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Gross Anatomy of the Liver

The human biliary system is composed of the liver, gallbladder, and bile duct. Understanding these complex systems will guide the students in training for better anatomical knowledge in the vein, artery, lymph nodes, and functional activities.

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THE Biliary
System
Liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts
Obaje Godwin Sunday BSc., MSc.,
PhD., (ABU, Nigeria)
Faculty member; Alex Ekwueme
Federal University Ndufu Alike,
Ebonyi State, Nigeria
PRESENTED BY
ANATOMY 202, 2023
Basic Anatomy of Biliary
system
Liver Function: The liver produces bile, a fluid
necessary for digestion that helps break down
fats in the small intestine.
Bile Ducts: These are the channels that
transport bile from the liver to the gallbladder for
storage and later to the small intestine for
digestion.
Gallbladder: A small organ that stores bile
produced by the liver. It releases bile into the
small intestine when needed for digestion.
Basic Anatomy of Biliary
system
Bilirubin Metabolism: Bilirubin, a waste product
from the breakdown of red blood cells, is
processed in the liver and excreted in bile.
Gallstones: These are hardened deposits that
can form in the gallbladder, often causing pain
and other complications, sometimes requiring
medical intervention.
Biliary Diseases: Conditions like cholecystitis
(inflammation of the gallbladder) or cholangitis
(inflammation of the bile ducts) can affect the
biliary system's function.
Biliary Cirrhosis: Chronic liver disease that
damages the bile ducts, leading to reduced bile
flow and potential liver damage.
Basic Anatomy of Biliary
system
Bilirubin and Jaundice: When there's a buildup
of bilirubin in the blood, it can cause yellowing of
the skin and eyes, known as jaundice, indicating
potential liver or bile duct issues.
Bile Composition: Bile contains bile salts,
cholesterol, bilirubin, and waste products. Its
composition influences its digestive functions.
Basic Anatomy of Biliary
system
Digestive Role: Bile helps emulsify fats,
breaking them down into smaller droplets that
enzymes can digest, aiding in the absorption of
fats and fat-soluble vitamins.
Understanding the biliary system's structure,
functions, and associated disorders is crucial for
maintaining proper digestion and overall health.
Gross Anatomy of Liver
Location: The liver is the largest internal organ
and is situated in the upper right portion of the
abdomen, beneath the diaphragm.
Lobes: It consists of four primary lobes—right
lobe, left lobe, quadrate lobe, and caudate lobe.
The right lobe is the largest and further divided
into anterior and posterior segments.
Blood Supply: The liver receives blood from
two sources: the hepatic artery, providing
oxygenated blood, and the portal vein, supplying
nutrient-rich blood from the digestive system.
Gross Anatomy of Liver
Gallbladder Relation: The liver is closely
associated with the gallbladder, which stores
and concentrates bile produced by the liver. The
bile is released into the small intestine for
digestion.
Structure: It has a unique structure with a dual
blood supply and a complex network of small
bile ducts (biliary tree) that drain bile from the
liver.
Capsule and Ligaments: The liver is enveloped
by a connective tissue capsule. Ligaments like
the falciform ligament and the round ligament
(ligamentum teres) help attach and support the
liver within the abdominal cavity.
Functional Units: Liver lobes consist of
functional units called hepatic lobules, which are
hexagonal in shape and contain specialized liver
cells known as hepatocytes.
Vascular System: The liver has a unique
vascular arrangement within each lobule, with
branches of the hepatic artery and portal vein
running alongside hepatic sinusoids, allowing for
the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste
products.
Biliary System: The liver's bile ducts collect bile
produced by hepatocytes and carry it to larger
ducts within the liver, eventually forming the
common hepatic duct that transports bile to the
gallbladder and the small intestine.
Gross Anatomy of Liver
Gross Anatomy of Liver
Regeneration: The liver has an exceptional
capacity to regenerate. Even after injury or
surgical removal, it can regenerate to its original
size, owing to the proliferation of hepatocytes.
Understanding the gross anatomy of the liver is
crucial for comprehending its functions,
disorders, and its significance in metabolism,
detoxification, and digestion.
• Functional unit
• Liver identification (Histology)
• Location
• Lobes
• Blood supply
Gross Anatomy of Liver

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Gross Anatomy of the Liver

  • 1. THE Biliary System Liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts Obaje Godwin Sunday BSc., MSc., PhD., (ABU, Nigeria) Faculty member; Alex Ekwueme Federal University Ndufu Alike, Ebonyi State, Nigeria PRESENTED BY ANATOMY 202, 2023
  • 2. Basic Anatomy of Biliary system Liver Function: The liver produces bile, a fluid necessary for digestion that helps break down fats in the small intestine. Bile Ducts: These are the channels that transport bile from the liver to the gallbladder for storage and later to the small intestine for digestion. Gallbladder: A small organ that stores bile produced by the liver. It releases bile into the small intestine when needed for digestion. Basic Anatomy of Biliary system Bilirubin Metabolism: Bilirubin, a waste product from the breakdown of red blood cells, is processed in the liver and excreted in bile. Gallstones: These are hardened deposits that can form in the gallbladder, often causing pain and other complications, sometimes requiring medical intervention. Biliary Diseases: Conditions like cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder) or cholangitis (inflammation of the bile ducts) can affect the biliary system's function. Biliary Cirrhosis: Chronic liver disease that damages the bile ducts, leading to reduced bile flow and potential liver damage.
  • 3. Basic Anatomy of Biliary system Bilirubin and Jaundice: When there's a buildup of bilirubin in the blood, it can cause yellowing of the skin and eyes, known as jaundice, indicating potential liver or bile duct issues. Bile Composition: Bile contains bile salts, cholesterol, bilirubin, and waste products. Its composition influences its digestive functions. Basic Anatomy of Biliary system Digestive Role: Bile helps emulsify fats, breaking them down into smaller droplets that enzymes can digest, aiding in the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins. Understanding the biliary system's structure, functions, and associated disorders is crucial for maintaining proper digestion and overall health.
  • 4. Gross Anatomy of Liver Location: The liver is the largest internal organ and is situated in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm. Lobes: It consists of four primary lobes—right lobe, left lobe, quadrate lobe, and caudate lobe. The right lobe is the largest and further divided into anterior and posterior segments. Blood Supply: The liver receives blood from two sources: the hepatic artery, providing oxygenated blood, and the portal vein, supplying nutrient-rich blood from the digestive system. Gross Anatomy of Liver Gallbladder Relation: The liver is closely associated with the gallbladder, which stores and concentrates bile produced by the liver. The bile is released into the small intestine for digestion. Structure: It has a unique structure with a dual blood supply and a complex network of small bile ducts (biliary tree) that drain bile from the liver. Capsule and Ligaments: The liver is enveloped by a connective tissue capsule. Ligaments like the falciform ligament and the round ligament (ligamentum teres) help attach and support the liver within the abdominal cavity.
  • 5. Functional Units: Liver lobes consist of functional units called hepatic lobules, which are hexagonal in shape and contain specialized liver cells known as hepatocytes. Vascular System: The liver has a unique vascular arrangement within each lobule, with branches of the hepatic artery and portal vein running alongside hepatic sinusoids, allowing for the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products. Biliary System: The liver's bile ducts collect bile produced by hepatocytes and carry it to larger ducts within the liver, eventually forming the common hepatic duct that transports bile to the gallbladder and the small intestine. Gross Anatomy of Liver Gross Anatomy of Liver Regeneration: The liver has an exceptional capacity to regenerate. Even after injury or surgical removal, it can regenerate to its original size, owing to the proliferation of hepatocytes. Understanding the gross anatomy of the liver is crucial for comprehending its functions, disorders, and its significance in metabolism, detoxification, and digestion.
  • 6. • Functional unit • Liver identification (Histology) • Location • Lobes • Blood supply Gross Anatomy of Liver
  • 7. Gross Anatomy of Liver • Capsule and Ligaments • Relations
  • 8. Falciform ligament • Within the lower edge of the falciform ligament is the ligamentum teres (round ligament), a remnant of the obliterated umbilical vein (ductus venosus) that travels from the umbilicus into the umbilical fissure where it is in continuity with the ligamentum venosum as it joins the left branch of the portal vein. • The ligamentum venosum lies within a fissure on the inferior surface of the liver between the caudate lobe posteriorly and the left lobe anteriorly, where it is also invested by the peritoneal folds of the lesser omentum (gastrohepatic ligament). • During fetal life, the ductus venosus is responsible for shunting a majority of blood flow of the umbilical vein directly into the IVC.
  • 9. Falciform ligament • After birth, the umbilical vein closes as the physiologic neonatal circulation begins. • In the presence of portal hypertension, the umbilical vein may recanalize to allow portasystemic collateralization through the abdominal wall, known as caput medusae. • After birth, the umbilical vein closes as the physiologic neonatal circulation begins. • In the presence of portal hypertension, the umbilical vein may recanalize to allow portasystemic collateralization through the abdominal wall, known as caput medusae.
  • 10. Gross Anatomy of the gallbladder Location: The gallbladder is situated in the inferior surface of the liver, primarily in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. Shape and Size: Typically, the gallbladder resembles a pear-shaped sac, measuring around 7 to 10 centimeters in length. Structure: It consists of three main parts - the fundus (the rounded bottom), the body, and the neck. The neck connects to the cystic duct, which further joins the common hepatic duct to form the common bile duct. Mucosal Folds: The interior lining of the gallbladder has numerous mucosal folds called rugae, which allow for expansion and contraction.
  • 11. Gallbladder Wall Layers: The gallbladder wall comprises three layers: mucosa (innermost), muscularis (middle), and serosa (outermost). Blood Supply: The gallbladder receives its blood supply from the cystic artery, a branch of the hepatic artery. Nerve Supply: It is innervated by autonomic nerves from the coeliac plexus. Function: The gallbladder acts as a reservoir for bile produced by the liver. It concentrates and stores bile before releasing it into the small intestine to aid in digestion. Biliary System Connection: It connects to the hepatic ducts via the cystic duct and stores and concentrates bile produced by the liver. Common Pathologies: Gallstones are a common issue related to the gallbladder, leading to blockages in the ducts and causing pain or inflammation (cholecystitis). Other conditions include polyps, infections, and in severe cases, cancer.
  • 12. There are kissing diseases that can damage the liver