
From totalitarianism
to democracy
Our way to freedom

Feedback in art,
culture, literature and
media
TOPIC 6

Socialist realism is a style of realistic art that was
developed in the Soviet Union and became a dominant
style in othe...
The Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw

The purpose of cinema in Poland was the promotion of social
realism ideas, encouraging citizens to fight political oppon...
Action shot from a movie ”Adventure in
Marienshtat”

Preventive censorship was a form of government control
over materials not yet published and repressive censorship
meant ...
The Head Office for Audit, Publications and
Performances

Since 1977 independent and illegal publishing houses
associated with the Communist opposition party have been
funded . I...
History’s notebook

Andrzej Wajda has to his credit two trilogies, the first is ‘A Generation‘,
‘Kanał‘, ‘Ashes and Diamonds‘ (1955-1958) an...
Andrzej Wajda through his films tried to present the
complicated history after The II World War and the
process of the dev...
Andrzej Wajda

Poetry against the regime
During the times of the regime poetry had a big influence on the
Polish society. It appealed t...
Zbigniew Herbert
The end
POLAND: fEEDBACK IN ART, CULTURE, LITERATURE AND MEDIA
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POLAND: fEEDBACK IN ART, CULTURE, LITERATURE AND MEDIA

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POLAND: fEEDBACK IN ART, CULTURE, LITERATURE AND MEDIA

  1. 1.  From totalitarianism to democracy Our way to freedom
  2. 2.  Feedback in art, culture, literature and media TOPIC 6
  3. 3.  Socialist realism is a style of realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union and became a dominant style in other socialist countries. Socialist realism is an ideologically-oriented style having as its purpose the furtherance of fulfilling the goals of socialism and communism. Although related, it should not be confused with social realism, a broader type of art that realistically depicts subjects of social concern. Unlike social realism, socialist realism often glorifies the roles of the meek and working class and the struggle for its emancipation. The most known socialist realism building in Poland is The Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw. Socialist realism
  4. 4. The Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw
  5. 5.  The purpose of cinema in Poland was the promotion of social realism ideas, encouraging citizens to fight political opponents and support land reform and the nationalization of industry. Soviet films of the Stalin era constituted the major part of the then Polish repertoire. They were all similar to each other in terms of style and subject, contained the same educational message and created almost identical characters. The most glaring figure of socialist realism took the so-called “production films”. The artists of that period wanted to erase their individuality. Films were schematic, without the element of surprise. They showed in positive light heroes of socialist labour, while the capitalists were villains. Ambitious film works against the policy of the Socialist Party were censored or their presentation was forbidden. Polish cinema in the time of communist regime
  6. 6. Action shot from a movie ”Adventure in Marienshtat”
  7. 7.  Preventive censorship was a form of government control over materials not yet published and repressive censorship meant searching for, prohibiting and possible withdrawal of materials from circulation that had already leaked out (not yet censored before publication). Although, in theory the censorship applied to publications appearing in a print run of more than 100 copies, in practice it checked also print short- runs (which is why the opposition often - as if to spite the authority - underlined that the issue was published as pamphlets and books only in 99 copies). This meant that officials could cross out or entirely prohibit from publication fragments, expressions or information uncomfortable for the authorities. Preventive and repressive censorship operated under the Head Office for Audit, Publications and Performances. Preventive censorship
  8. 8. The Head Office for Audit, Publications and Performances
  9. 9.  Since 1977 independent and illegal publishing houses associated with the Communist opposition party have been funded . Independent publishing houses operated usually in university and enterprise environment, and were run by the social opposition groups. They were responsible for printing and colportage of various non-censored publications. The most significant are: NOWA (the first underground publishing house), Krąg, Przedświt, CDN, Oficyna Literacka. Independent publishing houses have never received wide range, apart from the People’s Republic of Poland in the late 80s, because of the police oppressions, infiltration, and the control system of paper, paint and printing machines. Second circulation
  10. 10. History’s notebook
  11. 11.  Andrzej Wajda has to his credit two trilogies, the first is ‘A Generation‘, ‘Kanał‘, ‘Ashes and Diamonds‘ (1955-1958) and the second is ‘Man of Marble‘, ‘Man of Iron‘ and ‘Man of Hope ‘ (1976-2013). His full-length debut was ‘A Generation ‘ - the film based on Bohdan Czeszka’s novel. This movie was produced in 1954 and the opening night took place one year later. By this trilogy Andrzej Wajda was trying to sum up the times of The II World War and thereby change the way of Polish peoples’ thinking. ‘Man of Marble ‘ was a film that showed the hard times of Soviet Union. However, ‘Man of Iron‘ presented a new myth of solidarity and the symbol of Polish union against the communism. ‘Walesa. ‘Man of Hope‘ is the last of the triptych. The film reminds of Wajda’s contribution to Solidarnosc and political opposition. Walesa’s victory is perceived as a victory of the whole fighting nation. Andrzej Wajda’s film thrilogies
  12. 12. Andrzej Wajda through his films tried to present the complicated history after The II World War and the process of the development of Europe. The director was awarded many times for his contribution to the cinematography. What is more, in 2000 Wajda received an honorary Oscar from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.
  13. 13. Andrzej Wajda
  14. 14.  Poetry against the regime During the times of the regime poetry had a big influence on the Polish society. It appealed to all people in our country so the power it had was sometimes used in an improper way. Poets were made to write about the members of the government as about heroes, who they weren’t at all. However, some stayed strong and did not allow themselves to be used as tools to create a fictional picture of Poland as a “prospering country”. One of them was Zbigniew Herbert (born in 1924 – died in 1998). The political thaw and the end of compulsory social realism in literature enabled him to debut. His first works came to light in 1956 and in the 80s of the twentieth century he became a major poet of the Polish opposition. His works became, especially for the younger generation, a manifesto of freedom and expression of resistance.
  15. 15. Zbigniew Herbert
  16. 16. The end

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