Managing Crowds

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EIGHT POINT CROWD MANAGEMENT
AND EVENT PLANNING MODEL®
Larry B. Perkins, CFE, CPP, CMP
Lulu Press, Inc Morrisville, North Carolina
www.lulu.com/Crowd Safety

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Managing Crowds

  1. 1. ALSO BY LARRY B. PERKINS Crowd Safety and Survival, Practical Event and Public Gathering Safety Tips (2005) Jake the Cowhand Jasper Rabbit Crowd Management; In the Eye of the Storm Day of Event Cancellation Procedures Crowd Safety Tips ® Staying Cool in Hot Situations (2005) Mirror, Mirror: Reflections of the Soul, Spirit, and Will (2007)
  2. 2. EIGHT POINT CROWD MANAGEMENT AND EVENT PLANNING MODEL®Larry B. Perkins, CFE, CPP, CMP Lulu Press, Inc Morrisville, North Carolina www.lulu.com/Crowd Safety i
  3. 3. 7/3/2007 10:15 AMEIGHT POINT CROWD MANAGEMENT AND EVENTPLANNING MODEL®EIGHT POINT CROWD MANAGEMENT AND EVENTPLANNING MODEL®, PUBLISHED BY LULU PRESS, INCCopyright © 2007 by Larry B. Perkins, CFE, CPP, CMPLibrary of Congress Control Number: PendingISBN PendingCover Design by Larry B. PerkinsMyBook, MB, and Band of Writers are trademarks of Band ofWriters Coalition Publishers. “A three in One Project” and the“PERC System, Crowd Safety Tips,” “Staying Cool in HotSituations”, “Day of Event Cancellation Procedures” andEight Point Crowd Management and Event Planning Model®are protected by copyrightALL RIGHTS RESERVEDNo part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in aretrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means,electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,without the prior permission of the author.While every precaution has been taken in the preparation ofthis book, the publisher/author assumes no responsibility forerrors or omissions, or for damages resulting from the use ofinformationFor Information:Band of Writers Coalition, 510 Berlin Way, Suite 1, Morrisville,NC 27560 or visit www.lulu.com/CrowdSafety Printed in the United Sates of America First Edition 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ii
  4. 4. WARNINGiii
  5. 5. WARNINGWARNINGWhen life is imperiled or a dire situation is at hand, safealternatives may not exist. To deal with the worst casescenarios presented in this book, we highly recommend-insist, that the best course of action is to consult aprofessionally trained expert.While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy ofthe contents, suggestions, recommendations, andinformation contained herein, we are not responsible andassume no liability for any damages caused or alleged to becaused, directly or indirectly, incidentally or consequentially,to any person, firm, or third party using the informationcontained in this book. The information is provided withoutwarranty. iv
  6. 6. Eight Point Crowd Management and Event Planning ModelThe author is not attempting to provide legal, medical, orother professional services or advice in this book. Thetechniques, illustrations, and data contained herein arestrictly informational. It is strongly recommended that legal,medical, and other expert assistance—and/or the services ofa competent professional—be sought prior to engaging inany of the acts, or circumstances, referred to within thisbook. Further, some facilities prohibit certain objects, foods,materials, and personal items—such as cameras, weaponry,certain types of shoes, cell phones, sticks, video and audiorecording devices, backpacks, bags, containers, plastic,chains, noise makers, and beverages. v
  7. 7. EIGHT POINT CROWD MANAGEMENT AND EVENT PLANNING MODEL®The following model will help you identify crowdmanagement and event planning variables, gather andanalyze information, plan specific actions based upon theinformation gather and your facility’s and personnelabilities to execute the event being considered orBeing by defining which crowd management concepts arecritical for our facility? In what areas do you see roomfor improvement?At the conclusion of an event, it’s important to conduct apost event audit of your plan. This audio is invaluable asit identifies weakness in the thinking and approach to theprogram developed, methods of analyzing data collected,sub-por planning and executing. It’s a road map thatidentifies needed repairs. 1
  8. 8. LARRY B. PERKINSEIGHT POINT CROWD AND EVENTENGINEERING MODEL Risk Management Components Section “A” Shaping Crowd Behavior Section “B” Developing an Event Plan Section “C” Eight Point Crowd and Event Planning Model 1. Investigation i. (Data collection) 2. Analyzing i. (Data collected and identify variables) 3. Plan i. (a written plan that list goals and objectives for the event and which sets counteract measures to curtail unwanted variables that maintains a desired event environment) 4. Communication i. Meetings, briefings through various forms; written, radio, town hall, promoters, stakeholders, external interest groups, etc.) 5. Execution i. Putting the plan in motion, and directing the show. 6. Supervising the Plan i. The role of each manager/supervisor in the plan. And the chain of command for making adjustments to the plan as needed? 7. Crisis Management Program a. Should something happen what’s the plan? Who will respond, who’s in 2
  9. 9. Eight Point Crowd Management and Event Planning Model charge? (Suggested reading – “Day of Event Cancellation Procedures” and “The Manger on Duty” and other emergency preparedness books) 8. Assessing the Plan a. Debriefings, walk-through facility, review incident, guest complaints, financial, medical and reports The Four Critical Periods for Injures and Death (Times and Hotspots ) Section “D” Design Training for Crowd Managers Section “E” Facility/Event use Policies & Procedure Section “F” Action Plan Section “G”OBJECTIVE:Provide “structure” to Crowd Management and EventPlanning for the protection of life and propertyDUTY OF CARE, BREACH OF DUTY, ACTUAL CAUSE,PROXIMATE CAUSE AND DAMAGESHere, you have a duty to protect. However you inviteguests into your facility, there is an encumbered dutyplaced upon you and the facility. Again, I am notproviding legal services, but merely sharing informationI’ve discovered by providing expert testimony in courtinvolving Crowd Management and Event Planning, andknowledge I’ve gained from nearly 30 years of industrialexperience, teaching and study.DUTY OF CARE AND BREACH OF DUTY:For this section, we will focus on the duty of care andbreach of duty for as it relates to Crowd Management andEvent Planning. 3
  10. 10. LARRY B. PERKINSOne of the first things you will want to ask yourself is ifsomething happens at your facility is: “Was thisreasonably foreseeable and could this incident/accidentcould have been avoided?” Looking at the Eight PointsPlanning Model below will help you answer thosequestions. That is, did you investigate fully (collect all theavailable data pertaining to this even—called otherbuildings, questioned the promoted, looked at the history,etc.) and did you analyze the data properly and did youplan, execute the plan and supervise accordingly?If a tragedy was the result of negligence, you may be helpaccountable. As the representative of the owners, facilitymanagement and operators, you owe the very same dutiesto investigate, plan and supervise the activities to thenumber of guests that have been invited to the facility areduties imposed on all those in responsible charge.Good and accepted planning practices require that venuemanagement, who anticipates opening his/her propertyfor sports and entertainment, to know who manyspectators the facility is expected to draw. Thus they mustconduct a thorough investigation of the nature of theactivities expected to take place at their venues todetermine whether the facility is adequate for theproposed functions and physical layout is appropriate.Furthermore, such investigation is required to establishsafe and adequate plans for supervision, and discharge ofthe patrons as they leave the facility, to include late hoursafter the venue has closed and that the crowd of has notyet departed from the propertySuch an investigation would include, at the very least,determining the number of guest anticipated. Thisinformation is necessary so that the landowner can judgethe number and type of guests to expect; and make otherplans and arrangements for the safety of the expected 4
  11. 11. Eight Point Crowd Management and Event Planning Modelguests such as determining the proper number andpositioning of security personnel; and assure that themeans of egress to the night club is safe and adequate inlight of the numbers expected and activities.Good and accepted practice requires careful monitoringof guests throughout the venue—inside and out— forsigns of adverse crowd behavior activities. This is not a"police" function but rather a duty imposed on the facilitymanagement, who must be trained in crowd management.Can you prevent all incidents? The answer is no.However, what other measures did you take to deterincidents, or to find assistance if need.One thing to not over look in the planning phase is thedeterrence of “Uniformed” personnel. The uniform issign of deterrent to the casual person, not those who areintend on committing harm or causing problems.Additionally, security personnel may be able to provide adescription of the person committing the offense even ifthey are unable to stop or prevent it at the moment.Have you received appropriate training in CrowdManagement as required by the National Fire ProtectionAssociation, NFPA Crowd Managers, Assembly Occupancies31-2.1, A 31-2.1, SFPE Handbook of Fire ProtectionEngineering, Section, Chapter 15:There shall be trained Crowd Managers or Crowd Manager Supervisors .. . who shall have received appropriate training in crowd managementtechniques with emphases on time, space, energy andinformation.Have you conducted an assessment of appropriateness ofsecurity services as they relate to the needs of your venue? 5
  12. 12. LARRY B. PERKINSThis is separate from the duty of such security personnelto discharge their duties.Facility management must be sure that those providingsecurity have the required training and expertise, and thatthey are able to communicate, and that they are aware ofthe rules and policies of the facility they have beenretained to protect as well as its physical layout.Have you provided proper written and verbal instructionsthe management of the company you’re employing andsecurity assigned work at the venue?Again, the answer to these questions will help determineif you are meeting the duty of care requirement. 6
  13. 13. Eight Point Crowd Management and Event Planning ModelRisk Management Components- Section AYour risk management program should include these atleast these components. This book does not cover theseelements. I suggest establishing a risk managementcommittee and developing a comprehensive program thefocus in the following: Risk avoidance, reduction, transfer and assumption Emergency Evacuation Procedures & drills Polices and Procedures Crisis Management Life Safety Evaluations conducted at least annually or earlier upon facility alterations or other changes Bomb Threat Procedures Day of Event Cancellation Procedures Alcohol Management SSTF “Best Practices” Safety Program Emergency Evacuation Procedures Mutual Aide Agreements Facility Maintenance program Crowd Management Crowd Control procedures Emergency Vendor Service Agreement (supplies & parts) Medical and Hospital services Public Relations (reputation & image) Event Cleaning Services Annual Maintenance Program Training Program; Annual In-Service and ongoing Training Facility & Property Usage Rules and Regulations Air Space Regulations Labor Relations 7
  14. 14. LARRY B. PERKINS Operating Procedures Rental Agreements Annual Life Safety Evaluation Waste Management & Sanitation Program 8
  15. 15. Eight Point Crowd Management and Event Planning ModelSHAPING CROWD BEHAVIORAccording to John J. Fruin, Ph.D., there are four elementswhich shape crowd behavior, as it relates to serious crowdincidents. These four elements are time, space, energy andinformation.TIMEDr. Fruin states that crowds rarely become a problem whenthere are sufficient facilities to handle their needs. Themore people to be served, or the shorter the time period inwhich they must be served, the more facilities are needed,i.e. access and exit points, wider corridors, rest rooms,seating capacity, etc. Crowds can build quickly andoverwhelm the facility’s flow points and other areas. Rapidaccumulation of people queuing at a facility can outstrip itscapacity to handle the load. A crowd is most dangerouswhen it is moving. This includes when the crowd is arriving,leaving, protesting or celebrating. Anything that causes asudden rush in or out could send a crowd out of control.The best solution for facilities to implement is to preventthe masses from reaching a gate at the same time. Thus,patrons may be redirected to a different entrance. Facilitiesmay also set up turnstiles or barricades to help defuse andspread the crowd out in order to control entry.SPACEAs people are pressed closer and closer together, theyactually move slower and slower. Crowds of people cangenerate huge and powerful compression waves. The wavescan create movement of up to 10 feet and can be toopowerful for an individual to resist. A large number ofpeople trying to go through a narrow exit might actually beslower than spreading the crowd out so they can movefaster.One major space concern is crowd density, which refers tohow many people can safely move into, or through, a space 9
  16. 16. LARRY B. PERKINSat one time. Be aware of the critical density level as definedby Fruin. He believes that when a minimum of 8 people arepressed together and have less than 1.5 ft. per person, thecrowd has reached a critical density level. At this point thereis no space between people. In this situation, shock waves;which cause individuals to move involuntarily, can be seenmoving through crowds. As crowds begin to pack in, thedanger potential grows rapidly. When guests cannot avoidcontact with other guests and there is unwanted touching,then you know that the area is at or near capacity. Whenindividual guests cannot control their own movement, youare at the critical level.What should you do? Watch areas of potential crowdingand act early to keep away. Ask to be relocated if possibleand listen to security and/or announcements regardingsafety.ENERGYThe energy level of the crowd has a huge influence on itsbehavior. High-energy crowds are much more likely topress into small spaces, creating the potential for tramplingor crushing.High-energy crowds are often a sign of fun. They are also areason to worry. Once crowds get moving, they are oftendifficult to stop. Like a freight train or oil tanker, the crowddevelops momentum that is difficult to harness.Reports of persons being literally lifted out of their shoesand clothing being torn off are common in uncontrolledcrowd situations. In tightly packed crowds, this can happenwithout the knowledge of other people standing only a fewfeet away. Survivors of crowd disasters report difficultybreathing because of crowd pressures. Asphyxia, very likelyaccentuated by fear, is a more common cause of crowddeaths than trampling. 10
  17. 17. Eight Point Crowd Management and Event Planning ModelThe pressure of a crowd is very forceful. The failure of asteel railing that was under crowd pressure was noted in theGlasgow, Scotland soccer stadium disaster is just oneindication of the forces involved with crowd pressure. Abent steel railing was also observed at the Cincinnati Whoconcert 1979. The force required to bend a 2-inch diametersteel railing 30 inches above the base, is estimated at 1,000pounds. This amount of force can be created by less thanten people.Competitive rushing away from something by a crowd istermed “panic” by Fruin. Competitive rushing toward someobjective (as with the Cincinnati incident) is termed as a“craze.”Be cognizant of high energy crowds. The energy level of acrowd can be good or bad. Energy is noted to be particularhigh at the beginning of a popular performer and/orpopular song. While high energy music boosts a crowd, slowmusic will actually slow a crowd.INFORMATIONSituations may happen so fast that the facility manager is notbe able to get the appropriate information to you in a timelyfashion. Many times guests will speculate on the issues andthen pass this information on to those around them, even ifit is totally false.If the event must be cancelled, chances are you will notreceive a refund that evening. There are many reasons forthis to happen. The event may have been sold out and thefacility might not have enough funds on hand to refund allof the patrons the night of the event. The performer,promoter and facility may be trying to reschedule the eventfor the next day, or as soon thereafter as possible. Trafficmay still be arriving that the facility must deal with or thefacility may be preparing for the exiting. 11
  18. 18. LARRY B. PERKINSIf you purchased your tickets at an outlet, broker or sourceother than at the venue, then you will have to go to thepoint of purchase to seek a refund. Caution: refunds mostlikely will not include service fees. That’s a convenience feeyou paid. The facility/service centers have done their jobsby providing you with a service, much like a postal service.Look for announcements in area newspapers or listen tolocal radio and TV stations for information on refund andthe re-scheduled performance.In most states, however, you are entitled to a refund for upto one year following the original date of the scheduledevent.Should an event be cancelled the venue parking and trafficstaff will most likely begin to turn guests away and not allowyou on the property.STANDARDS OF BEHAVIORMany facilities, including the major leagues, have developed“Standards of behavior” guidelines. Serious crowdmanagement problems can occur if there are no clearstandards of behavior. While you may have the right of freespeech, those attending the event have also paid for theright to enjoy the event without “undue” interruption. Takefor instance if the person seated in front of you stands upfor the entire event, blocking your view, screaming andspilling their drink. All you want to do is sit and enjoy theperformance. Another person may be unable to stand forlong periods. They may have just had surgery, guests with adisability, or may be tired, any number of reasons.Thus, facilities generally have adopted the “Mode of theCrowd” standard. This is the “majority rules” approach. Ifmost people are standing during a particular song, to watcha scoring drive, or to see a shot, then standing is permissible. 12
  19. 19. Eight Point Crowd Management and Event Planning ModelShould a person remain standing after this period of time,this action is considered outside the standard.The “Wait” rule is another standard or etiquette that isfound at events such as tennis, hockey, and theatricalperformances. It is customary to wait until there’s astoppage in play before going in and out of the seating area.The same is true with the “Quiet” rule. That is, you waituntil the end of a scene or match point to show yourappreciation with applause and other gestures of approval.Standards of behavior are found in other areas as well; suchas a required dress code to enter certain areas of a facilitylike a restaurant or private reception.Certain attitudes and activities are also governed by thesestandards. Most facilities will not tolerate large groups organgs who roam about the facility at will, contributing to anuncontrolled atmosphere, or showing a general lack ofrespect for authority. 13
  20. 20. LARRY B. PERKINSADDITIONAL FACTORS THAT INFLUENCEBEHAVIORAL PROBLEMSTIME OF EXPECTED ARRIVAL Demographics History of crowd Age group Ticket demandPUBLIC SETTING Type of assembly and capacity Location of event Purpose and nature of event Community conflictsGROUP INVOLVEMENT Support of entertainers Groups regard for safety Persuasive power and influence of group History of act and/or eventONE-ON-ONE COMMUNICATION DIFFICULTY Person does not speak the language of your country What is that person’s customs?CHARGED UP ATMOSPHERE Emotions of the crowd Will there be a delay in opening the gates on time (delayed gate opening at the WHO concert in Cincinnati in 1979, caused 12 patrons to be stampeded to death)UNINHIBITED CUSTOMERS Unchallenged and uncontrolled patrons Clusters of groups are free to move about at will throughout the facility Gangs and gang activity 14
  21. 21. Eight Point Crowd Management and Event Planning ModelNO STANDARD OF BEHAVIOR Patrons are not informed or aware of policies Policies are not enforced Prohibited items are secretly brought into the venue Patrons are standing in the aisles and on the chairs Lack of respect for authorityCONFLICT OF VALUES A patrons principle on an issue could make them feel as though a wrong has been inflicted upon them, i.e. babes-in-arms policy, in which theyre unwilling to pay admission for their child)ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION How much alcohol is being consumed over a given period of time? The type of crowd consuming alcohol and/or other drugs. Average age of patrons.Other Influences on Crowd Behavior crowd Situation Public Setting Group Involvement One on One Communications Difficulty Uninhibited customers No Standard of Behavior Alcohol Consumption Safety and Security Role 15
  22. 22. LARRY B. PERKINSDeveloping an Event Plan – Section CInvestigate Gather Information Who’s coming Who’s the promoter What are our needs What are their needs Who will need to be involved What issues or problems that occurred in the past How many are expected to attend Where will they be coming from Any special requirements First Time/Infrequent Visitors What happened the last time they were here or at another facility Early/Later Arrivals Prohibited Items Special Events in the Area Permits required Staging areasAnalyze Capacity to Put on the Event – Seating needs, parking spaces, and distances, rain plan, special tickets and pricing Shuttle Services needed Handicap needs Time of day, Day of week, Month of Year – will weather play a role History of Event - The good, Bad and ugly Demographics - Age group and issues related to each type Expertise of Staff – Are they capable of handling the expected audience 16
  23. 23. Eight Point Crowd Management and Event Planning Model Resources and Equipment - rain gear, lights, flashlights, bullhorns, signage, stanchions What’s at stake –Risks Special Interest groupsPlan Plan in advance, testing your theories and emergency procedures, and what will you do should an adverse condition occurs Written Procedures – Do you have written procedures for this event Chain of Command Assess staffing levels – is the staff adequate for this event and event type Assess Vulnerability – Has each and every area you are responsible for been addressed Are re-locations planned properly Identify Critical areas and operational components. Develop disciplines to counteract unwanted event environment and other conditionsCommunicate To the decision makers - what will you communicate and when will you communicate with the decision makers To staff; meeting, pre-event briefings – what will you provide to them and where will you brief them To promoter – any need to interact with the promoter To neighbors - Are there any issues to communicate to neighbors or other interested parties, i.e. News media, area businesses To community and emergency Services To Highway and Road Authorities 17
  24. 24. LARRY B. PERKINSExecute Determine the Facility, Event and Staff Readiness Put the plan in motionSupervise Monitor the crowd dynamics and traffic conditions throughout the event Look for negative variances in the plan Observe the Staff Execution – are they responding as plan – was the plan effective communicated to them Are they asking questions on the radio and was covered Are supervisors intoned to these variationsAdjust Respond to those negative variables and take corrective measures to counteract those negative disciplinesCritique Assess the plan applied and set new disciples where needed. 18
  25. 25. Eight Point Crowd Management and Event Planning ModelThe Four Critical Periods for Injures and Death -Section D Ingress Egress Protest CelebrationDesign Training for Crowd Managers – Section E 1/250 NFPA ratio Who are Crowd Managers? IAAM Crowd Assembly Facilitator (CAF)The Nine Training Components 1. Training 2. Assist guests 3. Implement facility/event policies and procedures 4. Risk management 5. Crowd dynamics management 6. Knowledge of event and facilities 7. Conflict identification & mitigation 8. Perform communication function 9. Major emergency responseExample - Crowd Dynamics ManagementAdjust to crowd demographicsAnticipate crowd activities and behaviorMaintain the usability of means of egressMake guests aware of their responsibilitiesObserve crowd for potential problemsMonitor flow of crowd for duration of eventRecognize potential crowd crushReport potential crowd problems to supervisorIdentify changing crowd behavior and demeanor 19
  26. 26. LARRY B. PERKINSTraining Topics and LevelsCrowd Assembly Facilitators - Level IA. Classroom Orientation & TrainingComponents Alcohol management Crowd management and crowd control Event planning Crowd assembly facilitator Disabled guest sensitivity Facility policy & procedures Rules and regulations governing use of the property Ticketing policy & scalping laws Report writing Uniform, communication and equipment procedures and care Legal powers Emergency evacuation procedures Conflict mitigation and resolution Day of event cancellation procedures Medical services Personal inquiries or illness procedures Employee parking, identification, facility access and restrictions Facilities Mission 20
  27. 27. Eight Point Crowd Management and Event Planning ModelB. Initial On-the-Job Process Event briefing Introductory Post Assignment Personal break procedures Facility layout Communications & Equipment Emergency proceduresC. In-Service Training Departmental training Day of event evacuation drills Seasonal kick-off conference Special sessionsCrowd Assembly Facilitator Supervisor - Level IIA. Classroom Course Supervisors role Risk management Fire safety & equipment operations Bomb threat procedures CPR Crowd dynamics Payroll and time entry procedures Courtroom procedures Customer satisfaction program (If you have one) Case studies Duty of CareB. Initial On- the-Job Training Event operations and crowd management Facility survey Supervisors briefing Equipment assignment Employee roster 21
  28. 28. LARRY B. PERKINS Facility inspection Facility, Event and Staff Readiness 22
  29. 29. Eight Point Crowd Management and Event Planning ModelFacility/Event use Policies and Procedure – SectionF Facility Employee Guests TenantFederal, State and Local Ordinances and NFPA 101 Occupancy Loads for your Facility Flow Rate Safety Compliance Inspection RequirementsAction Plan – Section G Establish a Crowd Management Committee Evaluations Conduct Life Safety Evaluations at annually or earlier if your make changes to your facility or procedures Conduct a “Best Practices” Security Analysis (Levels and Protocols)Summary of Objective:Our objective for this session was to provide “structure”to Crowd Management Planning for the protection of lifeand property 23
  30. 30. LARRY B. PERKINSFacilitation Suggestions—Crowd ManagementPlanningBefore the meeting, develop two or three case studies byreviewing incident reports, event reports and/or byinterviewing staff members regarding something thatworked correctly or something that was less than effectiveat an event. Prepare a brief narrative describing the eventand incidents at the event.After showing the videotape, review all methods ofShaping Crowd Behavior in Section B and the eightcomponents of Developing an Event Plan in Section C.Your review may be a combination of mini-lecture plusquestions posed to the group. In Section B for example,you might ask the participants, “Give me an example ofwhen ‘Time’ worked against us at an event.” Then followup their responses with additional questions such as,“What else contributed to the…” until all pertinent detailshave been ‘discovered.’Distribute the narrative for Case Study 1. Instruct thegroup to follow the bullets in Sections B and C, addresswhat happened in terms of each element at that event,and how it affected the outcome of the event.Facilitate this discussion by (1) keeping the discussionmoving, (2) keeping the group on track (not going off onside issues), and (3) getting everyone’s involvement.When all issues have been discussed, bring the discussionto conclusion by asking the following questions:What conclusions can we draw from this case study?What did we learn about avoiding theseincidents/situations at future events?How will we make this part of our plan? (Actions mightinvolve anything from physical setup to policies andprocedures to training issues.)Repeat this process with the additional case study (ies). 24
  31. 31. Eight Point Crowd Management and Event Planning ModelFollow up activityAssign a committee or task force to repeat this analysisfor all incidents/situations that may occur.The bottom line is to analyze your events asdemonstrated and then put a plan in place, andcommunicate the plan. 25
  32. 32. ABOUT THE AUTHORABOUT THE AUTHORLarry Perkins attended John Jay College of Criminal Justice.He’s a former Private Investigator and has held aGovernment Top Secret Clearance. He is also a CertifiedFacilities Executive, a Certified Protection Professional andCrowd Management Professional. Mr. Perkins is worldrenowned for his work in the field of Crowd Managementand Crowd Behavior. He has written books and numerousarticles on the subject; conducted hundreds of radio,television, and news interviews; and has appeared on NBCTV Dateline in a segment entitled, “Crowd Management; GetOut Alive” and on ESPN’s Outside the Lines with LouDobbs.Larry has returned to his beloved state, North Carolina,where he makes his home once again. 27

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