Growing healthy conifers protection 2011


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Growing healthy conifers protection 2011

  1. 1. Diagnosing Tree Problems<br />Linn/Benton Master Gardener Training<br />Rick Fletcher<br />OSU Extension Service<br />
  2. 2. Tree Death in the City<br />
  3. 3. Big Trees- Big Problem<br />
  4. 4. Fungal Mat in Decayed Wood<br />
  5. 5. The Real Culprit: Human Damage<br />
  6. 6. Why Trees Die<br />Complex interaction of biotic and abiotic factors……<br />And a little bad luck.<br />
  7. 7. What Kills Trees?<br />Separately or in combination:<br />Insects<br />Animals<br />Diseases<br />Abiotic Factors<br />
  8. 8. Environmental Setting<br />Look to the underlying situation before making judgments about why a tree died.<br />ALSO: Many insects and diseases occur on declining trees but are not the primary cause of death.<br />
  9. 9. Conifer Diseases<br />Root rots<br />Stem/branch cankers<br />Needle casts<br />
  10. 10. Root Rots<br />Annosus root rot<br />Oak root rot<br />Laminated root rot<br />Cedar root rot<br />
  11. 11. Diseased trees Healthy trees<br />Nancy Boriack<br />Disease pathway tree<br />
  12. 12.
  13. 13. Short leaders<br />ODF Photo<br />
  14. 14. Oak Root Disease<br />Caused by the fungus Armillaria ostoyae.<br />The most common root disease in Oregon. <br />Affects all conifers and hardwoods to some degree. <br />Particularly damaging to stressed trees.<br />The honey mushroom<br />
  15. 15. Annosus root disease<br />Can attack many species of conifers.<br />Especially bad on the Abies genus.<br />Spreads rapidly from wounds, and cut stumps.<br />
  16. 16. Dead Trees in Alsea- 2010<br />
  17. 17.
  18. 18.
  19. 19. Laminated Root Rot Damage<br />
  20. 20. Laminated Root Rot<br />Attacks all conifers, but particularly bad on Douglas-fir.<br />Trees attacked lose vigor and crown mass.<br />Many times blow over before they die.<br />
  21. 21. Cedar Root Rot<br />
  22. 22. Port-Orford Cedar Root Disease: Phytophthora lateralis.<br />Avoid soil movement from infested to uninfested sites.<br />Plant other species or disease-resistant cedar seedlings in infested areas.<br />E. Hansen photo<br />Photos from USFS Dorena Tree Improvement Center (html)<br />Photos from USFS Dorena Tree Improvement Center (html)<br />
  23. 23. Stem and Branch Cankers<br />Gall rust<br />Dermia cankers<br />Phomopsis cankers<br />Grovesiella<br />
  24. 24. Phomopsis canker<br />Attacks stressed trees. Commonly Douglas-fir.<br />
  25. 25. A New Threat- SOD<br />Disease caused by Phytophora ramorum<br />Wide host range<br />Disease has spread from California north to Oregon.<br />
  26. 26. Oregon Conifer Hosts of Concern<br />Douglas-fir and grand fir<br />
  27. 27. Needle Casts and Rusts<br />Swiss needle cast<br />Rhabdocline needle cast.<br />Pine needle cast.<br />Poplar rust<br />
  28. 28. Why the Yellow Trees?<br />
  29. 29. Swiss Needle Cast<br />Serious forest problem along the Oregon Coast.<br />Only impacts Douglas-fir.<br />Can be controlled in Christmas trees with fungicides.<br />
  30. 30. Pine Needle Cast<br />Caused by several fungal organisms.<br />Worse in areas of poor air drainage.<br />Especially bad on 2 needle pine species.<br />
  31. 31. Poplar rust on D. Fir<br />Alternate hosts are Douglas-fir and populus species.<br />Orange pustules appear on Douglas-fir in late spring.<br />Can cause substantial defoliation.<br />
  32. 32.
  33. 33. Different Insects Attack Different Parts of the Tree<br />
  34. 34. Sucking Insects<br />Aphids<br />Adelgids<br />Scales<br />Mites<br />
  35. 35. Adelgids<br />Balsam wooly adelgid<br />Aphid like insects that do both chewing and sucking damage.<br />Cause distorted growth, but rarely kill trees.<br />
  36. 36. Cooley Spruce Gall Adelgid<br />Seven different life stages.<br />Forms cone-like galls on spruce.<br />
  37. 37. Cooley Spruce Gall Adelgid<br />On Douglas-fir, crawlers form cotton ball like spots on leaves.<br />Only damages current needles.<br />
  38. 38. Needle scales<br />Wide variety of conifers affected.<br />Most severe on cedars and pines.<br />Foliage damaged, but trees not killed.<br />
  39. 39. Pine Needle Scale<br />Common on many species of pine<br />Damages foliage and weakens trees.<br />
  40. 40. Spruce Spider Mites<br />Attack several conifer species.<br />Worse during summer hot, dry weather.<br />Drought worsens attack.<br />
  41. 41. Boring insects<br />Bark Beetles<br />Twig Weevils<br />Root Weevils<br />Wood Borers<br />Needle Midges<br />
  42. 42. 2007 Vineyard Mountain Bark Beetle Attacks<br />
  43. 43. Bark Beetles<br />Most common insects linked with death of local conifers.<br />Individual insect species only attack certain species and/or genuses of conifers.<br />Can have epidemic outbreaks with the right conditions.<br />Most are native insects and are always present.<br />
  44. 44. Douglas-fir Bark Beetles<br />
  45. 45. Ipps Damage to Ponderosa Pine<br />
  46. 46. 5 Spined Ipps Damage to Pine<br />
  47. 47. Bark Beetle Signatures<br />
  48. 48. Population Control<br />Important to understand life cycle of insects.<br />Wood containing insects should be destroyed or treated to kill them.<br />
  49. 49. Douglas-fir Twig Weevil<br />Boring insect that infests small branches.<br />Associated with stress weakened trees.<br />Rarely cause death, but further weaken trees. <br />
  50. 50. Close up of Twig Weevil<br />
  51. 51. White Pine Weevil<br />Serious problem on young spruce trees.<br />Attacks and kills tree leader.<br />Infested leader will show boring holes<br />
  52. 52. A big pine problem<br />
  53. 53. Sequoia Pitch Moth<br />
  54. 54. Flat Headed Wood Borers<br />Bore beneath bark and into wood.<br />Attack weakened trees. Will attack healthy trees during droughts.<br />Found many times in firewood.<br />
  55. 55. Douglas-fir Needle Midge<br />Douglas-fir is only tree attacked.<br />Damage to needles done by tiny worms.<br />Infested needles fall of tree by Christmas.<br />Problem mainly for Christmas tree growers<br />
  56. 56. Needle Feeders<br />Can be very scary for homeowners.<br />Rarely are epidemic in our climate.<br />Can cause severe problems in native forests.<br />
  57. 57. 2010 Benton County Sample<br />
  58. 58. Field Damage Near Summit<br />
  59. 59. Look at the Litter Carefully Reveals- Sawfly Larvae Damage<br />
  60. 60. Hoodoo Pass Disaster<br />
  61. 61. Spruce Budworm<br />Serious pest in Cascades and Eastern Oregon.<br />Killed millions of acres of forest nationwide.<br />Damage is cyclical.<br />Little problem in local area.<br />
  62. 62. Douglas-fir Tussock Moth<br />A serious epidemic insect in Eastern Oregon in the 1980’s<br />Found in Willamette Valley, but not a big threat.<br />
  63. 63. Silver Spotted Tiger Moth<br />Attacks mostly Douglas-fir<br />Voracious feeder.<br />Can defoliate small tree in a couple of days.<br />Doesn’t kill trees.<br />
  64. 64. Gypsy Moth<br />Serious non-native insect.<br />Attacks nearly all tree species.<br />Is especially damaging to conifers like Douglas-fir.<br />Population currently under control in OR.<br />
  65. 65. Other Tree Damage<br />Air Pollution<br />Sunburn<br />Frost injury<br />Nutritional deficiency<br />Stem rots<br />Animal damage<br />
  66. 66. Air pollution damage<br />SO2 and alder.<br />
  67. 67. Sun & Heat Damage<br />Drooping foliage.<br />Necrotic needles in late summer.<br />
  68. 68. Sunscald to Trunk<br />Problem on small trees with thin bark.<br />Made worse by pruning lower limbs too soon.<br />
  69. 69. Cold Damage<br />Foliage desiccated by cold, dry winds.<br />Buds/tissue killed by early or late frosts.<br />
  70. 70. Current Season Needle Necrosis<br />Impacts grand fir and noble fir grown on Valley floor.<br />Serious Christmas tree problem.<br />Cause is calcium deficiency in late spring.<br />Best cure is genetics.<br />
  71. 71. Stem Rots<br />Common problem around homes.<br />Conifers vary in response to injury.<br />Long term rot and breakage is main problem.<br />
  72. 72. December 2007 Storm Damage<br />
  73. 73. The “Root” of the Problem <br />
  74. 74. Important Clue to Damage<br />
  75. 75. Butt Rot from Phellinus pini<br />
  76. 76. Animal Damage Problems<br />Rodents<br />Deer & Elk<br />Others<br />
  77. 77. Deer/Elk in the Home Landscape<br />Conifers used to browsing.<br />Main long term damage to browsing is slowed growth and extra leaders.<br />Antler rubbing can be severe-don’t prune to soon.<br />
  78. 78. Controlling Browse<br />Fences work best.<br />Small trees can be protected by plastic tubes or other devices.<br />Repellants have variable effect.<br />
  79. 79. Mice/Vole Damage<br />Serious problem in new planting.<br />Girdling of bark near ground line can kill small trees.<br />Best treatment is to remove hiding cover around trees.<br />
  80. 80. Gopher Damage<br />Worst on pines.<br />All conifers are somewhat susceptible<br />Fleshy rooted weeds are a magnet.<br />Trapping is most effective treatment<br />
  81. 81. Porcupine Damage<br />Serious problem, particularly on pines.<br />Can kill limbs or tree tops.<br />Can be confused with squirrel damage.<br />Populations are currently building in Willamette Valley<br />
  82. 82. Culprit?<br />
  83. 83. 2010 Damage to Pines<br />
  84. 84. The Culprits: Silver Gray Squirrels<br />
  85. 85. Bob McNitt, aka, the pine guy examines damage to native ponderosas<br />
  86. 86. Mike Melcher<br />Who’s been messing with my trees?<br />
  87. 87. The Damage and the Culprit<br />
  88. 88. Human Damage to Trees<br />Wires left on trees.<br />Nails or other metal in trees.<br />Wounding by mowers, vehicles or other source.<br />
  89. 89. Construction Damage<br />Roots<br />
  90. 90. Chemical Damage<br />Each chemical has distinct damage pattern on various tree species.<br />Resistance to damage varies greatly by species and time of application.<br />
  91. 91.
  92. 92. Diagnosing Tree Problems<br />Identify species involved<br />When injury noticed<br />Part of plant showing injury<br />Roots, top, stem<br />Age of foliage<br />South vs north side<br />
  93. 93. More Diagnosis Questions<br />Species affected?<br />Distribution of damage- on plant, on planting.<br />Disturbance around tree anytime recently?<br />Chemical applications?<br />
  94. 94. Bottom Line for Conifers<br />Conifers are hardy and tough to injure.<br />When injured severely, conifers seldom recover.<br />Death in conifers usually linked to several causes.<br />It takes decades to replace a nice one.<br />
  95. 95. References for Diagnosis<br />Tree Identification Books<br />Insects that Feed on Trees and Shrubs<br />Diseases of Trees and Shrubs<br />PNW Insect and Disease Control Handbooks from OSU<br />Several other reference books in MG reference library and Rick’s office.<br />
  96. 96. Linn-Benton Pest Scene Investigator Team<br />
  97. 97. QUESTIONS?<br />