Jews in Hungary Catherine Ulaszek Bolesaw (William) Pick
Jewish districts• The Jewish people appeared in Hungary in the 12th and the 13th centuries.• The towns had the right to decide whether to let the Jewish people live within the city walls or not. Szeged also had this right.• In the 18th century these people were allowed to rent rooms and flats in the towns. The owners having Jewish-tenants were registered.• In 1813 Szeged marked a separated district for the Jewish people: the Gogol street and the Hajnóczy street. „Jewish ghetto. Christians mustnt go in. „
Jewish districts 1843.• That wasn’t big enough so it needed expansion.• Not all of the Jewish people followed these regulations 40% of them didn’t live within this district• The Jewish Community was founded in Szeged in 1785.• Its central building was the Old Synagogue.
• The first Jewish person in Szeged was a tradesman called Mihály Pollák• The Jews had to live in the Hungarian cities without owning civil rights that time• In 1786-1787 approximately 25 families could be found in Szeged with a population of 136 A typical Jewish family
• Later they got permission to choose their own judge and two church servants for their religious community• The leader of this community was called „rabbi”• The first book which involved the religious rules of Jewish people was created in 1791 A Jewish family
• This is the Old Synagogue in 1879 during the Great Flood and today.• We can see this historical building from the window of the school.
• Lipót Lőw was elected to be the rabbi for this synagogue• The Jewish people could take part in the political life from the 19th century• In 1920 the number of Jewish people living in the community was about 7000• Seven years later the Jewish community consisted of 8000 people
In the summer of They were also separated into 1941 Hungary joined ghettos. the Second World War. It was the death march, and On 19th March 1944 only few of the deported Jews the German army survived it. occupied Hungary. Eichmann and his notorious troop arrived in Hungary to find a ‘final solution to the problems of the jews’. Jews were listed, and were ordered to wear yellow stars.
The Szeged ghetto From the 6600 people was organized in May who were carried off and in June in the from Szeged in 1944 streets around the only about 1500 Synagogue and in the returned. Brick Factory of The number of victims Szeged . of the Second World About 8700 Jews War from Szeged were moved to the region reached 6000. Szeged ghetto. There was only one gate to the ghetto, which was carefully controlled by the police. In 1944 the Jews of Szeged nearly vanished.
On April 4 1945 Although most of the Hungary was liberated society seemed from the fascist careless about the regime. deportation of the Before the war Jews, many 600.000 Jews lived in Hungarians decided to Hungary. help the persecuted in days of great fear. About 400.000 of them were massacred They are known as the during the Holocaust. ‘Jew savers’
Sára Salkaházi was among the heroes whose martyrdom presents the foundation of humanity. She is credited with saving the lives of 100 jews during WWII. She was shot by the Nazis. Raoul Wallenberg was a Swedish architect, businessman, diplomat and humanitarian. He is also widely celebrated for his successful efforts to rescue tens of thousands to about one hundred thousand Jews in Nazi- occupied Hungary.
The Synagogue duringthe Second World War The Synagogue of Szeged was the centre of the ghetto. When the transportation of the Jews started, the Jews of Szeged were told to leave all their personal belongings behind. These things later had been replaced to the Synagogue of Szeged.
After the liberation a And the Synagogue today... part of the returned began to build up their life again... Consequently the Jewish community Today victims of the lives with substantial WWII are history, with values to remembered in the be protected with Synagogue: declared historic moments, with an old peoples home to look The Memorial plaque, after, with a youth where you can read club, with a modest almost 5000 names number of young on the marble tablets. people as the trustees of the future. The church is again loud with the noise of the little ones in the services.