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65659667 the-book-that-got-uganda-s-writer-arrested

  2. 2. Isaiah 40:31; But those who trust in the lord will find new strength. They will soar high on wings like Eagles. They will run andThe Great Majestic Bald not grow weary.Eagle-The National Bird They will walk andof the United States of not faint.America. It is a symbolof Power, strength, andthievery-as it does stealsometimes.Job 39:27-30; is it at your commandthat the Eagle rises to the heights tomake its nest? It lives on the cliffs,making its home on a distant, rockycrag. From there it hunts its prey,keeping watch with piercing eyes.Its young gulp down blood. Wherethere’s a carcass, there you will findit. 2
  3. 3. CONTENTSEAGLE ONE....................................................4EAGLETWO....................................................5 From Third world to first world...........................7 The King Who Ruled Nothing.............................10 People Power....................................................12 2010-11 Tunisian Revolution............................13 The Main Problems Of Uganda..........................18 One Safe Option For Uganda..............................21 A Possible Coup D’etat......................................30 Contaminants of Nonviolent Campaigns.............34EAGLE THREE...............................................41 Key Steps On The Path To A Nonviolent Revolution....42 Methods/Weapons Of Nonviolent Action...................42 The Methods Of Political Noncooperation..................47INTRODUCING THE NONVIOLENT REVOLUTION.....54 Mission.................................................................55 Key steps on the path to the success of NOREV-Uganda.....................................................56 Immediate demands...............................................57 Cause and Vision...................................................59 Guidelines of the struggle.......................................63 Reasons for the use of nonviolent strategy................65 3
  4. 4. EAGLE ONEO nce upon a time, there was a large mountainside, where an eagle’s nest rested. The eagle’s nest contained four eggs. One day an earthquake rocked the mountain caus-ing one of the eggs to roll down the mountain, to a chicken farm,located in the valley below. The chickens knew that they mustprotect and care for the eagle’s egg, so an old hen volunteeredto nature and raise the large egg. One day, the egg hatched anda beautiful eagle was born. Sadly, however, the eagle was raisedto be a chicken. Soon, the eagle believed he was nothing morethan a chicken.The eagle loved his home and family, but his spirit cried outfor more. While playing a game, on the farm one day, the eaglelooked to the skies above and noticed a group of mighty Eaglessoaring in the skies. “Oh”, the eagle cried, “I wish I could soarlike those birds.” The chicken roared in laughter, “You cannot soarwith those birds! You are a chicken and chickens do not soar.”The Eagle continued staring, at his real family up above, dream-ing that he could be with them. Each time, the Eagle would lethis dreams be known, he was told it couldn’t be done and that iswhat the Eagle learned to believe. The eagle, after time, stoppeddreaming and continued to live his life like chicken. Finally, aftera long life as a chicken, the Eagle passed away. 4
  5. 5. EAGLE TWOA Man was visiting a farmer one day and was surprised to see a beautiful Eagle in the farmer’s chicken farm. “Why in the world, asked the Man, have you got this Eagle livingin with the chicken?” “Well, answered the farmer, I found himwhen he’s little and raised him there with the chickens. He doesn’tknow any better, he thinks he is a chicken.” The man was aston-ished. The Eagle was pecking the grain and drinking from thewatering can. The Eagle kept his eyes on the ground and struttedaround in circles, looking every inch a big, over-sized chicken.“Doesn’t he try to spread his wings and fly out there?” asked theman. “No, said the farmer, and I doubt he ever will, he doesn’tknow what it means to fly.”“Well,” said the man, “let me take him out and do a few experi-ments with him.” The farmer agrees, but assured the man thathe was wasting his time. The man lifted the bird to the Top ofthe chicken farm fence and said “Fly!” He pushed the reluctantbird off the fence and fell to the ground in a pile of dusty fea-tures. Next, the undaunted man took the ruffled chicken/Eagleto the farmer’s hay loft and spread its wings before tossing ithigh in the air with the command “FLY!” 5
  6. 6. The frightened bird shrieked and fell ungraciously to the barn-yard where it resumed pecking the ground in search of its dinner.The man again picked the eagle and decided to give it one morechance in a more appropriate environment, away from the badexample of chicken life style. He set the docile bird on the frontof his pick-up truck next to him and headed for the highest pointin the country. After a lengthy and sweaty climb to the crest ofthe mountain with the bird tucked under his arm, he spoke gen-tly to the golden bird. “Friend, he said, you were born to soar. Itis better that you die here today on the rocks below than live therest of your life being a chicken.” Having said these final words,he lifted the Eagle up and once more commanded it to “FLY!” Hetossed it out in space and this time, much to his relief, it openedits seven-foot wingspan and flew gracefully into the sky. It slow-ly climbed in ever high spirals, riding unseen thermals of hot airuntil it disappeared into the glare of the morning sun. The mansmiled and thought how happy he was with his days work.Individuals, organizations, and even Nations have a dream torealize. But sometimes they let their dreams die because theyhave been told that it is impossible to achieve such a dream, orthe way they decide to behave makes it impossible for them toachieve their dream, and sometimes they’re let down by theirleaders who once in power serve themselves and rule over thepeople by brutal means. While other Nations like Singapore,groups/organizations, and individuals achieve their dreams andeven supersede them. 6
  7. 7. FROM THIRD WORLD TO FIRST ( LEE KUAN YEW)S ingapore is an Island that was once colonized by the British. After gaining internal self-government, Singapore became part of Malaysia on 16th September 1963. The mergerwas short-lived and Singapore separated from Malaysia on 07thAugust 1965.Under the leadership of Lee Kuan Yew, Singapore underwentgreat transformation to come from ‘Third World to First’ in lessthan three decades. Lee Kuan Yew led Singapore from 1959 to1990 when he chose to step down so as to enable a stable lead-ership renewal. As the co-founder and first Secretary General ofthe People’s Action Party (PAP), he led the party to eight free andfair democratic election victories from 1959 to 1990.Other than its location, Lee Kuan Yew knew that since Singa-pore had no mineral resource to dig from the ground, the onlyresource that could be the basis for its economic developmentand prosperity was its labor force. So Singapore hoped to com-pete favorably in the global market by producing cheap laborwith technical skills that are unavailable elsewhere in the thirdworld.With a combination of a mixed economy, availability of skilledlabor, an incorruptible bureaucracy, and political stability andsecurity Singapore was able to attract foreign industries. Theother key to Singapore’s development was the upgrading of in-frastructure, streets, roads, and a World class Airport, and a 7
  8. 8. non-partisan well equipped professional armed force.Most importantly, Lee Kuan Yew understood that the greatestasset he had was the trust and confidence of the people of Singa-pore which he was careful not to squander by corruption and mis-government. This kept Singapore’s multilingual, multicultural,and multi-religious society united. Although divided into severalraces, Lee Kuan Yew believed that a fair and even-handed policywould get the people live together and peacefully especially ifsuch hardships as unemployment were shared equally. Severeunemployment and a housing crisis were solved by embarkingon a modernization programme that focused on establishing amanufacturing industry, developing large public housing estatesand investing heavily on public education. And because of theseand many more, Singapore’s economy has grown by an averageof 9% each year since its independence in 1965. By the 1990s,the country had become one of the world’s most prosperousnations, with a highly developed free market economy, strongInternational trading links, and the highest per capita gross do-mestic product in Asia outside Japan.All what Singapore did to prosper has been copied by Africanleaders and it is on paper but what has failed is implementation.Implementation has failed largely due to the corrupt nature ofmost African leaders. Presidents in Africa tell the public that it’sthe public servants and accounting secretaries and their minis-ters who are corrupt but they do nothing to punish them. Forforeign aid reception purposes all institutions to check theft ofpublic funds are legally put in place by African governments butin actual sense do nothing apart from prosecuting the small andweak and also persecuting those who have fallen-out with theregime. Selective prosecution is nothing but persecution.Lee Kuan yew explained why he was able to lead Singapore forlong and also be able to help it prosper. His answer was that he 8
  9. 9. never deceived the people of Singapore and that he never tolerat-ed theft of public funds. Among other things he vaccinated cor-ruption by strengthening public institutions, and also by puttingin place and enforcing the law to limit the amount of money usedin political campaigns. He said that once politicians use a lot ofmoney to come into office they have to find ways of getting backthat money and the only way to do so is through corrupt means.When asked how a nation can put corruption under control, hisanswer was that;“corruption can be controlled to zero level only if the executive hasthe will to do so and also by use of the Nation’s intelligence agen-cies.” In Africa, the leaders are not willing to fight corruption.They instead use the intelligence system of the Nation to oppresspolitical opponents and suffocate political freedoms so as con-solidate themselves in power. But when inequalities become soevident by the widened gap between the poor and rich, the peo-ple have no option but regain their power by overthrowing theparasitic dictatorship. That is the way things happened recentlyin Tunisia and Egypt leaving Ben Ali and Mubarak ruling noth-ing. Libya’s ‘king of kings’ has fallen and maybe others south ofthe Sahara are on their out if they don’t save the situation whenstill early. Dictators are so weak and not strong as they usuallymake us believe. 9
  10. 10. THE KING WHO RULED NOTHINGT he king who ruled nothing is a whimsical parable about a cruel King who ended up a lonely pauper when his sub- jects stopped obeying his commands. It was published inthe October 2005 Issue of Global Bits, a news letter from NewZealand.Once upon a time there lived a cruel King who ruled with an ironfist. He was the most powerful King in the world, with a power-ful army and an abundance of gold. One day the General of hisarmy came to him with some rather bad news.“Your lordship,” said the General, “my men are tired of war. Theyare tired of bad food and mud and blood and they wish to comeback home. We have already conquered half the world and theroyal treasury is bursting with gold. The men think enough isenough.”“The men think?” screamed the King. “What do I care what themen think? The men do not rule this Kingdom- I do. Hang the menwho will not fight.”“I have your Highness. I’ve executed hundreds. But they still willnot fight anymore. Now the executioners are refusing to hang anymore soldiers.”“Then hang the hangmen,” ordered the King.“Me personally? I’m afraid I couldn’t do that. They are all closepersonal friends.”“Then I will have you hung. Guard! Seize him!” But try as hemight, the King could not find anyone willing to arrest the Gen-eral. “I’ll kill you myself then,” screamed the furious King.Just then the palace guard came in and announced that hundreds 10
  11. 11. of women and children were gathering outside the palace gatesand demanding that their men be allowed to come home fromwars.“Tell them to go home,” said the King.“We have,” said the guard. But they won’t leave.”“Have them hung then.”“We don’t have enough ropes.”“Arrest them.”“We don’t have enough dungeon space.”“Then let them stay there until hell freezes over,” shrieked theKing.“How will we get supplies into the palace, your Highness?” askedthe guard.“We have plenty of supplies for now. All this disobedience hasmade me hungry. Where is my lunch?”“The cook has joined the people outside,” said the guard.“Well, I still have my gold,” said the King. “Have the palace treas-urer give a coin to everyone who will obey me.”“The palace treasurer has joined the people outside as well,” saidthe guard. And the rest of the staff is packing their bags.”……………………. The King was forced to take all his gold andmove into a small village……. .But still no one would obey him- not the neighborhood childrenwhen he told them to get out of his garden, not even his owndog. Day after day, the King would sit and count his gold that noone would accept. Sometimes one of his former subjects wouldcome by and they would enjoy a game of chess, but unlike theold days, they wouldn’t let the King win.Meanwhile, the people in the Kingdom prospered in peace andlived happily ever after. 11
  12. 12. PEOPLE POWERT he above story is a classic explanation of a successful non- violent revolution. Out of intolerable conditions unarmed Citizens rise-up against the seemingly all-powerful wealthydictatorship and within a short time and with the least cost tohuman life and other resources the dictatorship is swept out ofpower. Examples of this kind of successful struggle are many andsome of them include; Milosevic’s hold onto power was termi-nated by people power in 2000; Suharto had ruled Indonesia for32 years overseeing one of the most brutal and corrupt regimein the world which was ended in 1998 by people power; thePhilippine nonviolent Revolution of 1986 led to the departureof Ferdinand Marcos and the restoration of the country’s democ-racy after ending his 20-year authoritarian, and severely oppres-sive regime. It has been suggested that the Philippine revolutionsubsequently became an inspiration for the revolutions of 1989that contributed to ending of communist dictatorships in EastEurope. Mahatma Gandhi used nonviolent resistance to liberatethe Indian people from oppression and he succeeded; MartinLuther King Jr. and the civil rights movement used the samestrategy against racial discrimination in the United States ofAmerica from 1950s to 1960s and succeeded. Jesus Christ usednonviolence to liberate the human race which made Christian-ity the strongest faith belief in the world even after his physicaldeparture from the earth. Nonviolent strategy is such a powerfulstrategy. Man has always been looking for effective weapons andstrategy of waging war; first it was bow and arrow, then the gunpowder and its modern innovations until it has been discoveredthat the best strategy of warfare in this global village is nonvio-lent strategy. Of recent, we have witnessed people power throw 12
  13. 13. out of power some of the once powerful longtime dictatorshipsin the world.After 41 years of oppressive dictatorship, Gaddafi’s regime hasmelted away due a combination of both violent and nonviolentstruggle leaving some of sons dead and others captured and therest of the family fleeing into exile. 2010-11 TUNISIAN REVOLUTIONA t the end of 2010 the world watched International TV chan- nels with amazements at events as they were unfolding inTunisia where President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali was under thepressure of an intensive campaign of Civil Resistance, includ-ing a series of street demonstrations. The events began on 17thDecember 2010 sparked off by the self-immolation of the Twen-ty-Six year old Mohamed Bouazizi and on 14th January 2011,President Ben Ali resigned and fled to Saudi Arabia, ending his23 years in power.Mohamed Bouazizi had been the sole income earner in his ex-tended family of eight. He had graduated from University andafter failing to get employment that matches his qualification hedecided to operate a purportedly unlicensed vegetable cart forseven years in Sidi Bouzid which is 300km south of the capitalTunis. On 17th December 2010 a policewoman confiscated hiscart and produce. Bouazizi, who had such an event happen tohim before, tried to pay the 10-dinar fine (a day’s wage, equiva-lent to 7 USD). In response, the policewoman slapped him, spatin his face, and insulted his deceased father, at 11:30 AM andwithin an hour of the initial confrontation, Bouazizi returned tothe Head quarters, doused himself with a flammable liquid andset himself on fire. Public outrage quickly grew over the incident,leading to protests. This immolation and the subsequent heavy-handed response by the police to peaceful marchers caused riots. 13
  14. 14. Bouazizi was subsequently transferred to a hospital near Tunis.In an attempt to calm the situation, President Zine El AbidineBen Ali visited Bouazizi in hospital on 28th December 2010.Bouazizi died on January 2011.The demonstrations were precipitated by high unemployment,food inflation, and corruption, lack of freedom of speech andother political freedom, and poor living conditions. The protestsconstituted the most dramatic wave of political and social unrestin Tunisia in three decades and resulted in scores of deaths andinjuries, most of which were the result of action by police andsecurity forces against demonstrators. Police tried to obstructdemonstrators by using tear gas on the hundreds of young protes-tors but failed until it joined them leading to the President’sresignation. Ben Ali along with his wife Leila and their threechildren fled to Saudi Arabia on 14th January 2011, follow-ing what has been called the Tunisian Revolution. The Interimgovernment asked Interpol to issue an arrest warrant, charginghim for money laundering and drug trafficking. He and his wifewere sentenced in absentia to 35 years in prison on 20th June2011.President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali had ruled Tunisia since 1987with an iron fist. His government which had been criticized inthe media and NGOs was supported by the United States andFrance. As a result, the initial reactions to Ben Ali’s abuses bythe United States and France were muted, and in most instancesof socio-political protests in the country, when they occurredat all, rarely made major headlines. Any form of protests in thecountry were previously successfully oppressed and kept silentby the former regime and protesters would be jailed for such ac-tions, as were for example, protests by hundreds of unemployeddemonstrators in 2008.The success of the Tunisian Revolution inspired and set in mo-tion similar actions throughout the Arab world; the Egyptianrevolution began after the events in Tunisia and also led to theousting of Egypt’s longtime President Hosni Mubarak who had 14
  15. 15. ruled the country from 1981 to February 2011; furthermore,uprisings in Bahrain, Syria and Yemen and major protests havealso taken place in Algeria, Jordan, Morocco, and also Libya-where a full-scale revolution broke out and saw Gaddaffi’s re-gime melt away as well as elsewhere in the wider North Africaand Middle East.That is how nonviolent strategy sweeps dictatorships out ofpower so fast and with the least cost to human life, environ-ment, and other resources. Dictatorships are so superior at theuse of violent weapons; they have the money, coercive machin-ery of the state, military hardware, ammunition, and means oftransport. Dictators are so weak when it comes to nonviolentstrategy because their injustices have alienated them from thepeople and therefore remain with no genuine support. They usemoney, intimidation, and brutal means to perpetuate themselvesin power but once the people get rid of their fear and withdrawtheir consent then the world gets surprised at how weak the dic-tatorship has been.In their struggle to beat off the strength of the people they useviolent means which turns the tables against them and insteadstrengthens the people’s resolve to fight on and also make thedictator’s supporters sympathize with the resisters and con-sequently support the nonviolent resisters. This is a Japanesemartial art of personal combat known as Ju-Jitsu. In traditionalJu-Jitsu, the attacker’s violent thrust is not met with physicalblockage or counter thrust. Instead, the attacked person pullsthe opponent forward in the same direction the attacker has al-ready started to strike. This causes the opponent to lose balanceand fall forward as a result of the acceleration of the force of theattacker’s own forward thrust.The above dictatorships who have been overthrown by peoplepower were at one time the pride of their people. The peoplehad confidence in them and entrusted their future in them butinstead these rulers betrayed the confidence and the love that 15
  16. 16. the people had for them. The rulers became dictatorial, boughtsuperior weapons and turned state machinery against their ownpeople, they became extremely corrupt and amassed wealthwhile the people lived in poverty with their human rights andfreedoms, and other political freedoms abused. The people real-ized that they obeyed wrong rulers and said; “enough is enoughwith the monkey master.”The “monkey master” fable:Yu-li-zi says, “Some men in the world rule their people by tricksand not by righteous principles. They are like the monkey master.But as soon as their people become enlightened, their tricks nolonger work.”In the feudal state of Chu an old man survived by keeping mon-keys in his service. The people of Chu called him “Ju gong”(Monkey Master).Each morning, the old man would assemble the monkeys in hiscourt yard, and order the eldest one to lead the others to themountain to gather fruits from bushes and trees. It was the rulethat each monkey had to give one-tenth of his collection to theold man. Those who failed to do so would be ruthlessly flogged.All the monkeys suffered bitterly, but dared not complain.One day, a small monkey asked other monkeys: “Did the oldman plant all the fruit trees and bushes?” The others said: “No,they grew naturally.” The small monkey further asked: “Can’t wetake the fruits without the old man’s permission?” The othersreplied: “Yes, we all can.” The small monkey continued: “Then,why should we depend on the old man; why must we all servehim?”Before the small monkey was able to finish his statement, all themonkeys suddenly became enlightened and awakened.On the same night, watching that the old man had fallen asleep,the monkeys tore down all the barricades of the stockade inwhich they were confined, and destroyed the stockade entirely. 16
  17. 17. They also took the fruits the old man had in storage, brought allwith them to the woods, and never returned. The old man finallydied of starvation.LIBERATION HAD BEEN ACHIEVED simply by the monkeys’withdraw of their consent from their master. 17
  18. 18. THE MAIN PROBLEMS OF UGANDAB efore we examine the problems of Uganda let us look at the ‘Ten Point Programme’ which was designed to guide the actions of the leadership and people of Uganda so asto overcome her problems. Below is the ten point programme;-1- Restoration of democracy2- Restoration of security of persons and property3- Consolidation of National Unity and elimination of allforms of sectarianism4- Defending and consolidating National Independence5- Building an independent, integrated and self-sustainingnational economy6- Restoration and improvement of social services and reha-bilitation of war-ravaged areas7- Elimination of corruption and misuse of power8- Redressing errors that have resulted in the dislocation ofsome sections of the population9- Co-operation with other African countries10- Following an economic strategy of a mixed economyThe ‘Ten point programme’ became Uganda’s ideology whichwould help her overcome the main problems facing the Africancontinent. 18
  19. 19. In 1986, President Museveni had said that;“the problem of Africa in general and in Uganda in particular isnot the people but leaders who want to overstay in power.”That said, like most African countries, Uganda’s natural progresswas obstructed by slave trade and most importantly by colonial-ism. However, as President Yoweri Kaguta Museveni wrote inhis book, “SOWING THE MUSTARD SEED” the main problemfacing African countries including Uganda is two. Man in the de-veloped countries of Europe, North America, and more recentlySouth East Asia, has been able to free himself of these two age-old bottlenecks so as to realize his full human worthy. Due to lowlevels of scientific progress resulting from poor quality educa-tion, the first problem is the domination of man by nature wherein Africa man has faced the wrath of drought, floods, diseasesand pestilences, slow means of locomotion, impenetrable forests,vector insects among others- all of which has made it impossiblefor Africans to prosper. The second problem is the oppression ofMan by man in the form of feudalism, slavery, colonialism, anddictatorship.The only way to overcome these problems is respecting the tenpoint programme and most especially respecting democracy.With this, others will follow like; provision of quality health, ed-ucation, quality housing, development infrastructure, and sub-sequently solve the problem of lawlessness and unemployment,and the elimination of poverty.This ideology was conceived as a result of looking back to ourpast where our post-independence political history has beencharacterized by the following phases below, this is according toMuseveni;-- Ideological confusion; a period from 1962 to 1966, wherethe guide to which political party one must belong to was thetribe and religion one belonged to and not the programme of thatparty. 19
  20. 20. - Dictatorship; periods, by Obote between 1966 and 1971,by Amin between 1971 and 1979, and again by Obote between1980 and 1985, and by the Okellos, briefly, from July 1985 toJanuary 1986- Liberation phase; where elements of the intelligentsia andthe peasants organized a massive armed liberation movement,first of all quietly under Idi Amin, but more openly and inde-pendently since 1981. This eventually resulted in the defeat ofthe dictatorship.However, some people think that by the erosion of the ‘Ten PointProgramme,’ today as a country we are experiencing a combina-tion of; ideological confusion, dictatorship, and a struggle forself-liberation and this time through other means, nonviolent re-sistance. It is a sad story but there seems to be light at the endof the tunnel.A combination of the three phases can best be explained bythe BBC story I read on Internet on, 08th August 2011 titled;“Would Uganda’s Museveni recognize his former self?” In hisbook; the author says, back in 1986: “The problem of Africa ingeneral and in Uganda in particular is not the people but leaderswho want to overstay in power.” And who wrote it? The currentPresident, Yoweri Museveni, who has been in the job for 25years……………. “The government will not admit it, but all is notwell in Uganda right now. Food and fuel prices have gone throughthe roof and seizing an opportunity to hurt the government, theopposition called walk-to-work protests, a cunning way of get-ting around the ban on demonstrations, as the president has seenenough evidence of their impact in the Arab world………………Ugandans watched the evening news and were horrified. The sightof plain clothes policemen smashing the politician’s car windowsand spraying him with chemicals before dumping him on the backof a truck was the tipping point. Angered by what people con-demned as police brutality, riots erupted. Out came the army andthe tear gas and the bullets.” At the beginning of the story thereare certain revelations that summarize this regime’s brutalityand arrogance. “President Museveni used to be seen as very much 20
  21. 21. in touch with the people and almost everyone agrees he did a fan-tastic job for the country for the part of his time in office. But nowwith increased reliance on the military, the signs are not good.”A worried retired Supreme Court judge, George Kanyeihamba isquoted in this BBC story as saying that; “……..the very issuesof injustices that led to Yoweri Museveni taking up arms werecoming back.” He said; “Some Ugandans have said that if theYoweri Museveni of 1986 were to meet the Museveni of todaythey would fight- they would shoot each other. ONE SAFE OPTION FOR UGANDAPoliticians are like diapers. They both need changing regularlyand for the same reasons.For Uganda to avoid any bad political situation or the kind ofsituation that occurred in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Syria, Philip-pines, and Indonesia; President Museveni must re-instate termlimits in the 1995 constitution and then call for early electionswithout him contesting. It is necessary that he appears to initiateor support the amendment process. Otherwise, as things seemto be moving, he and his family and the country are headed forthe worst. People do not forgive easily. See what is happening tothe former presidents of Tunisia and Egypt, humiliation! Zine ElAbidine Ben Ali of Tunisia is in exile and he has been sentencedin absentia to 35 years in prison; Mubarak is in court for charg-es ranging from corruption to ordering the killing of nonviolentdemonstrators; Milosevic died in prison, Suharto died while fac-ing corruption charges after being forced out of the IndonesianPresidency which he had occupied for 32 years; Ferdinand Mar-cos of Philippines was exiled by people power after two decadesof brutal dictatorship. The once mighty Gaddafi is out, his fam-ily in exile, and some of his sons killed during the war while the 21
  22. 22. other has been captured. The list is long. In Uganda, almost all former presidents were forced out of pow-er with two of them dying in exile. We have never experiencedany peaceful transfer of power from one president to another.Even the hope that we had was blown away when president Mu-seveni scrapped term limits from the 1995 constitution to allowhimself rule for life.With the blocked constitutional means of transfer of power,Uganda is likely to experience a coup d’état, a civil war, or anonviolent revolution, or even a foreign invasion which will bewelcome by the people as it is the only chance left for them toget rid of the dictatorship. A coup d’état, and a nonviolent revo-lution are the two most possible political events that are mostlikely to happen in Uganda any time from today and no one mustbe made to believe that these two phenomenon are impossible.There are so much possible because the ground has been pre-pared and it’s so fertile and the seeds have already been sown.MUSEVEN IS VULNERABLE AND FINISHEDSocieties held together by fear and repression may offer the il-lusion of stability for a time, but they are built upon fault linesthat will eventually tear asunder.Barack ObamaThe National Resistance Movement under the leadership of Yow-eri Kaguta Museveni was grown out of the power of the gun.First, by Museveni and a few of his colleagues carrying out pro-vocative clandestine guerrilla operations against the Idi Aminregime; then by Front for National Salvation (FRONASA) whichwas an armed movement aimed at ousting Idi Amin out of pow-er; again in 1981, fighting a guerrilla war against an elected gov-ernment of the Uganda People’s Congress (UPC) which was wonand brought Museveni to power in 1986 who until today- 24thAugust 2011 remains the President of the Republic of Uganda.Museveni and the NRM have held onto power by use of military 22
  23. 23. power. Since coming to power in 1986, Museveni has defeatedmore than 20 guerrilla forces that have tried to oust him out ofpower. He is superior at the use of the gun and the gun is theonly ideology he understands. However, his search for powerand his struggle to consolidate it has led to massive loss of lifeand property, stagnated economic development, and thereforeleading to biting poverty, and uncertain political future for thiscountry. It is strongly believed and Museveni himself admitted itin his book, ‘sowing the mustard seed,’ that his clandestine guer-rilla operations against the Amin regime provoked Amin to killUgandans. Also Obote soldiers behaved the way they behaved inBuganda because it was a war zone where the major Museveniguerrilla operations took place. The people of Eastern Uganda,Northern Uganda, and South western Uganda have suffered warsince 1986 as a result of Museveni’s struggle to consolidate hishold onto power. This country has sacrificed so much blood justto allow Museveni rule.Today the opposition is trying to oust Museveni from power byuse of an Egyptian and Tunisian style nonviolent action after asham election which many view as the “2011 PURCHASEDMANDATE” that gave ‘MR.ATM’ a new mandate to rule thiscountry for another five years which if completed he would haveruled this country for 30 years. The NRM regime has respond-ed to the nonviolent protests by brutally beating, spraying teargas and other chemicals, imprisoning, injuring and killing in-nocent Ugandans including women and children. The state hasdeployed on the streets of all major urban centers of the countrywith the police, military, and military hardware ready for waragainst its own citizens. The state response to the actions of thenonviolent actionists has alienated it from some of its support-ers and increasingly strengthening the resolve and wisdom ofthe resisters which is an indication that the mighty gun wieldingregime is falling apart due to the pressure exerted on it by thenonviolent actionist and soon or later a song will be sang…….HE IS FINISHED……………HE IS FINISHED…………HE IS 23
  24. 24. FINISHED………just like how it was sang in 2000 after the fallof the mighty Milosevic. The NRM regime is so weak especiallywhen it comes to fighting a nonviolent war and below is whatmakes it more vulnerable.“The Achilles’ heel”A myth from classical Greece illustrates well the vulnerabilityof the supposedly invulnerable against the warrior Achilles, noblow would injure and no sword would penetrate his skin. Whenstill a baby, Achilles’ mother had supposedly dipped him intothe waters of the magical river Styx, resulting in the protectionof his body apart from the heel which his mother touched whiledipping him. When Achilles was a grown man he appeared toall to be invulnerable to enemies’ weapons. However, in the bat-tle against Troy, instructed by one who knew the weakness, anenemy soldier aimed his arrow at Achilles’ unprotected heel, theone spot where he could be injured. The strike proved fatal. Stilltoday, the phrase “Achilles heel” refers to the vulnerable part ofa person, plan, or an institution at which if attacked there is noprotection.‘From dictatorship to democracy’ Gene Sharp.- A combination of political and economic challenges, andMuseveni’s overstay in power has weakened the NRM regime.These problems will only increase so long as Museveni clingsonto power until he will be swept by these problems. The coun-try is facing high rates of unemployment, an ever increasing costof living characterized by high inflation, poor medical services,poor education, corruption, a lack of democracy, poor economicinfrastructure, and a continuously degrading environment amongothers. Unemployment can only be solved with the provision of aglobally competitive high quality education that attracts genuineinvestors. Even, genuine investors cannot invest in an uncertainenvironment like Uganda where even the President’s campaign 24
  25. 25. adverts confirm that there is no peace without him. In the faceof local and International TV and radio; the world is told thatthe only pillar of stability in Uganda is the mortal man YoweriKaguta Museveni and that without him the country is headedfor disaster. The same President openly says that there are manythieves in his government. No sane investor can ever dream ofinvesting in a country where at the departure of one mortal vi-sionary man his fortune is no more. Secondly, a sane investorcannot invest in a country infested with corruption where he canlose his fortune just because a judge is bribed and rules a casein favor of the powerful and rich who pays him more. Investorsare not willing to hire expensive skilled employees from othercountries and that is why they invest where cheap and skilledlabor is available leaving other factors constant like availabilityof electricity, political stability and security, modern health fa-cilities, modern transport infrastructure and recreation centersamong others. So without all these the economy will continue todecay until the people decide to say that enough is enough witha thieving regime. Museveni’s overstay has made his regime losetouch with reality, the common people and their needs, and inthe process it has become so arrogant. The regime thinks that bythe use of the gun, voting rigging and buying, and by bribing keycivil society leaders it can still cling onto power. Gone are thosedays when such monkey tricks worked. This is a dot.com erawhere people from one corner of the world easily communicateand know the life and situation of other people in the other farcorner of the world. Increased interaction through education,travel, cable TV networks, radio, and other mass and social me-dia like the Internet has made access to information easy suchthat events happening anywhere in the world can inspire and bereplicated elsewhere.- The strength of NRM was in its ideology, the ten pointprogramme, which is fast eroding at a faster pace like a run-away train which one cannot jump off or stop. The cancer ofcorruption and misuse of power is so visible to the extent thatalmost all would-be clean cadres are the dirtiest. It’s filthier at 25
  26. 26. the top than at lower ends. The egg is broken and therefore opento flies. This has made the regime vulnerable in that the peoplehave lost confidence in it. Individuals in the regime do not careabout the people they serve, they only care about themselves.It’s ‘For God and my stomach.’ It’s no longer “For God and myCountry.” In this way; everything is rotting from health, infra-structure, education, agriculture, security of person and prop-erty to democracy. Political mandates are purchased leading toan ever increasing poverty in the midst of extreme wealth. Thesecurity of the country is at stake since the masses especially theyouth are many and poor due to high rates of unemployment andno longer trust their leaders. The people don’t trust their leadersespecially when it comes to purchasing military soft and hard-ware which is supposed to protect the people and their property.The people know for sure that if the government claims to havebought such equipment at US$ 740 million, then US $ 300million must have remained in the pockets of the powerful whoinitiated the purchase. Even what is claimed to be protected,for example oil, people don’t think they have a stake becausethey believe that such discovered resources are owned by therulers. Such a sense breeds unpatriotic tendencies to the extentthat even when a country is threatened by an external powerpeople will only be happy that the invader will help overthrowa thieving dictatorship without putting into consideration theconsequences of foreign occupation. Corruption has made everysingle principle in the ten point programme irrelevant and use-less. There is no democracy to talk of apart from regular vote rig-ging and buying from corruption money which in itself increasescorruption. Corruption has increased poverty amidst the wealthof the few which makes the current security of person and prop-erty illusionary. Poor people kill each with iron bars for survival.Tribalism is coming back in its worst form because other tribeslook at others as the ones benefiting from regime, a recipe forgenocide. Corruption has led to poor service delivery includingeducation and health service which are the backbone of the Na-tion. A sick and poorly educated people cannot feed and defend 26
  27. 27. itself in this modern Hi-tech era.-The regime has become so centralized in that those with actualpower are few. Major decisions are made by few and with manydecisions to make, mistakes of judgment, policy, and action islikely to occur. Because of this centralization, ministers and oth-er agents of the regime fearful of displeasing their superiors arenot reporting accurately or complete information needed by the‘big man’ to make decisions. Evidence of this incorrect reportingis when Besigye’s car was smashed by one infamous police of-ficer, Arinaitwe, where the Internal Affairs Ministers incorrectlytold the President and the public that Besigye had a hammerin his car when actually NTV Uganda showed that the hammerwas used by state agents and in the process it fell into Besigye’scar injuring his foot. Unfortunately, the President told this lie tothe Nation and the International community while appearing onNTV Kenya. That means that there are many other things theyreport incorrectly just to please the old man so that they canin turn keep their jobs. Should the regime now decide to avoidthese dangers and decentralizes controls of real power and deci-sion making, its control over the central levers of power may befurther eroded. In either way, the regime is vulnerable.- Intellectuals, students, business people, the poor, andprofessionals have become restless due to poor living and work-ings conditions amidst the extreme wealth of the corrupt; re-strictions imposed, and repression. These people and the generalpublic are increasingly becoming apathetic, skeptical, and evenhostile to the regime. With time this will lead to withdraw of thecooperation of people, groups, and institutions needed to oper-ate the system. Actually, this has already started where peopleare no longer intimidated by the regime. An example is when thebusiness people closed shop for two days, the lawyers closed forsome days, the taxi drivers for closed for two days, then someteachers among others. Next time it will be the police and thearmy to mutiny due to poor pay and poor living conditions. 27
  28. 28. - Due to overstay in power and without a clear way of suc-cession, internal institutional conflicts and personal rivalries andhostilities have come to the surface and are more likely to esca-late and harm, and even go as far as disrupting the operation ofthe system. There are also frustrated individuals who understandand have served the system and dropped leaving other few in-dividuals seemingly from the same regions as the President Stiilenjoying the spoils. These people are frustrated but their othercolleagues who have just entered the dining room have over timeobserved the way things turn-out to those who are ‘used.’ Theseindividuals are not in actual sense in the system, they are justthere for survival and if well utilized they are likely to assistin turning tables against their employers. They have seen whathappened to Bukenya and others how they have been treated assanitary pads or if you like to say it clearly, “condoms.” This alsoapplies to the urban poor NRM peasants who have benefitednothing from the system yet they see their users swimming inill-gotten wealth. These poor guys are at the dining table butnot dinners. They are remembered during election time. So evenwhen the system collapses they have nothing to lose if only theirsecurity is guaranteed. Also there are those who have served thesystem but not rewarded yet they see others from the other sidebeing bought at a high cost. The NRM primaries have also left adeeply divided party due a number of factors but most especiallyinternal vote rigging. It is said that the bitterest person is not hewho has lost his job but the one who feels cheated. So those whowere cheated are so bitter at the regime and can do anything tocause its down fall.- In short, the NRM regime is most likely to collapse underthe weight of its accumulated excesses including the bad lawsthat it’s proposing.Unfavourable economic conditions, interacting with politicalfactors will very soon lead to a sort of the ‘Arab spring’ or evena coup d’état. Life is becoming expensive and commodity pricesare likely to increase. Sources of the dollar are limited; drought 28
  29. 29. is becoming severe making the productivity of the country low.So even when tax on some commodities is waived to allow cheapcommodities to enter the country, the demand for the dollarwill be higher than its supply making it expensive and thereforeexpensive imports. The situation will be made worse when thesame rich corrupt people in the regime enter business and seekmonopoly by any means and then set a profit maximizing pricemaking life more expensive. The government will be weakeneddue to the fact that there will be limited source of income, for ex-ample, tax from petroleum products. There will be social unrestwith which the president will respond by increasing police andmilitary deployment. Because the police and the army go to thesame market as any other ordinary Ugandan, they will start rob-bing people just like Obote soldiers did and people will get fed-up and rise up against the regime, the army and the police willhave no option but to join the people’s struggle, after all theydon’t all share in the wealth of their corrupt senior officers. Theworst will come, God forbid, when a senior opposition leader isshot dead deliberately or accidently.Deliberate assassination of say, Besigye, will be done by a cliquewith great fear of him. They will assassinate him for fear thatshould he capture power he might prosecute them for crimescommitted during their stay in power. Others just despise himand have their own lust for power, so the act of assassinatinghim will be aimed at provoking more unrest and violence whichwill be enough reason for them to carry-out a coup d’état againstthe regime they serve. They will appear as ‘saviors’ of the Nationand people will welcome them. This is possible because the armyseems to be the only some-how strong independent institution inUganda. All other institutions are weak to oppose a coup d’état.So nonviolent strategists must educate the people that a coupis not a solution to Uganda’s problems and that should a coupbe carried out in the midst of a nonviolent struggle it must bequickly and openly and strongly opposed. 29
  30. 30. A POSSIBLE COUP D’ETATU ganda has a history of coup d’état where the military has on several occasions overthrown legitimate civilian governments. Coup planners execute a coup after sens-ing that should they be successful they will be welcomed andsupported by the people.Reasons why Uganda is vulnerable to a military coup d’état;-- There is presence of unfavorable economic conditions in-teracting with political factors.- The roots of democratic political systems are so shallowand have been eroded. The government is seen as illegitimate,and there is wide spread dissatisfaction with its performance. Ithas been charged with incompetence, corruption characterizedby selective prosecution, arrogance and indecisiveness in timesof crisis.- Confidence in the capacity of democratic procedures tochange government is lacking.- The civil non-state institutions of society- voluntary insti-tutions, religious bodies, trade unions; and others are so muchpenetrated by the state, divided and weakened. Therefore, thereare no independent groups or institutions capable of opposingseizure of state apparatus.Let’s look at this scenario and how it might play out leading toa coup d’état.Let’s assume that inspired by events in Tunisia, Egypt, andLibya a demonstration against Mabira give-away breaks out, oranything else breaks out and is met with police and militarybrutality as usual and in the process it becomes violent leadingto massive loss of life and property and eventually spreading toother parts of the country; the situation gets out of control for 30
  31. 31. some days, the police and military gets overwhelmed, demoral-ized, worn-out, starts to drag their feet and considering to jointhe masses. To save their positions and wealth combined withtheir lust for power and domination, the only chance the Gener-als have is to carry-out a coup d’état to appear as ‘saviors’ whohave come to restore order. The President may try to execute aself coup as well so as to allow him rule by decree in the name ofrestoring order. Some generals who lust for power and scarred ofchange and prosecution for crimes committed during their rulemay engineer a coup by deliberately creating social and politicalunrest by assassinating a prominent opposition politician, say,Besigye, God forbid. As a result of the unrest and when theysee that the president has totally lost legitimacy in the eyes ofsociety and the International community including the militaryand police, they may come in to ‘save’ the situation. The coupexecuters are likely to appoint a Muganda persecuted politicianlike former Vice President Gilbert Bukenya to be President sincehe will be welcomed by the Baganda. He is a catholic, a religionwith majority following, and a muganda which is a strong vocaltribe in central Uganda that has come to hate Museveni.People will welcome this move even when Bukenya once servedMuseveni. Everyone believes he was just used and later perse-cuted because of his interest in Mbabazi and in particular Mu-seveni’s job. In this case, the urban Baganda decide and I guessthat is why President Museveni addresses them on the Lugandaspeaking entertaining TV station every time there is a politicalproblem that may lead to his exit. The peasants cannot stop coupeven when they appear to support the regime, they just supportwhatever new thing comes.The reality is that rural peasants cannot and have never initi-ated political change in this country since colonial time. Changeis always imposed on them. One might argue that the Luweerowar was a peasants’ making. It is true that the rural peasantshelped the war succeed by providing food, hiding guerrillas and 31
  32. 32. allowing their sons and daughters to join the rebellion. But theclear truth is that the war was imposed on to them by politiciansand soldiers fighting for power and they had no option but tojoin the rebellion mostly because of the uncivilized reaction tothe rebellion by the then government soldiers who made peas-ants their enemies in their pursuit to destroy the guerrillas. Evennow, peasants have no say in the running of this country apartfrom perpetuating a corrupt regime by selling it votes. They ini-tiated no change during the brutal dictatorship of Amin, Obote,and Okellos but rejoiced each time one of them was overthrown.Even now, they are waiting to rejoice.However, Uganda must never welcome a coup d’état at any onetime. It must be quickly opposed by a nonviolent strategy. Whenwelcomed, a coup will only bring in a clique that is more op-pressive than the fallen regime. It will be the same individualsin the past regime that will continue to commit atrocities againstcitizens in the name of peace.Therefore, if Uganda wants to permanently rid itself of dictator-ships and/or any other form of oppression, it must get empow-ered and carry itself to freedom through a nonviolent struggle.At present people of Uganda living under severe oppression dueto dictatorship have few adequate choices as to how they canliberate themselves. The only option is the use of nonviolentstrategy because;-- A popular election to bring about the major change re-quired for more democratic and free political society is not avail-able. The election is rigged, or its results is falsified or ignored.- Violent rebellion, including guerrilla warfare and terror-ism, will produces crushing repression, massive casualties anddefeat. By placing confidence in violent means, one has chosenthe very type of struggle with which the oppressor nearly al-ways has superiority. Dictators are equipped to apply violenceoverwhelmingly. The dictator almost has superiority in militaryhardware, ammunition, coercive machinery of the state, money,transportation, and the size of military forces. Despite bravery, 32
  33. 33. the oppressed resisters are a no match. Should guerrillas suc-ceed, the resulting new regime is likely to be more dictatorialthan its predecessor due to the centralizing impact of the ex-panded military forces and the weakening or destruction of thesociety’s independent groups and institutions during the strug-gle- bodies that are vital in establishing and maintaining a demo-cratic society.- Coup d’état may fail, or simply install new individuals orclique in the old positions.- Gradual evolution may take decades, and may be haltedor reversed, perhaps more than once.Due to the desire for greater freedom, some Ugandans have lostconfidence that they can liberate themselves. They seem to placetheir hopes in strong foreign military intervention. That optionhas grave disadvantages as well;- In most cases foreign states tolerate, or have even posi-tively assisted the dictatorship in order to advance their owneconomic or political interests.- A foreign government may use the problem of a dictator-ship in another country as an excuse for military interventionthat is actually intended to achieve different, les noble objec-tives.- Even if a foreign government initially has altruistic mo-tives to intervene in such cases, as the conflict develops theintervening government is likely to discover that other more selfserving objectives are becoming open to them. These may in-clude; control of economic resources or establishment of militarybases.- Foreign states may become actively involved for positivepurposes only if and when the internal resistance movement hasalready began shaking the dictatorship, having thereby focusedInternational attention on the brutal nature of the regime.- A foreign government with enough military capacity toremove a strong system of oppression in another country is usu- 33
  34. 34. ally powerful enough later to impose its own objectives. This canhappen even when the objectives are unwanted by the “liber-ated” population.This does not mean that a nonviolent movement does not haveto seek external assistance. International pressure exerted ontothe dictatorship can be useful. However, such external supportcomes only to a powerful internal resistance movement. Interna-tional economic boycotts, embargo, the breaking of diplomaticrelations, expulsion from International organization, condemna-tion by United Nations bodies, and the like can assist greatly.Therefore, the Uganda nonviolent revolutionary movement musttake the above issues seriously.In conclusion, if Ugandans fail to get term limits back into the1995 constitution the only option they have is to wage a nonvio-lent war against the dictatorial regime. The reasons for a nonvio-lent revolution have already been given and the only question isthat; “Is it possible to overthrow this regime by a nonviolent strat-egy?” This is possible only and only if the opposition resistersare organized and well equipped with nonviolent weapons andalso endeavor to train the people nonviolent strategies so as tohave a better understanding of their application. They must beready to sacrifice and undertake the risks involved. They mustalso be aware of and avoid the main contaminants of a nonvio-lent resistance movement.CONTAMINANTS OF NONVIOLENT CAMPAIGNSThe opposition must understand and avoid anything that mightcontaminate the nonviolent struggle. These are things that mightmake the struggle impure, unclean or corrupt by contact. In hisbook, On Strategic Nonviolent Conflict, Robert L. Helvey liststhem as below;He starts by saying that; “Just as water contaminates the fuel 34
  35. 35. used in our cars-small amounts can cause the engine to misfireand sputter, and greater amounts can stop the engine from run-ning at all- nonviolent movements can also have contaminantsthat make them inefficient or even destroy them.”- Violence as a contaminant. Opposition violence towardthe government or its supporters authorized or not, can be aserious contaminant to the success of a nonviolent struggle. Asingle act of violence may provide government with a convenientrationale for brutal retaliation against whatever target or targetswithin the opposition movement it purports to hold directly orindirectly responsible. Opposition violence may also have unin-tended effect of undermining public confidence and participationin a movement whose very existence is premised upon achievingits objectives through nonviolent strategy and tactics.- Appearance of disunity as a contaminant. The strengthof a “People’s Movement” requires the active participation of“the people.” And oppressed people are attracted to movementsfor change when they perceive these movements reflecting theaspirations of the people and when they view the leadership asbeing capable of guiding the movement to victory. Rational peo-ple will not risk their lives and livelihoods by joining a politicalmovement to oppose a tyrant if that movement lacks a clear pur-pose and strategy for achieving victory. Disunity between andamong coalition members within a democratic movement canresult in a loss of trust and confidence in the movement’s abilityto achieve political reforms. Organizational infighting sometimesis the work of government agents who infiltrate the organization.One of the most effective ways to promote and maintain unitywithin a movement is to keep the objectives of the struggle tothe bare minimum. It must also be apparent to all that achievingthese objectives will benefit all members of society, includingmany that now support the opponent. Disunity is bad becauseit leads to stagnation and backsliding of the liberation process.Disunity has been a characteristic of the Ugandan opposition.The character of the opposition before and during election cam- 35
  36. 36. paigns and maybe even after can only be summarized in thisshort story of;“The Greedy man and the Envious man”A greedy and an envious man met a king. The King said to them,“One of you may ask something of me and I will give it to him,provided I give twice much to the other.” The envious man did notwant to ask first for he was envious of his companion who wouldreceive twice as much, and the greedy man did not want to askfirst since he wanted everything that was to be had. Finally thegreedy one pressed the envious one to be the first to make therequest. So the envious person asked the King to pluck out oneof his eyes. In this, he anticipated that the king will pluck outthe two eyes of the greedy man.Jewish parable,The seven deadly sins,Solomon Schimmel, 1992- Perception of exclusiveness as a contaminant. Policies and/or statements that may be perceived or limiting participation in apolitical struggle can lead to hostility or apathy by the excludedgroups. Tribal sentiments must be avoided. The real issues suchas corruption, incompetence and the gradual movement towarddictatorship will be submerged beneath the divisive rhetoric ofrace and class. Almost all demonstrations that have occurredin Kampala have been characterized by tribal sentiments; thesescare and alienate an important section of people. There has alsobeen a show of hatred for the armed forces instead of trying towin them over just like the Tunisians and Egyptians did. Duringthe 1789 French revolution General Lafayette helped the revolu-tion succeed when he and his forces joined the people.- Active participation of military forces in a political strug-gle as a contaminant. Once the military takes sides in a domesticpolitical struggle, even for the most democratic cause, the like-lihood of its being committed to the armed struggle against amajor segment of the population increases, and with it, increases 36
  37. 37. the possibility of civil war or a coup d’état. Neither of these pos-sibilities benefits the people nor do they strengthen a nonviolentmovement. Should the military seize control of the governmenton the pretense of providing a transition, unless it is attacked im-mediately, that transition could last for years or even decades. Ifsome of the senior officers personally feel strongly about takingsides, they should resign and pursue their political ideology asindividuals within the political faction that suits them.- Other contaminants include; presence of foreign nationalwithin a democratic movement, organizational structure ill-suit-ed for nonviolent conflict.A nonviolent struggle is not an easy one; it takes a lot of thinking,planning, and implementation tasks. It is like any other politicalstruggle, not simple. Nonviolent strategists must be preparedto create awareness and stick to the use of nonviolent weaponsagainst the dictatorship.Most importantly, nonviolent strategists must understand thatthis strategy is not risk free, casualties, and even martyrs must beexpected. But efforts must be made to minimize casualties. Thistype of struggle sweeps dictators faster than any other meansof struggle and with fewer casualties than can be the case witharmed/ violent struggles.If it is well understood and applied by the people it can minimizethe cost of National defense. A country can move to less costlymeans of National defense, that is, civilian based defense againstcoup d’état, or any other form of internal oppression, and for-eign aggression.Otherwise, nonviolent resisters in Uganda seem to be on trackand the Museveni regime seems to be at its weakest point espe-cially when it comes to nonviolent combat. It is not as strong asit wants us to believe. It is on its deathbed and the only uncertainthing about it is how costly its funeral will be. It’s vulnerable!The nonviolent resisters must not fear but make use of oppres-sive or brutal acts by the regime as a recruiting tool for the non- 37
  38. 38. violent movement.Preparations must be made to put in place a more democraticsystem after the fall of the dictatorship.In fighting a dictatorship, a nonviolent movement must first ofall determine whether they wish simply to condemn the oppres-sion and protest against the system. Or, do they wish actuallyto end the oppression, and replace it with a system of greaterfreedom, democracy, and justice? THE FOUR MECHANISM OF CHANGEThere are four mechanisms through which a nonviolent struggledelivers change and there are as below;1. CONVERSION.2. ACCOMMODATION3. NONVIOLENT COERCION4. DISINTERGRATIONConversion; the dictatorship may come to accept the resisters’aims. Though cases of conversion in nonviolent action do some-times happen, they are rare, and in most conflicts this does notoccur at all or at least not on a significant scale. This sometimesoccurs when the dictatorship is emotionally moved by the suf-fering repression imposed on courageous nonviolent resisters orwhen the dictatorship is rationally persuaded that the resisters’cause is just.Accommodation; is a mechanism of change in which the dic-tatorship resolve, while it still has a choice, to agree to a compro-mise and grant certain demands of the nonviolent resisters. Ac-commodations occurs when the dictatorship has neither changedits views nor been nonviolently coerced, but has concluded thata compromise settlement is desirable. Many strikes are settled inthis manner, for example, with both sides attaining some of theirobjectives but neither achieving all it wanted. A government mayperceive such a settlement to have some positive benefits such as 38
  39. 39. defusing tension, creating an impression of “fairness,” or polish-ing the International image of the regime. It is important, there-fore, that great care be exercised in selecting the issues on whicha settlement by accommodation is acceptable. A struggle to bringdown a dictatorship is not one of these.Nonviolent coercion; mass noncooperation and defiance canalso change social and political situations, especially power re-lationships, that the dictator’s ability to control the economic,social, and political processes of government and the society isin fact taken away. The dictator’s military force may become sounreliable that they no longer simply obey orders or drag theirfeet to repress resisters. Although the dictator’s leaders remainin their positions, and adhere to their original goals, their abilityto act effectively has been taken away.Disintegration; the regime simply falls to pieces. In some extremesituations, the conditions producing nonviolent coercion are car-ried still further and the dictator’s leadership in fact loses all theability to act and their own structure of power collapses. Theresisters’ self-direction, noncooperation, and defiance becomeso complete that the dictatorship now lacks even a semblanceof control over them. The dictatorship’s bureaucracy refuses toobey its own leadership. The dictator’s troops and police mutiny,and his usual supporters or population repudiate their formerleadership, denying that they have any right to rule at all. Hencetheir former assistance and obedience fall away. The system col-lapses completely that the dictatorship does not even have suf-ficient power to surrender. The regime falls into pieces. 39
  40. 40. 40
  41. 41. EAGLE THREEE agles are the most long-lived bird in the world. By the time they reach 40 years old, their claws will start to age, los- ing their effectiveness and making it hard for them to catchtheir prey. The life-span of an eagle is up to 70 years old.But in order to live this long, it must make the toughest deci-sions at 40. At 40, its beak is too long and curvy that reaches itschest. Its wings, full of long, thickened feathers, are too heavyfor easy flying. The Eagle is left with two choices:-1) Do nothing and awaits its death; or2) Go through a painful period of transformation and re-newal- the rebirth of an Eagle.For 150 days, it first trains itself to fly beyond the high moun-tains, build and live in its nest and cease all flying activities. Itthen begins to knock its beak against granite rocks till the beakis completely removed. When a new beak is grown, the eaglewill use it to remove all its claws and wait quietly for new onesto be fully grown. When the new claws are fully grown the Eaglewill use them to remove all its feathers, one by one. Five monthslater, when its new feathers are fully grown, it will soar in thesky again with renewed strength and is able to live for the next30 years. 41
  42. 42. Eagle Nations must undergo this painful process of self re-newal and transformation if they are to have a successful future.REVOLUTION!!!!!!!!!!!!KEY STEPS ON THE PATH TO A NONVIOLENTREVOLUTION- Develop a strategy for winning freedom and a vision ofthe society you want.- Overcome fear by small acts of resistance.- Use colours and symbols to demonstrate unity of resist-ance.- Learn from historical examples of the successes of nonvio-lent movements.- Use nonviolent weapons.- Identify the dictatorship’s pillars of support and developa strategy for undermining each.- Use oppressive or brutal acts by the regime as a recruitingtool for your movement.- Isolate or remove from the movement people who use oradvocate violence.METHODS/WEAPONS OF NONVIOLENT ACTIONIn his book, “From dictatorship to democracy,” Gene Sharp out-lines these 198 weapons of nonviolent action.THE METHOD OF NONVIOLENT PROTEST ANDPERSUASION FORMAL STATEMENTS1. Public speeches2. Letters of opposition or support3. Declarations by organizations and institutions4. Signed public statements5. Declarations of indictment and intentions6. Group or mass petitions 42
  43. 43. COMMUNICATION WITH A WIDER AUDIENCE7. Slogans, caricatures, and symbols8. Banners, posters, and displayed communications9. Leaflets, pamphlets, and books10. Newspapers and journals11. Records, radio, and Television12. Skywriting and Earth writingGROUP REPRESENTATIONS13. Deputations14. Mock awards and mock birthday parties for prominent people in government, military, police among others15. Group lobbying16. Picketing17. Mock electionsSYMBOLIC PUBLIC ACTS18. Display of flags and symbolic colors19. Wearing of symbols20. Prayer and worship21. Delivering symbolic objects22. Protest disrobing, and public declarations of abstaining23. Destruction of own property24. Symbolic lights25. Display of portraits26. Paint as protest27. New signs and names28. Symbolic sounds29. Symbolic reclamation30. Rude gestures 43
  44. 44. PRESSURES ON INDIVIDUALS31. “Haunting” officials32. Taunting officials33. Fraternization34. VigilsDRAMA AND MUSIC35. Humorous skits and pranks36. Performance of plays and music37. SingingPROCESSIONS38. Marches39. Parades40. Religious processions41. Pilgrimages42. MotorcadesHONORING THE DEAD43. Political mourning44. Mock funerals45. Demonstrative funerals46. Homage at burial placesPUBLIC ASSEMBLIES47. Assemblies of protest and support48. Protest meetings49. Camouflaged meetings of protests50. Teach-ins 44
  45. 45. WITHDRAW AND RENUNCIATION51. Walk-outs52. Silence53. Renouncing honors54. Turning one’s backTHE METHOD OF NONCOOPERATIONOSTRACISM OF PERSONS55. Social boycotts56. Lysistratic non-action57. Excommunication58. Selective social boycott59. InterdictNONCOOPERATION WITH SOCIAL EVENTS, CUSTOMS, ANDINSTITUTIONS60. Suspension of social and sports activities61. Boycott of social affairs62. Student strikes63. Social disobedience64. Withdraw from social institutionsWITHDRAW FROM THE SOCIAL SYSTEM65. Stay-at-home66. Total personal noncooperation67. Flight of workers68. Sanctuary69. Collective disappearance70. Protest emigration (hijrat) 45
  46. 46. THE METHODS OF ECONOMIC NONCOOPERATION(1) ECONOMIC BOYCOTTSACTION BY CONSUMER71. Consumers’ boycott72. Non-consumption of boycotted goods73. Policy of austerity74. Rent withholding75. Refusal to rent76. National consumers’ boycott77. International consumers’ boycottACTION BY WORKERS AND PRODUCERS78. Worker men’s boycott79. Producers’ boycottACTION BY MIDDLEMEN80. Suppliers’ and handlers’ boycottACTION BY OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT81. Traders’ boycott82. Refusal to let or sell property83. Lockout84. Merchants’ “general strike”85. Refusal of industrial assistanceACTIONS BY HOLDERS OF FINANCIAL RESOURCES86. Withdraw of bank deposits87. Refusal to pay fees, dues, and assessments88. Refusal to pay debt and interest89. Severance of funds and credit90. Revenue refusal 46
  47. 47. 91. Refusal of government’s moneyACTION BY GOVERNMENTS92. Domestic embargo93. Blacklisting of traders94. International sellers’ embargo95. International buyers’ embargo96. International trade embargoTHE METHODS OF ECONOMIC NONCOOPERATION(2) STRIKESYMBOLIC STRIKES97. Protest strike98. Quickie walkout (Lightning strike)AGRICULTURAL STRIKES99. Peasant strike100. Farm workers’ strikeSTRIKES BY SPECIAL GROUPS101. Refusal of impressed labor102. Prisoners’ strike103. Craft strike104. Professional strikeORDINARY INDUSTRIAL STRIKES105. Establishment strike106. Industry strike107. Sympathetic strikeRESTRICTED STRIKES108. Detailed strike109. Bumper strike110. Slowdown strike 47
  48. 48. 111. Working-to-rule strike112. Reporting “sick” (sick-in)113. Strike by resignation114. Limited strike115. Selective strikeMULTI-INDUSTRY STRIKES116. Generalized strike117. General strikeCOMBINATION OF STRIKES AND ECONOMICCLOSURES118. Hartal119. Economic shut downTHE METHODS OF POLITICAL NONCOOPERATIONREJECTION OF AUTHORITY120. Withholding or withdraw of allegiance121. Refusal of public support122. Literature and speeches advocating resistanceCITIZENS’ NONCOOPERATION WITH GOVERNMENT123. Boycott of legislative bodies124. Boycott of elections125. Boycott of government employment and positions126. Boycott of government departments, agencies and other bodies127. Withdrawal from government educational institutions128. Boycott of government-supported organizations129. Refusal of assistance to enforcement agents130. Removal of own signs and place marks131. Refusal to accept appointed officials 48
  49. 49. 132. Refusal to dissolve existing institutionsCITIZENS’ ALTERNATIVES TO OBEDIENCE133. Reluctant and slow compliance134. Non-obedience in absence of direct supervision135. Popular non-obedience136. Disguised disobedience137. Refusal of an assemblage or meeting to disperse138. Sit down139. Noncooperation with conscription and deportation140. Hiding, escape and false identities141. Civil disobedience of “illegitimate” lawsACTION BY GOVERNMENT PERSONNEL142. Selective refusal of assistance by government aides143. Blocking of lines of command and information144. Stalling and obstruction145. General administrative noncooperation146. Judicial noncooperation147. Deliberate inefficiency and selective noncooperation byenforcement agents148. MutinyDOMESTIC GOVERNMENT ACTION149. Quasi-legal evasions and delays150. Noncooperation by constituent governmental unitsINTERNATIONAL GOVERNMENT ACTION151. Changes in diplomatic and other representation152. Delay and cancellation of diplomatic events153. Withholding of diplomatic recognition154. Severance of diplomatic relations155. Withdraw from International organizations156. Refusal of membership in International bodies157. Expulsion from International organizations 49
  50. 50. THE METHODS OF NONVIOLENT INTERVENTIONSPSYCHOLOGICAL INTERVENTION158. Self-exposure to the elements159. The fast;a) Fast of moral pressureb) Hunger strikec) Satyagrahic fast160. Reverse trial161. Nonviolent harassmentPHYSICAL INTERVENTION162. Sit-in163. Stand-in164. Ride-in165. Wade-in166. Mill-in167. Pray-in168. Nonviolent raids169. Nonviolent air raids170. Nonviolent invasion171. Nonviolent interjection172. Nonviolent obstruction173. Nonviolent occupationSOCIAL INTERVENTION174. Establishing new social patterns175. Overloading of facilities176. Stall-in177. Speak-in178. Guerrilla theater179. Alternative social institution180. Alternative communication system 50
  51. 51. ECONOMIC INTERVENTION181. Reverse strike182. Stay-in strike183. Nonviolent land seizure184. Defiance blockades185. Politically motivated counterfeiting186. Preclusive purchasing187. Seizure of assets188. Dumping189. Selective patronage190. Alternative markets191. Alternative transportation systems192. Alternative economic institutionsPOLITICAL INTERVENTION193. Overloading of administrative systems194. Disclosing of identities of secret agents195. Seeking imprisonment196. Civil disobedience of “neutral” laws197. Work-on without collaboration198. Dual sovereignty and parallel government 51
  52. 52. For a better understanding of nonviolent struggle contact theAlbert Einstein Institution on;-The Albert Einstein Institution427 Newbury StreetBoston, MA 02115-1802, USA.TEL: USA + 617-247-4882FAX USA +617 247-4035Email: Einstein@igc.orgWebsite: www.aeinstein.orgNOTE: Nzaramba Sebakwiye Vicent, the author of this docu-ment, is not a member of the Albert Einstein Institutionbut his mission is Albert Einstein Institution’s Mission.THE ALBERT EINSTEIN INSTITUTION MISSIONSTATEMENTThe mission of the Albert Einstein Institution is to advocate/advance the world wide study and strategic use of nonviolentaction in conflict.The institution is committed to;- defending democratic freedoms and institutions,- opposing oppression, dictatorship, and genocide; and- Reducing the reliance on violence as an instrument of policy. 52
  53. 53. 53
  54. 54. NOREV-Uganda(Nonviolent Revolution Uganda)RESISTANCE Because I Love Uganda 54
  55. 55. MISSIONNOREV-Uganda is a nonviolent Revolutionary movementwith a mission to;- - To mobilize all Ugandans regardless of their religion, tribe, and political affiliation to fight and destroy dictator- ship, and other forms of oppression, and restore genuine democracy - Defend democratic freedoms and institutions, - And reducing reliance on violence as an instrument of liberation in Uganda.The mission shall be pursued in the following ways;- - Mobilize Ugandans to fight the dictatorship through pub- lications, lectures on nonviolent action, and the media - By use of nonviolent strategy and its weapons - By carrying out research on the methods of nonviolent ac- tion and their past use in diverse conflicts and sharing the results with the general public - Consulting with groups in conflict about strategic poten- tial of nonviolent action against the Uganda dictatorship. 55
  56. 56. KEY STEPS ON THE PATH TO THE SUCCESS OF NOREV- Uganda - We shall develop a strategy for winning freedom and a vision of the society we want. To avoid penetration and confusion the strategic team shall not exceed 10 people and in some cases for particular issue they shall not ex- ceed 5 people. - We shall overcome fear and recruit the general public by engaging ourselves in small acts of resistance. For exam- ple, by calling onto the public to wear clothing or bands with our symbol, by wearing specific colors of cloth bands as a way of communicating to the regime that we demand the resignation and immediate prosecution of particular individuals, and restoration of term limits, by calling on humorous but serious actions like sex bans on weekends among others. We shall choose from the 198 Gene Sharp weapons of nonviolent action. - We shall use non-divisive colors, liberation songs, slogans and symbols to demonstrate unity of resistance. - We shall continue to study and learn from historical ex- amples of the successes of nonviolent movements. For example, Tunisia, Egypt, Serbia, Philippines, Indonesia, Madagascar - We shall only use nonviolent weapons. And in this case, we shall oppose, fight and defeat any coup attempt by the same method we use to fight the dictatorship. - We shall identify the dictatorship’s pillars of support and develop a strategy for undermining each. For example, the civil society organizations like religious institutions, intellectuals, the army and police, NRM Members of Par- liament, students, poor urban NRM supporters and the youth in Universities and secondary schools, among oth- ers 56
  57. 57. - We must use oppressive or brutal acts by the regime as a recruiting tool for our movement. - We must isolate or remove from the movement people who use or advocate violence. IMMEDIATE DEMANDSBelow are the demands of this nonviolent revolutionary move-ment. 1) We demand the immediate resignation and prosecution of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Uganda Mr. John Patrick Amaama Mbabazi for his role in the Temangalo, dirty oil dealings, and CHOGM corruption scandals. He must be cleared by a competent court of law and not by the Inspector General of Government (IGG) who is his former assistant and personal friend. Hajji Hassan Basaj- jabalaba and others involved in institutional corruption must be prosecuted and immediately refund public mon- ey. We are totally against selective prosecution which is another form of political persecution. 2) We demand the immediate restoration of Presidential term limits and the resignation of the President and his govern- ment. He must not contest in any other election. How- ever, we call for immunity to prosecution clause to be put in the 1995 constitution for the person of the President for crimes committed during his/her Presidency. 3) A transitional government must be put in place to run the Country which must then appoint a competent judi- cial commission of inquiry to investigate and recommend the prosecution of all those suspected to have committed crimes such as abuse of human rights including murder and torture, and corruption among others within a period 57
  58. 58. of six months. The transitional government will amend electoral laws including a law that puts a limit to cam- paign expenditure so as to eliminate political corruption; put in place an independent electoral commission that will conduct all National general elections.Note:- The transitional government must lead the country for a nonrenewable term not exceeding 12 months (Twelve Months). The head and cabinet members of the transitional gov- ernment must not contest for any political position after the expiration of their term of office not until after five years.- All persons convicted of political crimes including corrup- tion must never hold any public office including contest- ing for any political positions.4) We demand the immediate dropping of all fabricated charges made against political activists and the release of all demonstrators and all political prisoners.5) We demand that government must cease to deny Ugan- dans their right to peaceful demonstration. And in this, attempts to enacting a law to deny bail to demonstrators must stop immediately.6) Attempts by the President to give away Mabira forest and other forests must stop immediately. 58
  59. 59. CAUSE AND VISIONThe cause and vision of this nonviolent revolutionary movementis summarized in this statement.Exodus 3:7-8; Then the Lord told him, “I have certainly seen theoppression of my people in Egypt. I have heard their cries of dis-tress of their harsh slave drivers. Yes, I am aware of their suffer-ing. So I have come down to rescue them from the power of theEgyptians and lead them out of Egypt into their own fertile andspacious land. It is a land flowing with Milk and honey…..”Matthew 5:17; “Don’t misunderstand why I have come. I didnot come to abolish the Law of Moses or the writings of theprophets. No, I came to accomplish their purpose.” CauseOur struggle is against;- 1) Dictatorship 2) Corruption 3) Poverty 4) Unemployment 5) Poor living conditions 6) High cost of living 7) Sectarianism 8) Economic, social, and political oppression 59
  60. 60. Ugandans had placed their future in President Museveni and hisNRM political organization but today many people think that ifPresident Museveni of 1986 were to meet the Museveni of todaythey would fight- they would actually kill each other. He has losttouch with the common people and reality. He has learnt andforgot nothing. Two issues here urgently need to be emphasizedduring our struggle;- 1) Restoration of term limits in the 1995 Uganda consti- tution. In 1986, President Museveni clearly stated that; “the problem of Africa in general and in Uganda in par- ticular is not the people but leaders who want to overstay in power.” As we write, he has since ruled this country for 25 years and has just purchased another 5 year mandate which if completed he would have ruled Uganda for 30 years. Worse still, there is no indication of his retirement ever since he raped the constitution to allow him rule for life. His decision to cling onto power has led his regime to deliver diminishing returns, undoing all the good and leading to the suffering of Ugandans. His rule is charac- terized by the same issues which took him to the bush to fight a guerrilla war. Therefore, it is our duty to fight for the restoration of term limits in the 1995. 2) Corruption. There seems to be a deliberate policy to make Ugandans poor because Machiavellian politics dictates that for one to rule people for as longer as he wants he must make them poor but appear to support them but not to strengthen them. He must not allow any semblance of equality. However, “he must enrich a few and make them a privileged class with respect to both property and sub- jects; so that around him will be those with whose sup- port he may maintain himself in power, and whose ambi- tions, thanks to him, may be realized. As to the rest they will be compelled to bear a yoke which nothing but force 60
  61. 61. will ever be able to make them endure. Between force and those to whom it is applied a balance will thus be set up, and the standing of every man, each in his own order, will be consolidated.” Secondly, for a person to rule a multi- cultural society like Uganda he has to constantly bribe in- dividual prominent personalities, promote divisions, and weaken the strength of institutions. This is because force/ brutal means alone cannot consolidate his power.A desire to cling onto power and corruption have lead to thefollowing evils in our society;- - Political corruption and a sham democracy characterized by vote buying and rigging, political persecution in form of intimidation, torture, imprisonment, murder, and selec- tive prosecution - Poverty - Unemployment and high cost of living. - Sectarianism - Poor service delivery especially in the health, education, Judicial sectors among other - Poor development infrastructure - Weakened public and civil institutions - Insecurity and political instability - Poor living conditions - High cost of livingUncertainty created by corruption and overstay in power hasprevented genuine investors to consider Uganda as an invest-ment destination. No investor will invest in a country whose 61
  62. 62. stability depends on one visionary mortal man. Things are madeworse when during election campaigns, in the face of the Inter-national news media; the President and the ruling NRM cam-paign advertisements emphasize the fact that should PresidentMuseveni lose there will neither be peace nor political stabilityin the country. Recently on a visit to neighboring Rwanda, thePresident confessed that his government is full of thieves andhe went ahead to credit President Kagame for his zero toleranceto corruption. In effect he was directing investors to Rwanda;and secondly, he passed a vote of no confidence in himself. Dur-ing the 2011 Presidential campaigns the President traversed thecountry confessing the corruptness of his government but hewent ahead to appointed Prime Minister, a man whom so manypeople believe to be corrupt. He appointed him because of hisloyalty to him forgetting that by the fact that he is corrupt he isan enemy of the NRM ideology. Maybe he is a loyal partner incrime.Without tangible investments, a country will experience highrate of unemployment and poverty. A poor people will neverlive at peace with each other. They in most cases take a sectar-ian path especially when they see their few rulers perceived tocome from the same region, tribe, rather from the same familyextremely rich. The frustrated poor tend to shift their frustrationtoward the poor and powerless that come from the same regionor speaks the same language as their powerful oppressors. Thissectarian path is a threat to National security and political stabil-ity. To sum it all, corruption and overstay in power is first classtreason to one’s country and such a person must be forced outof power and face justice for the great suffering he brought tohis own people. 62
  63. 63. VISIONJust like Jesus Christ said, this nonviolent revolutionary move-ment has not come to abolish the laws or the good policies of thisgovernment but we have come to help restore, improve, and ac-complish their purpose. We all know that before the amendmentof Article 106 on Presidential term limits Uganda was movingin a relatively right direction guided by the 1995 constitutionof the Republic of Uganda, and the NRM Ten point programme.Other challenges would be solved with peaceful and democraticchange of government. GUIDELINES OF THE STRUGGLE 1) Only nonviolent weapons shall be used during the strug- gle. We shall disassociate, isolate, expose, and guard against any; individual, groups, state agents and civil and political organizations that resort to or advance the use of violence in the name of advancing the cause of this non- violent revolutionary movement. 2) Even in the face of extreme police and military brutal- ity we must restrain ourselves from abusing and insulting them. We must instead show them love and discipline and call upon them to restrain themselves from carrying out the brutal orders of the regime. These policemen and women in uniform are our brothers and sisters who do not come from mars or any other foreign country but from our villages and facing the same economic, social and political hardships as ourselves or even worse. It is fear that makes them to carry out brutal orders. Therefore, it is our duty to show them the light and also help them get rid of fear. 63
  64. 64. 3) There shall be no use of songs, symbols, slogans, obscene language, and colors that are divisive because this is an all inclusive self-liberation movement. It is by mobilizing the society as a whole that victory shall be made possible- “PEOPLE POWER.” In short, we are a non-denomination- al and non-sectarian revolutionary movement.4) We shall work with all individuals, groups, civil and po- litical parties/ organizations including some progressive members of the ruling National Resistance Movement (NRM) so longer as they support and work to advance our demands, cause and vision, and also ready to work within these guidelines.5) No member of this revolutionary movement shall support or work towards the success of a coup d’état. Instead any coup attempt must be swiftly fought and defeated by the same methods being used to fight the dictatorship.6) Once in motion, the struggle must not stop unless when all our demands are met. Even when the coordinating com- mittee members are compromised and decide to jump off the revolution they must be left to crash and revolution continues. This revolution must be like a run-away-train or a sloping truck that has lost its brakes in that one can- not stop it or jump off, or else he/she crashes.7) The coordinating committee will be responsible for co- ordinating and communicating strategies, methods, and tactics to be used by regional leaders of the nonviolent activities. However, the use of methods and tactics shall vary with time and space; and in this case field and local revolutionary leaders will decide on which move to take without consulting or waiting for communication from the coordinating committee provided they stick to the use of nonviolent weapons. 64