Topic 3
Repressions of the
communist regime in Poland
Our Way to Freedom: from totalitarianism
to democracy
REPRESSIONS OF THE COMMUNIST REGIME IN
POLAND
After 1944 the communist government in Poland began to
victimize the society...
REPRESSIONS OF THE COMMUNIST REGIME IN
POLAND
CENSORSHIP
Censorship in People’s Republic of Poland – the control of the authorities of the PRP
over information (the pre...
CENSORSHIP
CURSED SOLIDERS
This term was created in 1993. It was used for the first time in the title of the
exhibition "Cursed soldi...
CENSORSHIP
June 1947, (soldiers fighting against the communist regime) From left to right: Henry
Wybranowski "Tarzan" († 6...
SECURITY SERVICE (SB)
Security Service (SB) was entrusted by the communist
government to provide public order and safety i...
SECURITY SERVICE (SB)
EXPULSION OF STUDENTS
After the manifestations in March 68 communist officials arrested more
than 2,700 people, including ...
EXPULSION OF STUDENTS
Anti-Semitic campaign in 1968-72
Already in the mid-60s the leadership of the communist party began to build up
anti-Semit...
Anti-Semitic campaign in 1968-72
MARTIAL LAW
Martial Law in Poland 1981-1983 was a state of emergency introduced on December
13th
, 1981 in the whole area ...
MARTIAL LAW
INTERNMENT
Internment - the act of confining foreign citizens and foreign
troops in special internment camps. In Europe Po...
INTERNMENT
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REPRESSION OF THE COMMUNIST REGIME IN POLAND

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REPRESSION OF THE COMMUNIST REGIME IN POLAND

  1. 1. Topic 3 Repressions of the communist regime in Poland Our Way to Freedom: from totalitarianism to democracy
  2. 2. REPRESSIONS OF THE COMMUNIST REGIME IN POLAND After 1944 the communist government in Poland began to victimize the society. Repressions were different, depending on the times when they were carried out . From 1944 to 1956 there were mass arrests and cruel investigations, frequently ending with a death sentence. Later on censorship was used as a form of repression as well as wiretapping or creating obstacles in getting a job. In 1968 Polish citizens of Jewish descent were taken under repressions and forced to emigrate. The culmination in the repressions system was the Martial Law, implemented on the 13th of December 1981. Poles were deprived of their civil rights, there was a limited possibility of travelling inside the country, a few thousand people were Internet and a curfew was implemented. Such a state of being lasted for two years. Poles for the whole period of PRL (Peoples Republic of Poland) had to sustain heavier or lighter repressions.
  3. 3. REPRESSIONS OF THE COMMUNIST REGIME IN POLAND
  4. 4. CENSORSHIP Censorship in People’s Republic of Poland – the control of the authorities of the PRP over information (the press, scientific and cultural publications) meant for distribution. Censorship in PRP lasted from 1944 to 1990.   After the foundation of the Solidarity movement, a few newspapers appeared that contained empty spaces blanked by the censorship. Then a bill was passed ordering that those changes must be marked with four dots or dashes in square brackets, e.g. [– – – –]. In spite of the introduction of the martial law in December 1981, the regulation was generally followed until the end of the censorship in Poland in 1990.   Another aspect of censorship was jamming of foreign radio stations, thought to be against the communist ideology, e.g. Radio Free Europe and Voice of America. The development of television and satellite television (in the 1980) significantly influenced the decline of censorship and jamming.  
  5. 5. CENSORSHIP
  6. 6. CURSED SOLIDERS This term was created in 1993. It was used for the first time in the title of the exhibition "Cursed soldiers - anti-communist underground forces after 1944” organized by the Republicans League at the Warsaw University. They were Polish independent soldiers and members of underground anti- communist forces. They fought with the communist regime, in order to bring back freedom and independence for Poland. Members of those Polish resistance movements actively operated on the pre- war Polish territory (especially on the ground Grodno, Nowogrodek and Vilnius). In the years 1944-1956 nearly 20,000 soldiers were killed and 200,000 were imprisoned. The last known “cursed soldier”, Józef Franczak, was killed in an ambush as late as 1963, almost 20 years after the Soviet take-over of Poland.
  7. 7. CENSORSHIP June 1947, (soldiers fighting against the communist regime) From left to right: Henry Wybranowski "Tarzan" († 6 November 1948), Edward Taraszkiewicz "Żelazny" († 6 X 1951), Mieczyslaw Malecki "Sokół" († 11 November 1947), Stanislaw Pakula "Krzewina" (sentenced to many years in prison) .
  8. 8. SECURITY SERVICE (SB) Security Service (SB) was entrusted by the communist government to provide public order and safety in the People's Republic of Poland. In fact, SB was the secret police of the totalitarian system, it was confined to the protection of the communist regime by controlling all aspects of social life, breaking the rule of law and the fight against the opposition.
  9. 9. SECURITY SERVICE (SB)
  10. 10. EXPULSION OF STUDENTS After the manifestations in March 68 communist officials arrested more than 2,700 people, including 359 students. Many students were expelled from university. On February 22 the leaders of the student movement decided to organize a rally in defense of the students removed from school. The authorities did not think about concessions and decided to preventively arrest the leaders of the student protest. Despite that the demonstrations took place. The protesters demanded the restoration of the rights to the students and the exemption from prosecution for other students. The rally was held in a peaceful atmosphere. That did not prevent ZOMO (the riot police) from brutal pacification. In a few days the protest spread to other Polish cities. Not only students fought but also professors. Those who helped students were soon sacked from universities they worked in.
  11. 11. EXPULSION OF STUDENTS
  12. 12. Anti-Semitic campaign in 1968-72 Already in the mid-60s the leadership of the communist party began to build up anti-Semitic tendencies. The situation was exacerbated by the so called The Six Day War in which Israel defeated a coalition of Arab states. Poland, following the Soviet Union supported the Arab states, and broke off diplomatic relations with Israel. A campaign against the Jewish community began, which was apparently detrimental to the interests of Polish citizens with Jewish origin. The resulting situation was used by a group of the “guerrillas” centered around their leader, Mieczyslaw Moczar. Proclaiming nationalist slogans and particularly aggressively attacking people of Jewish origin (their actions were compared to the former Nazi deeds), they wanted to take power at the expense of the First Secretary at that time, Wladyslaw Gomulka. After the party dealt with the students and scientists, there were further persecutions of the Jewish people. More than 8000 members were expelled from the Communist Party. As a result of the anti-Semitic campaign in the years 1968-1972 20 000 people left Poland. However, it did not stop nationalistic and anti-democratic tendencies in the country.
  13. 13. Anti-Semitic campaign in 1968-72
  14. 14. MARTIAL LAW Martial Law in Poland 1981-1983 was a state of emergency introduced on December 13th , 1981 in the whole area of the Polish People's Republic (PRL), by virtue of the resolution of the state on December 12th, 1981. It was suspended on December 31st , 1982 and abolished on July 22nd , 1983. The official reason of the Martial Law was the deteriorating economic situation, for example the deficiency of supply in stores and the rationing (once again, from April to October the system of the nutritional cards for meat, butter, fats, flour, rice, mild etc. was valid) as well as the threat to energy security in the country. The real reason was the fact that the communist regime feared losing its authority, related to the loss of control of the independent trade unions movements, especially ‘the Solidarity’ movement. On December 13th at 00.00 am, branches of riot police (ZOMO) started a nationwide arrests’ operation of opposition activists. The communist government used 25% percent of the whole Polish military power to concentrate in and around Warsaw. 70,000 Polish army soldiers attended the introduction of the Martial Law as well as 30,000 officers of the Ministry of the Interior together with 1750 tanks and 1400 armored vehicles, 500 infantry combat vehicles, 9000 vehicles and several squadrons of helicopters and transport planes.
  15. 15. MARTIAL LAW
  16. 16. INTERNMENT Internment - the act of confining foreign citizens and foreign troops in special internment camps. In Europe Polish troops, who had escaped from Poland after they were defeated in September 1939, were interned in Romania, which was neutral in those days. But the internment would also concern political opponents in dictatorship, like in Poland in December 1981. After that when the communist regime had put martial law, all leaders of the Solidarity movement, like Lech Walesa, Władysław Frasyniuk or Stefan Niesiołowski were confined in internment camps, which in most cases were regular prisons.
  17. 17. INTERNMENT

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