.080.08 0.120.12
33 Estuaries/ Back WatersEstuaries/ Back Waters 3.063.06 0.260.26 0.020.02
TOTALTOTAL 4.184.18 0.670.67 0.250.25
•Aquaculture in India though have been inAquaculture in India though have been in
practice for ages scientific culture has beenpractice for ages scientific culture has been
meticulously practiced in early 1990’smeticulously practiced in early 1990’s
•Brackish water aquaculture synonym to tigerBrackish water aquaculture synonym to tiger
shrimp culture has increased to 100 thousandsshrimp culture has increased to 100 thousands
•The spread of disease i.e. WSSV hasThe spread of disease i.e. WSSV has
compelled the aquaculturist to think of speciescompelled the aquaculturist to think of species
diversification in brackish water systemdiversification in brackish water system
•Some of the species for diversification areSome of the species for diversification are
SPF L. vannamei, Sea bass, Mud crab,SPF L. vannamei, Sea bass, Mud crab,
Mullets, pearlspot, milk fish, mussels etc.Mullets, pearlspot, milk fish, mussels etc.
Culture ofCulture of Litopeneaus vannameiLitopeneaus vannamei
• Litopeneaus vannameiLitopeneaus vannamei is a species originis a species origin
from western region introduced in Asia infrom western region introduced in Asia in
late 90’s and in India in 2009late 90’s and in India in 2009
• SPFSPF L. vannameiL. vannamei culture is moreculture is more
advantageous , profitable and gives fasteradvantageous , profitable and gives faster
return on investment thanreturn on investment than P. monodonP. monodon
• Domesticated broodstock and guaranteedDomesticated broodstock and guaranteed
seed quality at any timeseed quality at any time
• More number of crops per yearMore number of crops per year
• Increased yield per crop with lowerIncreased yield per crop with lower
production cost and higher profitabilityproduction cost and higher profitability
• No slow growth or size variationNo slow growth or size variation
• Brackish water ponds utilize for tigerBrackish water ponds utilize for tiger
shrimp can be used for this cultureshrimp can be used for this culture
• Technology is available for cultureTechnology is available for culture
• Standard pelleted feed is alsoStandard pelleted feed is also
Mud Crab (Scylla sps) culutreMud Crab (Scylla sps) culutre
• The mud crabs S. serrata and S.tranqubericaThe mud crabs S. serrata and S.tranquberica
contributes a considerable component of coastalcontributes a considerable component of coastal
• Important source of income for small scale fishersImportant source of income for small scale fishers
• High price and demand in market for live crabsHigh price and demand in market for live crabs
resulted in targeted fisheryresulted in targeted fishery
• High growth rate(500 gm in 5-6 months by stockingHigh growth rate(500 gm in 5-6 months by stocking
crab lets of 50 to 100 gm size reared from crabcrab lets of 50 to 100 gm size reared from crab
• Culture technology is available with CIBA andCulture technology is available with CIBA and
• Certified seed (crab lets) is available with RGCA/CIBACertified seed (crab lets) is available with RGCA/CIBA
• Production level is 1344kg per ha with 0.5 nos perProduction level is 1344kg per ha with 0.5 nos per
square mtr.with survival 50% along with a culture periodsquare mtr.with survival 50% along with a culture period
of 174 day in demonstration pond at Sunapur village,of 174 day in demonstration pond at Sunapur village,
Ganjam by MPEDAGanjam by MPEDA
• Harvestable size was 462gmHarvestable size was 462gm
• Pelleted feed is standardizedPelleted feed is standardized
• Bank finance can be obtained and 40% subsidy fromBank finance can be obtained and 40% subsidy from
NFDB is admissibleNFDB is admissible
• Small backyard ponds can be converted to crab pondsSmall backyard ponds can be converted to crab ponds
• Abandoned shrimp ponds can be utilizedAbandoned shrimp ponds can be utilized
• Cage and pen culture can be taken upCage and pen culture can be taken up
• Crab fattening can be taken up at places where moultedCrab fattening can be taken up at places where moulted
crabs are availablecrabs are available
Sea bass ( Lates calcarifer)Sea bass ( Lates calcarifer)
• Lates calcarifer is commonly known as sea bass/ BhektiLates calcarifer is commonly known as sea bass/ Bhekti
• It is bisexual and highly carnivorousIt is bisexual and highly carnivorous
• It can commercially cultivated in brackish water ponds/It can commercially cultivated in brackish water ponds/
abandoned shrimp ponds as well as freshwater ponds inabandoned shrimp ponds as well as freshwater ponds in
the coastal areasthe coastal areas
• It has high growth rate during second year(in cultureIt has high growth rate during second year(in culture
pond it grows from 1kg to 6-7kg) and highly preferred aspond it grows from 1kg to 6-7kg) and highly preferred as
table fishtable fish
• Culture and hatchery technology is already standardizedCulture and hatchery technology is already standardized
• Sea bass Culture carried out in twoSea bass Culture carried out in two
phases i.e. Nursery and grow out phasephases i.e. Nursery and grow out phase
• Tilapia can be utilize as forage fish forTilapia can be utilize as forage fish for
natural feednatural feed
• Pelleted feed is also availablePelleted feed is also available
• Bank finance can be obtained and 40%Bank finance can be obtained and 40%
subsidy from NFDB is admissiblesubsidy from NFDB is admissible
Pearl Spot(Etroplus suratensis)Pearl Spot(Etroplus suratensis)
• It is commonly known as KHURANTAIt is commonly known as KHURANTA
• It is highly priced and highly preferred foodIt is highly priced and highly preferred food
• It is a candidate species compatible forIt is a candidate species compatible for
culture with shrimpsculture with shrimps
• Seed is available locally from ChilkaSeed is available locally from Chilka
Green Mussel(Perna viridis)Green Mussel(Perna viridis)
• Mussels are group of aquatic molluscsMussels are group of aquatic molluscs
widely distributed in rocky shores of Indiawidely distributed in rocky shores of India
• Mussels are filter feeder , low in the foodMussels are filter feeder , low in the food
chain , can be grown in coastal areas withchain , can be grown in coastal areas with
high salinity .high salinity .
• It can be cultured in back water andIt can be cultured in back water and
estuaries .estuaries .
• Spat can be collected from coastal waterSpat can be collected from coastal water
• It can be cultured in three ways .It can be cultured in three ways .
1.Rack culture1.Rack culture
2.Raft culture2.Raft culture
3.On bottom culture3.On bottom culture
• Rack culture is more popular in our country andRack culture is more popular in our country and
can attend 50 gm. Size in 3- 4 months .can attend 50 gm. Size in 3- 4 months .
• Mussel meat is highly proteinaceous and of lowMussel meat is highly proteinaceous and of low
cost and is due key to eradicate Malnutritioncost and is due key to eradicate Malnutrition
among the poor.among the poor.
• In orissa potential for culture is available atIn orissa potential for culture is available at
Bahuda estuary , Ganjam.Bahuda estuary , Ganjam.
Milk fish ( Chanos chanos )Milk fish ( Chanos chanos )
• Milk fish culture is practiced for over hundredMilk fish culture is practiced for over hundred
years in Asian countriesyears in Asian countries
• It provides additional livelihood and foodIt provides additional livelihood and food
production opportunities for coastal fishersproduction opportunities for coastal fishers
• Seed is available in wild and hardySeed is available in wild and hardy
• Spawners are of high fecundSpawners are of high fecund
• Growth rate is higher than other herbivorousGrowth rate is higher than other herbivorous
• It is highly resistant to diseasesIt is highly resistant to diseases
• It can be cultured in shallow Brackishwater pondIt can be cultured in shallow Brackishwater pond
• Milk fish being not cannibalistic can be culturedMilk fish being not cannibalistic can be cultured
with high stocking density in ponds with organicwith high stocking density in ponds with organic