AR10x96 Barricade:How To For Construction Personnel


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The purpose of this PowerPoint is to supplement the airport specific training for construction personnel working on or adjacent to runways and taxiways addressing the Construction Safety Plan and airport ground vehicle/pedestrian procedures.

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  • Three areas of obstruction standards to discuss. Also, talk about other useful information.
  • Three areas of obstruction standards to discuss. Also, talk about other useful information.
  • Three areas of obstruction standards to discuss. Also, talk about other useful information.
  • Three areas of obstruction standards to discuss. Also, talk about other useful information.
  • Three areas of obstruction standards to discuss. Also, talk about other useful information.
  • Three areas of obstruction standards to discuss. Also, talk about other useful information.
  • Three areas of obstruction standards to discuss. Also, talk about other useful information.
  • Three areas of obstruction standards to discuss. Also, talk about other useful information.
  • Three areas of obstruction standards to discuss. Also, talk about other useful information.
  • Three areas of obstruction standards to discuss. Also, talk about other useful information.
  • Three areas of obstruction standards to discuss. Also, talk about other useful information.
  • Three areas of obstruction standards to discuss. Also, talk about other useful information.
  • AR10x96 Barricade:How To For Construction Personnel

    1. 1. FAA Safety Requirements for Airfield Construction
    2. 2. Purpose• The purpose of this PowerPoint is to supplement the airport specific training for construction personnel working on or adjacent to runways and taxiways addressing the Construction Safety Plan and airport ground vehicle/pedestrian procedures.
    3. 3. Vehicle and Pedestrian RequirementsRelated to Construction Activity 3
    4. 4. Definition of a Vehicle/Pedestrian Deviation (V/PD) A Vehicle/Pedestrian Deviation (V/PD) is an unauthorized access or movement by a vehicle or pedestrian on the movement area without Air Traffic Control (ATC) clearance. 4
    5. 5. Definition of a Runway IncursionA V/PD Runway Incursion is anyoccurrence at an airport involving theincorrect presence of a vehicle or personon the protected area or a surfacedesignated for the landing and take-offof aircraft. 5
    6. 6. Definition of a V/PD Surface IncidentA V/PD Surface Incident is anyunauthorized access onto an activetaxiway by a vehicle or pedestrianwithout ATC clearance. 6
    7. 7. Air Operations Area (AOA)The Air Operations Area (AOA) is the portion of the airfield inside the securityfence where airport safety and security regulations apply. 7
    8. 8. Movement Areas – Towered Airports Movement Area Non-movement areaThe Movement Area is the portion of the airfield where aircraft operate under 8the control of the Air Traffic Control Tower (ATCT). The movement areaincludes runways and taxiways. Normally, the apron area is non-movementarea, however, at some airports, a taxiway may be located adjacent to theapron area and be under the control of Air Traffic Control.
    9. 9. Movement Areas – Towered Airports Taxiway nt Area a eme t are Mov me n Non-movement area move N on- boundary marking ApronAt airports where a taxiway is located adjacent to the apron area and under thecontrol of the Air Traffic Control Tower (ATCT), a non-movement areaboundary marking will be installed on the apron to identify where pilots, vehicleoperators and pedestrians must obtain ATCT clearance to proceed. 9
    10. 10. Movement Areas – Towered Airports ATC Controlled Uncontrolled Movement Area Non-movement Area Non-movement area boundary markingThe dashed line is on the movement area side of the marking, which iscontrolled by Air Traffic Control (ATC). Do NOT walk or drive across this linewithout ATC clearance. If you cross this line without clearance, you havecommitted a V/PD surface incident. 10
    11. 11. Runway Safety Areas Typical Runway Used by Airlines 250’ Runway Safety Area Runway 1000’ 1000’Runway safety area dimensions are based on the size and landing speed ofthe aircraft using the runway. Typically, for runways used by airlines, therunway safety area extends 250 ft from runway centerline and 1000 ft off eachend. 11
    12. 12. Runway Safety AreasThe runway safety area enhances the safety of airplanes which undershoot,overrun, or veer off the runway, and it provides greater accessibility forfirefighting and rescue equipment during such incidents. (AC 150/5300-13,Airport Design, Appendix 8, Par 3a) 12
    13. 13. Runway Safety AreasVehicles or unauthorized objects in runway safety areas compromise theintegrity of the safety area in the event that an aircraft leaves the pavement. 13
    14. 14. The purpose of the runway safety area is to minimize the damage to an aircraft thatinadvertently leaves the runway. For this reason, it must remain “sterile” during aircraftoperations.However, during some construction projects, it is necessary for work to be conducted ina portion of the runway safety area. In these situations, construction work may beconducted no closer than 200 feet from the runway centerline. If these conditionscannot be met, the runway must be closed to air carriers. 14
    15. 15. If construction equipment/vehicles operate within 200 feet of the runwaycenterline during air carrier operations, the airport operator is subject to FAAenforcement action for violation of Part 139.309(b)(4), 139.201(a), 139.329(b)or 139.329(e). 15
    16. 16. Runway Safety Areas A1 A Typically 250’ from runway Typically 1000’ centerline off each runway end A1 A A1 20 - 2 A 2 Runway Safety Area Boundary  A1 A ATo protect the runway and runway safety area, holding positions are installed atthe boundary of the runway safety area on all taxiways that enter runways. 16
    17. 17. Runway Holding Positions Holding Position Holding Position Sign Marking Runway 13-31 A “Location Sign” identifies the taxiway you are on. At this location, you are on Taxiway Charlie.Runway holding positions on taxiways have both a holding position sign andholding position marking. 17
    18. 18. Runway Holding PositionsRunway holding position signs have a red background with white legend. Therunway designations are arranged in the direction of the runway thresholds.Runway 19L is to the left and Runway 1R is to the right. 18
    19. 19. Runway Holding Positions Runway Holding side Holding Position MarkingRunway holding position markings consist of two solid lines and two dashedlines. The solid lines are the holding side of the marking. 19
    20. 20. Vehicle/Pedestrian Deviations (V/PD) Holding PointA vehicle operator or pedestrian crossing the holding positionmarking for an active runway without ATCT authorization, commitsa V/PD runway incursion. 20
    21. 21. Runway Holding Positions Enhanced Taxiway Centerline MarkingCertificated airports are in the process of installing enhanced taxiway centerlines to alertpilots and vehicle operators that they are approaching a runway holding position. Thesemarkings consist of dashes on both sides of the taxiway centerline, which start 150 feetprior to the hold position marking. These markings may or may not be installed at theairport you are working on. 21
    22. 22. Runway Holding Positions Surface Painted Holding Position SignSurface painted holding position signs may be located at some runway holding positions. 22
    23. 23. If you become lost on the airfield movement area, absolutely do not cross a runway holding position. Runway Holding Position 23
    24. 24. Airport Construction BarricadesBarricades are used to keep aircraft out of closed areas and to keepconstruction vehicles out of active movement areas. They look the same inboth situations. Vehicle operators need to pay close attention when drivingthrough or around barricades to make sure you are not entering an activemovement area. 24
    25. 25. Airport Construction BarricadesWhen construction activity is being conducted on a taxiway adjacent to anactive runway, barricades are normally installed along the runway holdingposition marking. Do not drive through the barricades without ATCT clearancein this situation or you will be committing a V/PD Runway Incursion. 25
    26. 26. Airport Construction BarricadesConstruction personnel have become confused and exited construction areas in thewrong direction, resulting in a surface incident or runway incursion. 26
    27. 27. V/PD Runway Incursion – March 2008A cement truck working on Taxiway Charlie proceeded past the barricades on thetaxiway and crossed Runway 15 to Taxiway Lima without authorization. The truck thenreversed course and crossed Runway 15 back to Taxiway Charlie. A Cessna C525 on 1mile final was issued a go around. 27
    28. 28. Vehicle/Pedestrian Deviations (V/PD)Driving or walking on an active taxiway without ATCT clearance isa V/PD Surface Incident. 28
    29. 29. Vehicle/Pedestrian Deviations (V/PD)Driving or walking on an active runway or runway safety area,without ATC clearance, is a V/PD Runway Incursion. 29
    30. 30. Vehicle/Pedestrian Deviations (V/PD)What happens when a V/PD occurs. • The Air Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) completes FAA Form 8020-24, Preliminary V/PD Deviation Report. • FAA Airports Division issues a Letter of Investigation to the airport operator. • The airport operator investigates the incident, initiates corrective actions as appropriate, and sends a report to the FAA Airports Division. • The FAA Airports Division investigates the incident, reviews the airport’s ground vehicle procedures, training program, records and incident report on the V/PD. • The Airport Certification Inspector determines appropriate action and issues a closeout letter, Warning Letter, Letter of Correction, or initiates civil penalty action as a result of the FAA’s investigation. • The Airport Certification Inspector completes FAA Form 8020-25, Investigation of V/PD Report. 30
    31. 31. Vehicle/Pedestrian Deviations (V/PD)What happens when a V/PD occurs.Construction personnel committing a V/PD will likelylose their authorization to be on the airport AirOperations Area, or as a minimum, be required to beretrained. 31
    32. 32. Vehicle/Pedestrian Deviations (V/PD)Your activity on the movement area is being observed. ATCT personnel arerequired to report any unauthorized access or operation on the movement area. 32
    33. 33. Examples of Construction Related V/PDsConstruction Vehicle Runway Incursion, October, 2007Two contractor vehicles (pick-up truck and front end loader) were observed bya Port Authority vehicle crossing Runway 17C at Taxiway ER withoutauthorization. No conflicts reported. The vehicle operator told the PortAuthority that they were being escorted around the south end of 17C and saw ashortcut, and decided to take it.When being escorted on the movement area, all drivers must stay with theescort vehicle while being escorted. 33
    34. 34. Examples of V/PDsConstruction Vehicle Runway Incursion, November, 2007An airport vehicle escorting 2 construction vehicles, was instructed to hold shortof Runway 4/22 at A4 intersection. A CANADAIR CRJ2 on landing reportedone vehicle partially past the hold short line as the CRJ2 passed A4intersection. The vehicle stopped approximately 5-10 feet past hold line andclosest proximity to runway edge line was 165 feet horizontal.When being escorted on the movement area, drivers must not pass the escortvehicle at any time. 34
    35. 35. Examples of V/PDsConstruction Personnel Surface Incident, June 2009Two personnel with a paint crew working on the apron, walked across the non-movement area boundary marking without ATC clearance resulting in a V/PDsurface incident. The paint crew did not receive any ground vehicle/pedestriantraining and was being escorted by a trained individual who left the paint crewalone when the V/PD occurred.When escorting personnel and vehicles on the movement area, do not leavethem alone at any time. 35
    36. 36. Examples of V/PDsConstruction Vehicle Runway Incursion, December, 2007Runway 16/34 is closed and under construction. Taxiway A has beentemporarily converted into Runway 17/35. A construction vehicle (Chevy pick-up truck) originating from the closed runway, proceeded via Taxiway Delta toRunway 17 without any communications with the tower. The vehicle enteredthe runway at high speed, as a Beech BE99 was just passing Taxiway D onlanding roll out Runway 17. The controller stated that it just missed the tail ofthe aircraft and the vehicle turned northbound on the runway. According toArpt Mgr, the intersection is properly signed and marked and the contractorinformed him that all were trained.This runway incursion by a construction vehicle almost resulted in a collisionwith an aircraft. 36
    37. 37. V/PD Surface IncidentJune 11, 2009 – During an apron rehab project, the consultant Engineer’s Inspector wasescorting a paint crew on the apron and adjacent Taxiway Alpha. The Engineer’sInspector left the paint crew on the apron unescorted while he coordinated work activitywith the FBO. During the time he was at the FBO, two of the paint crew walked acrossthe non-movement area boundary marking without ATC clearance, resulting in a V/PDsurface incident.
    38. 38. V/PD Surface Incident Taxiway Alphacrossing point with Flag personnelJuly 24, 2009 – After being cleared to proceed across active Taxiway Alpha by a flagperson, a contractor employee turned right and drove down the active portion of TaxiwayAlpha without ATC clearance. A different phase of the Taxiway Alpha reconstructionproject went into effect July 20th and the construction employee did not receive trainingfor the new phase of the project. That portion of Alpha had previously been closed.
    39. 39. Preventing V/PDsConstruction personnel authorized adjacent to or on the movement area mustbe properly trained in the airport’s pedestrian and ground vehicle procedures orbe escorted by a trained individual. 39
    40. 40. Preventing V/PDsAOA access control procedures must be in place where constructionequipment and personnel enter the AOA. 40
    41. 41. Preventing V/PDsVehicle operators must comply with the directions of flag personnel whereconstruction equipment must cross an active portion of the movement area andprocedures for flag personnel are in place. 41
    42. 42. Preventing V/PDsConstruction activity provides a much higher risk of pedestrian and groundvehicle deviations due to a large number of personnel, who are not familiar withthe airport, operating on or adjacent to movement areas. Watch for warningsigns that may be posted adjacent to active movement areas. 42
    43. 43. Preventing V/PDsConstruction vehicles normally drive through barricades to enter and leaveconstruction sites. Sometimes barricades are installed close together toprevent vehicles from inadvertently entering an active portion of the movementarea. Do not remove barricades to drive through. You may be entering anactive movement area without clearance. 43
    44. 44. Preventing V/PDsSometimes fencing will be installed adjacent to the movement areas. Do notcross any fencing. 44
    45. 45. Example of Problem – ConstructionThis construction warning sign was not moved back into place after the runwaywas reopened to prevent inadvertent entry into the runway safety area. 45
    46. 46. Example of Problem – ConstructionThe sand bags weighing down this construction warning sign deteriorated tothe point where they were no longer effective. 46
    47. 47. If you are authorized to drive on the movement area, always look carefullybefore crossing a runway, even when cleared by ATC. Controllers, pilots andvehicle drivers can make a mistake. 47
    48. 48. Other FAA AirportCertificationRegulation IssuesRelated toConstructionActivity 48
    49. 49. Barricades/Red LightsBarricades are used to mark closed pavement and keep aircraft from enteringthe closed area. 49
    50. 50. Barricades/Red LightsAC 150/5370-2E, Par 3-8 b) states, “With taxiways, place an “X” at theentrance of the closed taxiway.” The use of an “X” provides a good visualreference of closed taxiways to pilots flying over the airport before landing. 50
    51. 51. Barricades/Red Lights A1 A Installing the Temporary “X” barricades 200’ from runway centerline would be more visible to pilots compared to A1 locating them on the holdline. A1 20 - 2 A 2  A1 A AUse a temporary “X” at the entrance to the runway exit from the runway. 51
    52. 52. Barricades/Red Lights A1 A 200’ A1 A1 20 - 2 A 2  A1 A AInstalling barricades 200’ from the runway centerline would better identify theclosed runway exit to pilots during both day and night conditions. However,barricades must be the low mass easily collapsible type if located in the runwaysafety area. 52
    53. 53. Example of Problem – ConstructionThe barricades for this construction area are at the entrance to the closedtaxiway in the far background. Additional barricades should have also beenplaced at the construction site in this situation. A pilot could have missedseeing the barricades if they approached the taxiway from the apron. Thiscould also be a potentially dangerous situation for vehicle operators at night. 53
    54. 54. Example of Problem – ConstructionBe sure that the retroreflective stripes on barricades are facing in the rightdirection. The stripes at this location are facing the closed area. 54
    55. 55. Barricades/Red LightsBarricades used to mark construction areas or closed pavement must be aslow as possible to the ground; low mass; easily collapsible upon contact with anaircraft or any of its components; and weighted or sturdily attached to thesurface to prevent displacement from prop wash, jet blast, wing vortex, or othersurface wind currents. (AC 150/5370-2E, Par 3-9 b) This particular barricade isdesigned to be filled with water. 55
    56. 56. Example of Problem – ConstructionRailroad ties are not to be used on runways, which includes the runway safetyarea. (AC 150/5370-2E, Par 3-9 b) 56
    57. 57. Barricades/Red Lights Movement A rea Non-movement AreaThe use of concrete jersey barricades in the movement areas (adjacent totaxiways) is not acceptable. (AC 150/5370-2E, Par 3-9 b) 57
    58. 58. Barricades/Red LightsLow profile, low mass barricades must be used to mark the boundary ofconstruction areas that are adjacent to open taxiways. 58
    59. 59. Barricades/Red LightsHighway type barricades may be too high for use adjacent to movement areas. 59
    60. 60. Barricades/Red Lights Is there a chance that this barricade could be hit by a prop?Props on twin engine aircraft could hit taller highway type barricades. 60
    61. 61. Barricades/Red LightsSome aircraft have engines that are located fairly close to the ground, limitingthe height of barricades used to mark construction areas adjacent to movementareas used by these aircraft. The possibility of engine ingestion is also aconcern when placing barricades adjacent to taxi routes. 61
    62. 62. Barricades/Red LightsThe taller type barricades should be okay where located some distance off anactive taxiway to block off a closed taxiway. These barricades are more visibleand may be better when used to mark closed taxiways or runway exits whenset back from the active movement area. 62
    63. 63. Taxiway Ending MarkerThe use of a temporary taxiway ending marker to supplement barricades is agood practice and highly recommended to mark closed taxiways. Thesemarkers are visible to pilots from a farther distance than the typical low profiletype barricades. 63
    64. 64. Barricades/Red LightsUse highly reflective barriers with flashing or steady-burning red lights tobarricade taxiways leading to closed runways. Evaluate all operating factorswhen determining how to mark temporary closures that can last from 10 to 15minutes to a much longer period of time. However, we strongly recommendthat, even for closures of relatively short duration, major taxiway/runwayintersections be identified with barricades spaced no greater than 20 feet apart. (AC 150/5370-2E, Par 3-9 b) 64
    65. 65. Example of Problem – ConstructionIn accordance with AC 150/5370-2E, Operational Safety on Airports DuringConstruction, Par 3-9a & 3-9b, yellow lights are no longer acceptable forlighting construction areas on movement areas and nonmovement areas.(Became effective October 2004) 65
    66. 66. Barricades/Red LightsRed lights for marking construction areas are required because of a problemwith pilots confusing flashing yellow construction lights with in-pavementRunway Guard Lights. 66
    67. 67. Barricades/Red LightsThis photo shows an example of a flashing red light that is visible 360 degrees.These type of red lights are recommended. 67
    68. 68. Barricades/Red LightsIf you choose a flat light fixture rather than a 360 degree light, rotate one of thelights 90 degrees as shown in this photo. 68
    69. 69. Barricades/Red LightsBarricades, warning lighting, and reflectors must be adequate to keep aircraftout of construction areas during nighttime and low visibility conditions. Flashingred lights must be maintained operable at night. 69
    70. 70. Example of Problem – ConstructionFour of these barricades have been knocked over by jet blast and should havebeen better secured with sandbags. 70
    71. 71. Pilot Visual AidsDo not place equipment or materials in front of signs that are adjacent to activeareas of the movement area. 71
    72. 72. Example of Problem – Construction Holding position sign is not visibleConstruction material and barricades are obstructing the runway holdingposition sign. 72
    73. 73. Example of Problem – ConstructionThis newly installed holding position sign is blocked by the old sign, whichshould have been removed rather than covered. Problem Corrected 73
    74. 74. Pilot Visual AidsHolding position signs are required by Part 139.311(b)(ii) and are considered critical forsafety. If a holding position is to remain open during construction activity and the holdingposition sign is removed, a temporary holding position sign must be provided andilluminated at night. 74
    75. 75. Pilot Visual AidsIf necessary, signs can be temporarily installed on 2x4s and connected to the electricalsystem for nighttime operations. 75
    76. 76. Pilot Visual Aids 76Signs for closed areas should be covered or removed so as not to providemisleading or confusing information to pilots, especially at night.
    77. 77. Pilot Visual AidsTaxiway edge lights in closed areas should be covered if the lights cannot beturned off at night. 77
    78. 78. Pilot Visual AidsIf taxiway centerline lights lead into a closed area, the light fixtures should becovered if the lights cannot be disconnected or turned off. 78
    79. 79. Singapore Airlines B-747-400 Construction Related AccidentSingapore Airlines flight SQ006 to Los Angeles, crashed on takeoff from Taipeis ChangKai Shek International Airport at 23:18 local time. The weather in the area was rapidlydeteriorating due to an approaching typhoon. At 140 knots, the 747 impacted concretejersey barricades and several pieces construction equipment, causing the aircraft tobreak into 3 parts and igniting a large post-crash fire. There were 83 fatalities (24Americans) out of 179 passengers and crew. 79
    80. 80. Singapore Airlines B-747-400 Construction Related AccidentThe flight crew mistakenly attempted takeoff on Runway 5R instead of assigned Runway5L. Runway 5R was closed for construction at the time of the accident, however, therunway was not barricaded at the takeoff end because that portion of the runway wasbeing used as a taxi route. 80
    81. 81. Singapore Airlines B-747-400 Construction Related AccidentTaxiway centerline lights leading to Runway 5R and poor visibility from the approachingtyphoon were contributing factors causing the accident. 81
    82. 82. Example of a Good PracticeTemporarily painting over or removing taxiway centerlines leading into closedmovement areas is a good practice. 82
    83. 83. Example of Problem – ConstructionThis taxiway centerline could lead a pilot into a closed area, the centerlineshould have been removed when the pavement was closed for an extendedperiod of time. Also, the barricades should have red lights are spaced far tooapart to provide safe delineation. 83
    84. 84. Example of Problem – Construction Taxiway ending marker installed Centerline removedHere is the intersection after corrective action. However, the barricade lightsare still yellow and the large gaps still exist. 84
    85. 85. Marking Closed RunwaysYellow X’s at each runway end are used to mark temporarily closed runways. Ifsand bags are used to weight down the yellow X, they should also be yellow. 85
    86. 86. Example of Problem – ConstructionThis small closed runway X doesn’t even come close to meeting the FAAstandards of 60 feet in AC 150/5340-1J, Standards for Airport Markings, Figure30, and could easily be missed by a pilot. 86
    87. 87. Example of Problem – ConstructionThis white closed runway X does not meet the FAA standards of yellow in AC150/5340-1J, Standards for Airport Markings, Par 41a. The white X blends inwith the designation marking and may not be seen by pilots. 87
    88. 88. Example of Problem – ConstructionTemporary X’s must be adequately secured. During and after high windconditions, check temporary X’s for displacement. 88
    89. 89. Marking Temporary Runway ThresholdsAC 150/5370-2E, Operational Safety On Airports During Construction, Par 3-5a(1)Pavement markings for temporary closed portions of the runway should consist of yellowchevrons to identify pavement areas that are unsuitable for takeoff/landing. If unable topaint the markings on the pavement, construct them from any of the following materials:double-layered painted snow fence, colored plastic, painted sheets of plywood, or similarmaterials. 89
    90. 90. Example of Problem – ConstructionThis type of construction fence material is not acceptable for use as temporarychevrons. The open material does not adequately cover the runway markingsfor this relocated threshold. 90
    91. 91. Marking Temporary Runway ThresholdsHere is a temporary relocated threshold marking using white plastic material.However, white sandbags should have been used. The yellow and orangesandbags in this situation could be distracting to pilots. 91
    92. 92. Safety AreasAt this airport, construction limit signs are install at regular intervals along theentire length of the runway at the 200 feet from runway centerline to provide areference point for construction personnel and airport operations personnelresponsible for monitoring construction. 92
    93. 93. Safety AreasHere is an effective method of identifying construction limits and preventinginadvertent access into the runway safety area by installing a constructionfence along the runway safety area. 93
    94. 94. Safety AreasHere is another method of identifying construction limits by installing a markerfence along the runway safety area to provide a reference point for constructionpersonnel and airport operations personnel responsible for monitoringconstruction. 94
    95. 95. Taxiway Safety AreasIn some situations, taxiways may need to be temporarily closed or restricted tosmall aircraft only when adequate wingtip clearance is not available. Barricadesalso do not meet requirements of the AC. 95
    96. 96. Safety AreasConstruction activity and excavations may occur in taxiway safety areas whereair carriers operate, if necessary, provided that the excavations aremarked/lighted if needed, and a NOTAM is issued. 96
    97. 97. Example of Problem – ConstructionThis construction equipment appears to be parked within the runway safetyarea, contrary to Part 139.309(b)(4) and AC 150/5370-2E, Operational Safetyon Airports During Construction, Par 2-6. 97
    98. 98. Example of Problem – Construction 98Mounds of rubble/fill material are located in the runway safety area within 200feet of the runway centerline, contrary to Part 139.309(b)(1) and AC150/5370-2E, Operational Safety on Airports During Construction, Par 3-2.
    99. 99. Example of Problem – ConstructionThis runway at a GA airport was open throughout the winter with surfacevariations in the safety area and fill material present on the edge of the runwayfrom a PAPI project that was interrupted for winter weather. 99
    100. 100. Example of Problem – ConstructionThese large light can holes are located in the runway safety area and were notcovered up before opening the runway. 100
    101. 101. Example of Problem – ConstructionPiles of gravel or other stockpiled material cannot be located in runway safetyareas. 101Stockpiled materials and equipment storage are not permitted within the RSA and OFZof an operational runway. The airport operator must ensure that stockpiled materialsand equipment adjacent to these areas are prominently marked and lighted during hoursof restricted visibility or darkness. This includes determining and verifying that materialsare stored at an approved location to prevent foreign object damage and attraction ofwildlife. (AC 150/5370-2E, Par 3-12)
    102. 102. Example of Problem – ConstructionObjects cannot be located in a safety area or object free areas (OFA). Theselarge cable reels are not located in the taxiway safety area, however, they arelocated in the taxiway OFA and should have been removed after theconstruction activity. 102
    103. 103. Safety AreasIf a silt fence must be installed in a safety area, wooden stakes or PVC pipingmust be used. 103
    104. 104. Example of Problem – ConstructionUsing steel fence posts to install silt fences in safety areas is contrary to Part139.309(b)(4). 104
    105. 105. Example of Problem – ConstructionThis portable lighting equipment was left in the runway safety area, contrary toPart 139.309(b)(4) and AC 150/5370-2E, Operational Safety on Airports DuringConstruction, Par 2-6. 105
    106. 106. This pickup should not be parked in the runway safety area. Constructionvehicles, construction activity, equipment, construction material and potentiallyhazardous surface variations in the runway safety area is only permitted up to200 feet of the runway centerline if necessary for the construction project. 106
    107. 107. Example of Problem – ConstructionThere was no need for this construction vehicle to be parked in the runwaysafety area so instructions were issued to immediately move the vehicle out ofthe runway safety area. 107
    108. 108. Safety Areas Note: The pilot in this accident was taxiing on a closed taxiway.Construction equipment should not be parked adjacent to movement areas thathas the potential to be hit by a taxiing aircraft. 108
    109. 109. LAX – September 27, 1999 Note: The pilot in this accident was taxiing on a closed taxiway.This green truck was hit by a taxiing B-747 at 4:11 am. 109
    110. 110. LAX – September 27, 1999Prior to hitting the green truck, the B-747 hit this red truck, 110
    111. 111. LAX – September 27, 1999 and this pickup. 111
    112. 112. LAX – September 27, 1999 112
    113. 113. Post Construction 113
    114. 114. Post Construction - Paved AreasPaved areas must be free of Foreign Object Debris (FOD) and loose aggregatebefore the pavement is opened for aircraft operations. 114
    115. 115. Example of Problem – ConstructionThis shingle apparently fell off a truck after painting activity and could beingested into a jet engine, causing significant damage. 115
    116. 116. Post Construction - Paved AreasThere should not be any pavement lips along new pavement. Turf areasshould be close to level with the pavement to prevent turf damming and allowfor settling. 116
    117. 117. Example of Problem – ConstructionThe pavement lip at this location exceeds 3 inches and is not in compliancewith FAA requirements. 117
    118. 118. Post Construction - Safety AreasSafety areas should be graded and free of potentially hazardous surfacevariations before opening the pavement for aircraft use. 118
    119. 119. Example of Problem – ConstructionSafety areas in new construction areas should not have improperly installedfacilities.This manhole installation in the taxiway safety area was supposed to havebeen installed at grade level. 119
    120. 120. Example of Problem – ConstructionThis concrete base was supposed to have been installed at grade level andprovides a potentially hazardous surface variation in the runway safety area. 120
    121. 121. Example of Problem – ConstructionRocks and fill material were left in the runway safety area after the constructionwork was completed, providing potentially hazardous surface variations. 121
    122. 122. Example of Problem – ConstructionThese old culverts are unauthorized objects left in the runway safety area afterthe construction work was completed. 122
    123. 123. THE END 123