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Visualizing Networks      Beyond the “Hairball”           Lynn Cherny             @arnicas     O’Reilly Strata NYC 2012
Visualizing Networks      Beyond the “Hairball”           Lynn Cherny             @arnicas     O’Reilly Strata NYC 2012
PS(A): I AM NOT JASONSUNDRAMHe could not make it, and asked me to take over.                                              ...
The Hairball: A Metaphor for                      Complexityhttp://www.nd.edu/~networks/Publication%20Categories/01%20Revi...
http://www.nd.edu/~networks/Publication%20Categories/01%20Review%20Articles/ScaleFree_Scientific%20Ameri%20288,%2060-69%20(...
http://www.linkedin.com/today/post/article/20121016185655-10842349-the-hidden-power-
WHAT IS A NETWORK?It’s not a visualization. Think of it as a data structure.
Data relationship: entities + relationshipsto other objects (node/edge, vertex/link)Nodes and Edges may have attributes, e...
Lane Harrison: http://blog.visual.ly/network-visualizations/
Lane Harrison: http://blog.visual.ly/network-visualizations/
Lane Harrison: http://blog.visual.ly/network-visualizations/
Best!                                                A User Study on Visualizing Directed Edges in Graphs”                ...
10
10
10
It’s a natural human trait to see visual similarity and proximity asmeaningful.Be very careful about your display choices ...
Reading a network visualization                     There’s obviously                     something important             ...
Reading a network visualization                 Lo o                     k a                        t th                  ...
Reading a network visualization                   à       Lo o              age              k a        mé             n  ...
S? MIReading                            a network visualization                                         à       Lo o      ...
S? MIReading                            a network visualization                                         à            Lo o ...
Design Examples                    s!                          lp   h in                        o               it h D    ...
The Dolphins of Doubtful Soundhttp://www.doc.govt.nz/documents/conservation/native-animals/marine-mammals/abundance-popula...
“The bottlenose dolphin community of DoubtfulSound features a large proportion of long-lastingassociations. Can geographic...
“The bottlenose dolphin community of DoubtfulSound features a large proportion of long-lastingassociations. Can geographic...
“SF”                                                                    “ULT”                                             ...
Citation: Lusseau D (2007) Why Are Male Social Relationships Complex in the Doubtful Sound Bottlenose Dolphin Population?....
Citation: Lusseau D (2007) Why Are Male Social Relationships Complex in the Doubtful Sound Bottlenose Dolphin Population?....
Citation: Lusseau D (2007) Why Are Male Social Relationships Complex in the Doubtful Sound Bottlenose Dolphin Population?....
TOOLS FOR TODAYCreating network layouts...                              17
Gephi        18
Or “D3” (d3js.org)• A “build it yourself” svg-based visualization  library• Import graphs as (or parse to create) a json  ...
Making a NetworkWho is your audience? What’s the goal? Exploration / Iterative visualization during data analysis? End-use...
Making a NetworkWho is your audience? What’s the goal? Exploration / Iterative visualization during data analysis? End-use...
J Bertin: Semiologyof Graphics                                                     Linear                                 ...
Algorithmic ApproachesFrank van Ham talk slides: http://bit.ly/s6udpy
(Trees are a whole other subject)Treevis.net: http://www.informatik.uni-rostock.de/~hs162/treeposter/poster.html
MATRIX LAYOUTS /REPRESENTATIONS
http://barabasilab.neu.edu/networksciencebook/download/network_science_October_2012.pdf
Real social networks are           generally quite sparse.http://www.cise.ufl.edu/research/sparse/matrices/Newman/dolphins....
D3 demo by me http://www.ghostweather.com/essays/talks/networkx/adjacency.html
NodeTrix: A Hybrid Visualization of Social Networks. Nathalie Henry, Jean-Daniel Fekete, andMichael J. McGuffin. (2007) htt...
http://semilattice.net/eyeodiff/
http://semilattice.net/eyeodiff/
ARC / LINEAR LAYOUTS
Philipp Steinweber and Andreas Koller                                       Similar Diversity, 2007For a D3 example in ano...
http://www.openbible.info/blog/2010/04/bible-cross-references-visualization/
Hive PlotsD3: http://bost.ocks.org/mike/hive/
http://mariandoerk.de/pivotpaths/
Design Interlude
Bertin’s Thought ProcessBertin, J. Semiology of Graphics: Diagrams, Networks, Maps (1967)
(P) Paris(Z) Paris Suburbs(+50) Communes of >50K(+10) Communes of >10K(-10) Communes of <10K(R) Rural
CIRCULAR / CHORD LAYOUTS
“If                                         its                           Circos   pro                                    ...
Simple Orderings of Nodes      Circular Layout                        “Dual Circle” layout with        Sorted by      orde...
http://www.ghostweather.com/essays/talks/networkx/chord.html
http://www.ghostweather.com/essays/talks/networkx/chord.html
Hierarchical Edge Bundling"Hierarchical Edge Bundles: Visualization of Adjacency Relations in Hierarchical Data”, Danny Ho...
A D3 Example by M. BostockD3: http://bl.ocks.org/1044242
A very short detour into         maps...
46Flow Map Layout, Phan et al (2005) http://graphics.stanford.edu/papers/flow_map_layout/
46Flow Map Layout, Phan et al (2005) http://graphics.stanford.edu/papers/flow_map_layout/
"Force-Directed Edge Bundling for Graph Visualization”,Danny Holten and Jarke J. van Wijk, 11th Eurographics/IEEE-VGTC Sym...
Divided Edge Bundling for Directional Network DataDavid Selassie, Brandon Heller, Jeffrey HeerIEEE Trans. Visualization & ...
Design Example
50http://jeromecukier.net/projects/agot/places.html
50http://jeromecukier.net/projects/agot/places.html
51Jerome’s version with the map is not available online, sorry.
Yet Another Design     Example
Moritz Stefaner’s Muesli Problemhttps://speakerdeck.com/u/moritzstefaner/p/omg-its-all-connected
https://speakerdeck.com/u/moritzstefaner/p/omg-its-all-connected
s                                                     li ke iou                                                 ch       l...
Finalhttps://speakerdeck.com/u/moritzstefaner/p/omg-its-all-connected
ALGORITHMIC LAYOUTSGephi / D3.js / Other tools
Gephi  Sigma.jsGephi.org: Open source, runs on Mac, Linux, PC  Can be run from a python-esque console plugin or UI  Can b...
http://www.barabasilab.com/pubs/CCNR-ALB_Publications/200705-14_PNAS-HumanDisease/Suppl/
Movie:Sigma.js version of the Gephi export http://exploringdata.github.com/vis/human-disease-
Using Sigma.js                                                     basic_sigma.js<div class="sigma-expand“                ...
Sample Layout Plugins in Gephihttps://gephi.org/tutorials/gephi-tutorial-layouts.pdf
Gephi Plugin Layout Details  Layout                   Complexity              Graph Size          Author               Com...
Dolphins AgainOpenOrd + “No Overlap”              ForceAtlas2                                                  63
Dolphins AgainOpenOrd + “No Overlap”              ForceAtlas2                                                  63
Dolphins AgainOpenOrd + “No Overlap”              ForceAtlas2                                                  63
Unweighted             dolphins,             Force AtlasWeight 2: Force Atlas      Weight 4: Force Atlas                  ...
Unweighted             dolphins,             Force AtlasWeight 2: Force Atlas      Weight 4: Force Atlas   Weight 4: Yifan...
Canvas/SVG benchmarks from the                                                                                       d3.js...
Canvas/SVG benchmarks from the                                                                                       d3.js...
SIMPLE CALCULATIONS ONNETWORKS CAN TELL YOUOften you need to visualize the structure/role of the graphelements as part of ...
Degree (In, Out)        “Degree” is a measure of the        edges in (directed), out        (directed), or total (in      ...
Scale-free NetworksImage from Lada Adamic’s SNA Course on Coursera pdf 3D
The Threat of Hub-LossAlbert-László Barabási and Eric Bonabeau, Scale-Free Networks, 2003.http://www.scientificamerican.com...
Visualization Aside: If Some Names are            Huge, the Others are Invisible-?                                        ...
Visualization Aside: If Some Names are            Huge, the Others are Invisible-?                                        ...
Visualization Aside: If Some Names are            Huge, the Others are Invisible-?                                        ...
Visualization Aside: If Some Names are            Huge, the Others are Invisible-?                                        ...
Betweenness  A measure of connectedness    between (sub)components of    the graph      “Betweenness centrality thus      ...
Judging By Eye Will Probably BeWrong...                                  72
Judging By Eye Will Probably BeWrong...               ? This one?                                  72
Judging By Eye Will Probably BeWrong...               ? This one?                             Sized by Betweenness        ...
Eigenvector Centrality          Intuition: A node is important if it is          connected to other important nodes       ...
PagerankWikipedia image
Community Detection  E.g., the Louvain method, in Gephi as    “Modularity.” Many layout algorithms help    you intuit thes...
Citation: Lusseau D (2007) Why Are Male Social Relationships Complex in the Doubtful SoundBottlenose Dolphin Population?. ...
Citation: Lusseau D (2007) Why Are Male Social Relationships Complex in the Doubtful SoundBottlenose Dolphin Population?. ...
Identifying the role that animals play in their social networks (2004)D Lusseau, MEJ NewmanProceedings of the Royal Societ...
Identifying the role that animals play in their social networks (2004)D Lusseau, MEJ NewmanProceedings of the Royal Societ...
Identifying the role that animals play in their social networks (2004)D Lusseau, MEJ NewmanProceedings of the Royal Societ...
Identifying the role that animals play in their social networks (2004)D Lusseau, MEJ NewmanProceedings of the Royal Societ...
Identifying the role that animals play in their social networks (2004)D Lusseau, MEJ NewmanProceedings of the Royal Societ...
Identifying the role that animals play in their social networks (2004)D Lusseau, MEJ NewmanProceedings of the Royal Societ...
Eduarda Mendes Rodrigues, Natasa Milic-Frayling, Marc Smith, Ben Shneiderman, Derek Hansen, Group-in-a-box Layout for Mult...
http://mbostock.github.com/d3/talk/20111116/force-collapsible.html
http://mbostock.github.com/d3/talk/20111116/force-collapsible.html
Movie:Ger Hobbelt D3: http://bl.ocks.org/3616279
Movie:Ger Hobbelt D3: http://bl.ocks.org/3616279
Design Example
100 nodes, size by degree,                    Clustered by partition, no edges       shaded by Betweenness, in            ...
Movie:                                                                     84http://www.ghostweather.com/essays/talks/netw...
Movie:                                          by @moebio                                                       85http://...
!                                                LOLSO YOU WANT TO LAY IT OUTYOURSELF...Perfectionist? Artist? Don’t like ...
Jeff Heer: http://hci.stanford.edu/courses/cs448b/f11/lectures/CS448B-20111110-
Design Examples
Conspiracy Theorist Mark                 Learning from Lombardi:                 http://benfry.com/exd09/
Conspiracy Theorist Mark                 Learning from Lombardi:                 http://benfry.com/exd09/
Stefanie Posavechttp://www.itsbeenreal.co.uk/index.php?/wwwords/literary-
Roche Applied Science Biochemical Pathways Map: http://web.expasy.org/cgi-bin/pathways/
Roche Applied Science Biochemical Pathways Map: http://web.expasy.org/cgi-bin/pathways/
Hybrid Method: Use algorithmic            layout, and then adjust nodes byGer Hobbelt in D3: http://bl.ocks.org/3637711
Tweaking your layout is                           addictive!                                                      Yo ned  ...
STEP BACK, SCALE UP...                         94
C.Dunne & B.Shneiderman. Network Motif Simplification. http://hcil2.cs.umd.edu/trs/
GraphPrism: Compact Visualization of Network StructureSanjay Kairam, Diana MacLean, Manolis Savva, Jeffrey HeerAdvanced Vi...
97http://openaccess.city.ac.uk/1324/
Video:                                               98http://graphics.wsj.com/political-moneyball/
Wrap it up on design...
RemindersChoose your visual encodings, layout,interaction to make it a visualization,rather than raw data vomit.  Take car...
RemindersChoose your visual encodings, layout,interaction to make it a visualization,rather than raw data vomit.  Take car...
More Reminders!Different layouts communicate differentthings to your viewer - choose wiselyReducing noise: Don’t show edge...
The Map is Not the Territory…Forest Pitts (thanks to Noah Friedkin) http://www.analytictech.com/networks/pitts.htm
The Map is Not the Territory…Forest Pitts (thanks to Noah Friedkin) http://www.analytictech.com/networks/pitts.htm
www.Visualcomplexity.com
Thanks!                               @arnicas                         lynn@ghostweather.comAnd thanks to twitter vis frie...
A Few More ReferencesJeff Heer class slides: http://         Robert Kosara’s post: http://hci.stanford.edu/courses/cs448b/...
Visualizing Networks: Beyond the Hairball
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Visualizing Networks: Beyond the Hairball

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Strata NYC 2012 slides by Lynn Cherny; layout and analysis strategies for network data.

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  • Networks are usually drawn using a technique called node-link diagrams. While that works well for small graphs (the technical name for networks), it breaks down beyond a few dozen nodes. Better techniques exist, though these are currently focused on specific types of graphs or answer particular questions. Many techniques have been developed to sort out the clutter: edge bundling, node filtering, edge lenses, many, many different layout algorithms, etc. But none of them provide a good, general solution to the underlying problem. sollylabs.com
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Visualizing Networks: Beyond the Hairball

  1. Visualizing Networks Beyond the “Hairball” Lynn Cherny @arnicas O’Reilly Strata NYC 2012
  2. Visualizing Networks Beyond the “Hairball” Lynn Cherny @arnicas O’Reilly Strata NYC 2012
  3. PS(A): I AM NOT JASONSUNDRAMHe could not make it, and asked me to take over. 2
  4. The Hairball: A Metaphor for Complexityhttp://www.nd.edu/~networks/Publication%20Categories/01%20Review%20Articles/ScaleFree_Scientific%20Ameri%20288,%2060-69%20(2003).pdf
  5. http://www.nd.edu/~networks/Publication%20Categories/01%20Review%20Articles/ScaleFree_Scientific%20Ameri%20288,%2060-69%20(2003).pdf
  6. http://www.linkedin.com/today/post/article/20121016185655-10842349-the-hidden-power-
  7. WHAT IS A NETWORK?It’s not a visualization. Think of it as a data structure.
  8. Data relationship: entities + relationshipsto other objects (node/edge, vertex/link)Nodes and Edges may have attributes, eg. gender, age, weight, tv prefs connection date, frequency of contact, type of exchange, directionality of relationship attributes may be calculated from network itself
  9. Lane Harrison: http://blog.visual.ly/network-visualizations/
  10. Lane Harrison: http://blog.visual.ly/network-visualizations/
  11. Lane Harrison: http://blog.visual.ly/network-visualizations/
  12. Best! A User Study on Visualizing Directed Edges in Graphs” Danny Holten and Jarke J. van Wijk, 27th SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Proceedings of CHI 2009),http://blog.visual.ly/network-visualizations/ 9
  13. 10
  14. 10
  15. 10
  16. It’s a natural human trait to see visual similarity and proximity asmeaningful.Be very careful about your display choices and layout methods! 10
  17. Reading a network visualization There’s obviously something important going on here, structurally....
  18. Reading a network visualization Lo o k a t th is o utl ier cas e! There’s obviously something important going on here, structurally....
  19. Reading a network visualization à Lo o age k a mé n ere t th A ver h is o i s o utl tro ier cas e! There’s obviously something important going on here, structurally....
  20. S? MIReading a network visualization à Lo o age k a mé n ere t th A ver h is o i s o utl tro ier cas e! There’s obviously something important going on here, structurally....Using a “random” Gephi layout on the dolphins
  21. S? MIReading a network visualization à Lo o age k a mé n ere t th A ver h is o i s o utl tro ier cas e! Rando m! There’s obviously something important going on here, structurally....Using a “random” Gephi layout on the dolphins
  22. Design Examples s! lp h in o it h D w
  23. The Dolphins of Doubtful Soundhttp://www.doc.govt.nz/documents/conservation/native-animals/marine-mammals/abundance-population-structure-bottlenose-dolphins-doubtful-dusky-sounds.pdf
  24. “The bottlenose dolphin community of DoubtfulSound features a large proportion of long-lastingassociations. Can geographic isolation explain thisunique trait?”David Lusseau et al. BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY ANDSOCIOBIOLOGY Volume 54, Number 4 (2003)http://www.springerlink.com/content/pepxvj4lu42ur2gw/
  25. “The bottlenose dolphin community of DoubtfulSound features a large proportion of long-lastingassociations. Can geographic isolation explain thisunique trait?” ! ti tle p er l pa tua ac e ThDavid Lusseau et al. BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY ANDSOCIOBIOLOGY Volume 54, Number 4 (2003)http://www.springerlink.com/content/pepxvj4lu42ur2gw/
  26. “SF” “ULT” 2 hung outD. Lusseau, Evidence for Social Role in a Dolphin Social Network.Evol Ecol (2007) 21:357–366
  27. Citation: Lusseau D (2007) Why Are Male Social Relationships Complex in the Doubtful Sound Bottlenose Dolphin Population?. PLoS ONE 2(4):e348. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000348
  28. Citation: Lusseau D (2007) Why Are Male Social Relationships Complex in the Doubtful Sound Bottlenose Dolphin Population?. PLoS ONE 2(4):e348. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000348 define relationship Using “mirroring” to
  29. Citation: Lusseau D (2007) Why Are Male Social Relationships Complex in the Doubtful Sound Bottlenose Dolphin Population?. PLoS ONE 2(4):e348. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000348 define edges “headbutting” to define relationship UsingUsing “mirroring” to
  30. TOOLS FOR TODAYCreating network layouts... 17
  31. Gephi 18
  32. Or “D3” (d3js.org)• A “build it yourself” svg-based visualization library• Import graphs as (or parse to create) a json node-link structure
  33. Making a NetworkWho is your audience? What’s the goal? Exploration / Iterative visualization during data analysis? End-user communication?
  34. Making a NetworkWho is your audience? What’s the goal? Exploration / Iterative visualization during data analysis? End-user communication? Layout choices: by hand, algorithmic, style... Understand the global and local context with some stats about actors and roles in the network Improve your layout with stats / attributes - inherent (such as gender) or calculated (e.g., degree) Add interactivity for end users if appropriate
  35. J Bertin: Semiologyof Graphics Linear Circular Irregular Regular (Tree) 3D Matrix / BipartiteBertin, J. Semiology of Graphics: Diagrams,Networks, Maps (1967)
  36. Algorithmic ApproachesFrank van Ham talk slides: http://bit.ly/s6udpy
  37. (Trees are a whole other subject)Treevis.net: http://www.informatik.uni-rostock.de/~hs162/treeposter/poster.html
  38. MATRIX LAYOUTS /REPRESENTATIONS
  39. http://barabasilab.neu.edu/networksciencebook/download/network_science_October_2012.pdf
  40. Real social networks are generally quite sparse.http://www.cise.ufl.edu/research/sparse/matrices/Newman/dolphins.html
  41. D3 demo by me http://www.ghostweather.com/essays/talks/networkx/adjacency.html
  42. NodeTrix: A Hybrid Visualization of Social Networks. Nathalie Henry, Jean-Daniel Fekete, andMichael J. McGuffin. (2007) http://arxiv.org/abs/0705.0599
  43. http://semilattice.net/eyeodiff/
  44. http://semilattice.net/eyeodiff/
  45. ARC / LINEAR LAYOUTS
  46. Philipp Steinweber and Andreas Koller Similar Diversity, 2007For a D3 example in another domain: http://tradearc.laserdeathstehr.com/
  47. http://www.openbible.info/blog/2010/04/bible-cross-references-visualization/
  48. Hive PlotsD3: http://bost.ocks.org/mike/hive/
  49. http://mariandoerk.de/pivotpaths/
  50. Design Interlude
  51. Bertin’s Thought ProcessBertin, J. Semiology of Graphics: Diagrams, Networks, Maps (1967)
  52. (P) Paris(Z) Paris Suburbs(+50) Communes of >50K(+10) Communes of >10K(-10) Communes of <10K(R) Rural
  53. CIRCULAR / CHORD LAYOUTS
  54. “If its Circos pro bab rou ly d nd, o it Circ os ” canhttp://circos.ca/images/
  55. Simple Orderings of Nodes Circular Layout “Dual Circle” layout with Sorted by ordered by Degree most popular dolphin in center Modularity 41Dolphins colored by modularity class (community) in Gephi
  56. http://www.ghostweather.com/essays/talks/networkx/chord.html
  57. http://www.ghostweather.com/essays/talks/networkx/chord.html
  58. Hierarchical Edge Bundling"Hierarchical Edge Bundles: Visualization of Adjacency Relations in Hierarchical Data”, Danny Holten, IEEETransactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (TVCG; Proceedings of Vis/InfoVis 2006), Vol. 12, No. 5,
  59. A D3 Example by M. BostockD3: http://bl.ocks.org/1044242
  60. A very short detour into maps...
  61. 46Flow Map Layout, Phan et al (2005) http://graphics.stanford.edu/papers/flow_map_layout/
  62. 46Flow Map Layout, Phan et al (2005) http://graphics.stanford.edu/papers/flow_map_layout/
  63. "Force-Directed Edge Bundling for Graph Visualization”,Danny Holten and Jarke J. van Wijk, 11th Eurographics/IEEE-VGTC Symposium on Visualization (ComputerGraphics Forum; Proceedings of EuroVis 2009), Pages 983 - 990, 2009.
  64. Divided Edge Bundling for Directional Network DataDavid Selassie, Brandon Heller, Jeffrey HeerIEEE Trans. Visualization & Comp. Graphics (Proc. InfoVis), 2011 48
  65. Design Example
  66. 50http://jeromecukier.net/projects/agot/places.html
  67. 50http://jeromecukier.net/projects/agot/places.html
  68. 51Jerome’s version with the map is not available online, sorry.
  69. Yet Another Design Example
  70. Moritz Stefaner’s Muesli Problemhttps://speakerdeck.com/u/moritzstefaner/p/omg-its-all-connected
  71. https://speakerdeck.com/u/moritzstefaner/p/omg-its-all-connected
  72. s li ke iou ch lic u m ot de o “ To s, n h!” el f o om oug ims hr en to h us m i tz or -Mhttps://speakerdeck.com/u/moritzstefaner/p/omg-its-all-connected
  73. Finalhttps://speakerdeck.com/u/moritzstefaner/p/omg-its-all-connected
  74. ALGORITHMIC LAYOUTSGephi / D3.js / Other tools
  75. Gephi  Sigma.jsGephi.org: Open source, runs on Mac, Linux, PC Can be run from a python-esque console plugin or UI Can be run “headless” for layouts (Jason Sundram) https://github.com/jsundram/pygephi Plugins include a Neo4j graph db access, and streaming supportSigma.js : Will display a gexf gephi layout file with minimal work, using a plugin interpreter for sigma Also offers a force-directed layout plugin for graphs without x&y coords Does CANVAS drawing, not SVG
  76. http://www.barabasilab.com/pubs/CCNR-ALB_Publications/200705-14_PNAS-HumanDisease/Suppl/
  77. Movie:Sigma.js version of the Gephi export http://exploringdata.github.com/vis/human-disease-
  78. Using Sigma.js basic_sigma.js<div class="sigma-expand“ function init() { // Instanciate sigma.js and customize rendering : id="sigma-example"></div> var sigInst = sigma.init(document.getElementById(sigma-example)) .drawingProperties({ defaultLabelColor: #fff, defaultLabelSize: 14, defaultLabelBGColor: #fff, defaultLabelHoverColor: #000, labelThreshold: 6, defaultEdgeType: curve }).graphProperties({ minNodeSize: 0.5, maxNodeSize: 5, minEdgeSize: 1, maxEdgeSize: 1 }).mouseProperties({ Where maxRatio: 32 }); to put // Parse a GEXF encoded file to fill the graph the<script src="../js/sigma.min.js"></script> // (requires "sigma.parseGexf.js" to be included)<script src="../js/sigma.parseGexf.js"></script> sigInst.parseGexf(color_by_mod.gexf); graph<script src="basic_sigma.js"></script> // Draw the graph : sigInst.draw(); } Your graph if (document.addEventListener) { document.addEventListener("DOMContentLoaded", init, false); } else { window.onload = init; } In sigma.js’s github (under plugins!)
  79. Sample Layout Plugins in Gephihttps://gephi.org/tutorials/gephi-tutorial-layouts.pdf
  80. Gephi Plugin Layout Details Layout Complexity Graph Size Author Comment Circular O(N) 1 to 1M nodes Matt Groeninger Used to show distribution, ordered layout Radial Axis O(N) 1 to 1M nodes Matt Groeninger Show ordered groups (homophily) Force Atlas O(N²) 1 to 10K nodes Mathieu Jacomy Slow, but uses edge weight and few biases Force Atlas 2 O(N*log(N)) 1 to 1M nodes Mathieu (does not use Jacomy weight) OpenOrd O(N*log(N)) 100 to 1M nodes S. Martin, W. M. Focus on clustering Brown, R. Klavans, (uses edge weight) Yifan Hu O(N*log(N)) 100 to 100K nodes and K. Boyack Yifan Hu (no edge weight) Fruchterman- O(N²) 1 to 1K nodes Fruchterman & Particle system, slow Rheingold Rheingold! (no edge weight) GeoLayout O(N) 1 to 1M nodes Alexis Jacomy Uses Lat/Long for layouthttps://gephi.org/2011/new-tutorial-layouts-in-gephi/
  81. Dolphins AgainOpenOrd + “No Overlap” ForceAtlas2 63
  82. Dolphins AgainOpenOrd + “No Overlap” ForceAtlas2 63
  83. Dolphins AgainOpenOrd + “No Overlap” ForceAtlas2 63
  84. Unweighted dolphins, Force AtlasWeight 2: Force Atlas Weight 4: Force Atlas 64
  85. Unweighted dolphins, Force AtlasWeight 2: Force Atlas Weight 4: Force Atlas Weight 4: Yifan Hu 64
  86. Canvas/SVG benchmarks from the d3.js group: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/ ccc?Nick Diakapolous: http://nad.webfactional.com/ntap/graphscale/ key=0AtvlFoSBUC5kdEZJNVFySG9wSHZk
  87. Canvas/SVG benchmarks from the d3.js group: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/ ccc?Nick Diakapolous: http://nad.webfactional.com/ntap/graphscale/ key=0AtvlFoSBUC5kdEZJNVFySG9wSHZk
  88. SIMPLE CALCULATIONS ONNETWORKS CAN TELL YOUOften you need to visualize the structure/role of the graphelements as part of the visualization: So, do some simplemath.
  89. Degree (In, Out) “Degree” is a measure of the edges in (directed), out (directed), or total (in directed or undirected graphs) to a node “Hub” nodes have high in- degree. In scale-free networks, we see preferential attachment to the popular kids.http://mlg.ucd.ie/files/summer/tutorial.pdf
  90. Scale-free NetworksImage from Lada Adamic’s SNA Course on Coursera pdf 3D
  91. The Threat of Hub-LossAlbert-László Barabási and Eric Bonabeau, Scale-Free Networks, 2003.http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=scale-free-networks
  92. Visualization Aside: If Some Names are Huge, the Others are Invisible-? 70Correcting for text size by degree display issue
  93. Visualization Aside: If Some Names are Huge, the Others are Invisible-? Gephi Panel 70Correcting for text size by degree display issue
  94. Visualization Aside: If Some Names are Huge, the Others are Invisible-? Gephi Panel 70Correcting for text size by degree display issue
  95. Visualization Aside: If Some Names are Huge, the Others are Invisible-? Gephi Panel 70Correcting for text size by degree display issue
  96. Betweenness A measure of connectedness between (sub)components of the graph “Betweenness centrality thus tends to pick out boundary individuals who play the role of brokers between communities.”Lusseau and Newman. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1810112/pdf/15801609.pdf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centrality#Betweenness_centrality
  97. Judging By Eye Will Probably BeWrong... 72
  98. Judging By Eye Will Probably BeWrong... ? This one? 72
  99. Judging By Eye Will Probably BeWrong... ? This one? Sized by Betweenness 72
  100. Eigenvector Centrality Intuition: A node is important if it is connected to other important nodes A node with a small number of influential contacts may outrank one with a larger number of mediocre contactshttp://mlg.ucd.ie/files/summer/tutorial.pdf http://demonstrations.wolfram.com/
  101. PagerankWikipedia image
  102. Community Detection E.g., the Louvain method, in Gephi as “Modularity.” Many layout algorithms help you intuit these structures, but don’t rely on perception of layout!http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Network_Community_Structure.png
  103. Citation: Lusseau D (2007) Why Are Male Social Relationships Complex in the Doubtful SoundBottlenose Dolphin Population?. PLoS ONE 2(4): e348. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000348
  104. Citation: Lusseau D (2007) Why Are Male Social Relationships Complex in the Doubtful SoundBottlenose Dolphin Population?. PLoS ONE 2(4): e348. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000348 77
  105. Identifying the role that animals play in their social networks (2004)D Lusseau, MEJ NewmanProceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  106. Identifying the role that animals play in their social networks (2004)D Lusseau, MEJ NewmanProceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  107. Identifying the role that animals play in their social networks (2004)D Lusseau, MEJ NewmanProceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  108. Identifying the role that animals play in their social networks (2004)D Lusseau, MEJ NewmanProceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  109. Identifying the role that animals play in their social networks (2004)D Lusseau, MEJ NewmanProceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  110. Identifying the role that animals play in their social networks (2004)D Lusseau, MEJ NewmanProceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  111. Eduarda Mendes Rodrigues, Natasa Milic-Frayling, Marc Smith, Ben Shneiderman, Derek Hansen, Group-in-a-box Layout for Multi-faceted Analysis of Communities. IEEE Third International Conference on Social
  112. http://mbostock.github.com/d3/talk/20111116/force-collapsible.html
  113. http://mbostock.github.com/d3/talk/20111116/force-collapsible.html
  114. Movie:Ger Hobbelt D3: http://bl.ocks.org/3616279
  115. Movie:Ger Hobbelt D3: http://bl.ocks.org/3616279
  116. Design Example
  117. 100 nodes, size by degree, Clustered by partition, no edges shaded by Betweenness, in until you click on one, node size is a d3.js force directed layout. choice of attributes, nodes represented by labels/colors….http://www.ghostweather.com/essays/talks/networkx/ http://www.ghostweather.com/essays/talks/networkx/
  118. Movie: 84http://www.ghostweather.com/essays/talks/networkx/force_fonts.html
  119. Movie: by @moebio 85http://intuitionanalytics.com/pleiades/
  120. ! LOLSO YOU WANT TO LAY IT OUTYOURSELF...Perfectionist? Artist? Don’t like algorithms? 86
  121. Jeff Heer: http://hci.stanford.edu/courses/cs448b/f11/lectures/CS448B-20111110-
  122. Design Examples
  123. Conspiracy Theorist Mark Learning from Lombardi: http://benfry.com/exd09/
  124. Conspiracy Theorist Mark Learning from Lombardi: http://benfry.com/exd09/
  125. Stefanie Posavechttp://www.itsbeenreal.co.uk/index.php?/wwwords/literary-
  126. Roche Applied Science Biochemical Pathways Map: http://web.expasy.org/cgi-bin/pathways/
  127. Roche Applied Science Biochemical Pathways Map: http://web.expasy.org/cgi-bin/pathways/
  128. Hybrid Method: Use algorithmic layout, and then adjust nodes byGer Hobbelt in D3: http://bl.ocks.org/3637711
  129. Tweaking your layout is addictive! Yo ned wa u r ha ! ve ! be enJason Davies: http://www.jasondavies.com/planarity/
  130. STEP BACK, SCALE UP... 94
  131. C.Dunne & B.Shneiderman. Network Motif Simplification. http://hcil2.cs.umd.edu/trs/
  132. GraphPrism: Compact Visualization of Network StructureSanjay Kairam, Diana MacLean, Manolis Savva, Jeffrey HeerAdvanced Visual Interfaces, 2012
  133. 97http://openaccess.city.ac.uk/1324/
  134. Video: 98http://graphics.wsj.com/political-moneyball/
  135. Wrap it up on design...
  136. RemindersChoose your visual encodings, layout,interaction to make it a visualization,rather than raw data vomit. Take care: people will infer things from proximity/similarity even if it was not intended!Do data analysis / reduction - whywould you want to show 1T of networkdata?Allow interactivity if needed for endusers. Help people find things in your network!
  137. RemindersChoose your visual encodings, layout,interaction to make it a visualization,rather than raw data vomit. Take care: people will infer things from To ot sci proximity/similarity even if it was not =N o m wa ce d intended! at uc al en a h d goDo data analysis / reduction - why at ys ! awould you want to show 1T of network o ddata?Allow interactivity if needed for endusers. Help people find things in your network!
  138. More Reminders!Different layouts communicate differentthings to your viewer - choose wiselyReducing noise: Don’t show edges (perhaps on demand) Show details only on demand: zoom in Cluster your nodes/edges Consider if it has to be a “network” display at all: Is it the stats you care about? Or the hairball? 101
  139. The Map is Not the Territory…Forest Pitts (thanks to Noah Friedkin) http://www.analytictech.com/networks/pitts.htm
  140. The Map is Not the Territory…Forest Pitts (thanks to Noah Friedkin) http://www.analytictech.com/networks/pitts.htm
  141. www.Visualcomplexity.com
  142. Thanks! @arnicas lynn@ghostweather.comAnd thanks to twitter vis friends for content: @jsundram, @laneharrison, @moritz_stefaner, @jcukier,@jeff1024, @vlandham, @moebio, @jeffrey_heer, @mbostock, @eagereyes, @jasondavies, @stefpos, @sarahslo, @ndiakopoulos, @gephi
  143. A Few More ReferencesJeff Heer class slides: http:// Robert Kosara’s post: http://hci.stanford.edu/courses/cs448b/ eagereyes.org/techniques/graphs-w09/lectures/20090204- hairballGraphsAndTrees.pdf Lane Harrison’s post: http://A great in-progress book on networks: blog.visual.ly/network-http://barabasilab.neu.edu/ visualizations/networksciencebook/ MS Lima’s book Visual ComplexityMark Newman’s many papers: http:// Jason Sundram’s tool to drive Gephiwww-personal.umich.edu/~mejn/ layout from command line: https://Eyeo Festival videos from Moritz github.com/jsundram/pygephiStefaner, Manuel Lima, Stefanie A couple articles on communityPosavec structure:Journal of Graph Algorithms and Overlapping Community DetectionApplications: http://jgaa.info/ in Networks: State of the Arthome.html and Comparative Study by JieruiJim Vallandingham’s D3 network Xie, Stephen Kelley, Boleslaw K.tutorials: http://flowingdata.com/ Szymanski2012/08/02/how-to-make-an- Empirical Comparison ofinteractive-network-visualization/, Algorithms for Network

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