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Making Career Guidance work inside organisations

OPRA Psychology Group
OPRA Psychology Group
OPRA Psychology GroupOPRA Psychology Group

For many organisations employee career development and career coaching is a missing component of their L&D strategy. The following SlideShare, presented in 2005, discusses the commercial driver for internal career coaching and some steps that can be taken to increase its effectiveness. In a world where the nature of work is changing daily, these lessons are more pertinent than ever.

Making Career Guidance work inside organisations

1 of 29
Career development in
organisations:
What works and what doesn’t
Excellence in Business.
Excellence in People.
Overview
• Career development in organisations is (arguably) in a cul de sac – needs to
look outside its field
• If a performance orientation is taken, the business case for participation/high
road/relational issues is now very strong
• Common themes across human relations performance fields of effectiveness,
personalised and goal focus, authenticity, and relationships
• Career practice has a lot to offer as an individualised glue for workplace
relationship, decision making and performance issues – now that it has moved
beyond deciding what to do
From ‘decidedness’ to adaptability Savickas (1997)
Planful attitudes, self and environmental exploration, and
informed decision-making provide a framework based on
developing adaptability:
• “individuals to continually, throughout the life course, look
ahead to and anticipate choices and transitions, explore
possibilities, and improve fit and develop the self.” (Savickas,
1997, p. 254).
Possible selves
Cognitive self representations of what we hope, fear and expect about out future
Tied to schema and tactics
• Effects what we: - Notice
- Remember
- Associate things with
- Judge
- Act
How useful?
• Training
• Induction
• Feedback and performance management
Think of a boss or employee you had who wasn’t any good. What sort
of career development might have worked for them?
The business case for high commitment
systems is very strong
• Command and control versus commitment (Arthur, 1994)
• People and culture provide competitive advantage
(Bresnahan et al., 1999)
• Human relations are essential to be able to use technology
(Bailey)
Winning firms: T & D, participation, staff satisfaction
Ad

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Making Career Guidance work inside organisations

  • 1. Career development in organisations: What works and what doesn’t Excellence in Business. Excellence in People.
  • 2. Overview • Career development in organisations is (arguably) in a cul de sac – needs to look outside its field • If a performance orientation is taken, the business case for participation/high road/relational issues is now very strong • Common themes across human relations performance fields of effectiveness, personalised and goal focus, authenticity, and relationships • Career practice has a lot to offer as an individualised glue for workplace relationship, decision making and performance issues – now that it has moved beyond deciding what to do
  • 3. From ‘decidedness’ to adaptability Savickas (1997) Planful attitudes, self and environmental exploration, and informed decision-making provide a framework based on developing adaptability: • “individuals to continually, throughout the life course, look ahead to and anticipate choices and transitions, explore possibilities, and improve fit and develop the self.” (Savickas, 1997, p. 254).
  • 4. Possible selves Cognitive self representations of what we hope, fear and expect about out future Tied to schema and tactics • Effects what we: - Notice - Remember - Associate things with - Judge - Act
  • 5. How useful? • Training • Induction • Feedback and performance management Think of a boss or employee you had who wasn’t any good. What sort of career development might have worked for them?
  • 6. The business case for high commitment systems is very strong • Command and control versus commitment (Arthur, 1994) • People and culture provide competitive advantage (Bresnahan et al., 1999) • Human relations are essential to be able to use technology (Bailey) Winning firms: T & D, participation, staff satisfaction
  • 7. High performance systems Zacharatos et al 2005 • People are competitive advantage • Participative decision making • High quality training • Sharing info • Respect • Commitment in return
  • 8. Are interventions effective generally? • Yes • .44 general effect size for human relations interventions Guzzo, R. Jette, R., Katzell, R. (1985). The effects of psychology based intervention programs on worker productivity: A meta analysis. Personnel Psychology, 38, 275-291.
  • 9. Effectiveness of career programmes • Career interventions work (e.g. Whiston, Sexton & Lasoff, 1998; Oliver & Spokane, 1988). • Short interventions, using tools, are common and effective (Whiston et al., 1998). • Counsellor/client relationships are important (Mahoney & Patterson, 1992). Computer plus counselling seems to be most efficient (Whiston). • Software leads to more specific questions (Kapes, Borman, & Frazier, 1989). • More satisfaction when personal and career issues are addressed (Nevo, 1990; Kirschner et al., 1994)
  • 10. Individual outcomes of career interventions • Outcomes are very diffuse: E.g. decidedness, job satisfaction, fewer PG’s, self esteem. But they seem to be most effective when they target: What works? • Career related skills • Career decision making self efficacy • Accuracy of self knowledge (Whiston et al., 1988)
  • 11. Employee benefits (Noe et al, 2004) • Career management can result in: • Direction and motivation • Sense of being valued • Adaptability: e.g. should a job change be necessary due to mergers, acquisitions, restructuring, or downsizing
  • 12. Organisational Benefits (Noe et al, 2004) • To create and sustain a continuous learning environment, develop commitment • Attract employees with new skills • Improve effectiveness of training: • Motivation, expectation and choice of programs to attend training programs Good career development in orgs fosters (London, 1995) • Staff direction, goals and feedback • Self monitoring (London, 1995)
  • 13. Management and Motivation (London 1995) • Career motivation has four aspects: • Career resilience – the extent to which employees are able to cope with problems that affect their work • Career insight involves: • how much employees know about their interests, skill strengths, and weaknesses • the awareness of how these perceptions relate to their career goals • Career identity – the degree to which employees define their personal values according to their work
  • 14. Impact on Career Guidance Beyond deciding - to: performance, motivation, wellbeing, relationships • Self knowledge • Wider and more dynamic view of self than personality and IQ • Personalised goals • Self management and soft skills • Emotion, family, values, beliefs • Noticing, thinking, remembering and acting Know why, know whom, know what
  • 15. So what works? • Develop confidence, sense of control, • Pursue important goals that are personal • Develop relationships • Aspirations and individual uniqueness • Tools X people x limited time (Whiston et al) • Goal oriented (Locke) • Awareness raising and information giving • Feedback and monitoring focussed
  • 16. So what works? • Motivational and problem solving • Workplace related emotion and cognition • Reality testing • Opportunity to impart skills
  • 17. Some ideas that career development applies to • The psychological contract • Leadership • Self management • Worklife balance
  • 18. Good career practice needs to • Be individualised to staff • And reflect organisational outcomes i.e. performance • Support existing HR practices • Solution/future focussed • Will likely concern relational, emotional and agency and skill issues
  • 19. How not to do career development in organisations (Kossek et al., 1998) Sought to develop career self management: • Developmental feedback seeking • Job mobility preparedness 3 day workshop based on premises: • professionals in transportation industry It made things worse. Why?
  • 20. Kossek et al cont’d • Not integrated with other HR policies • “Higher standard” explanation – people judged themselves harder • Raised expectations that weren’t met – training rhetoric didn’t match workplace reality • The course about self management was compulsory – so a backlash What could have been done differently?
  • 21. People actually want help • Should I stay or go? • What are my strengths/skills • How do I solve these relationship difficulties at work/family • Dealing with conflict • Self management • Relationship management • Raising difficult issues • Basic supervision skills
  • 22. Value to HR and career development • Does the basics – identifies skills, interests, values, aspirations • Improves motivation by being personalised and future focused • Raises performance • Develops capacity for change • Cuts to the chase quickly and quickly develops a working alliance • Improves self awareness and planning • Dialogue for setting strategies and goals
  • 23. Example : 30 something IT male
  • 26. The psychological contract • “An individual’s belief in mutual obligations between that person and another party, such as an employer” (Rousseau, 1989) Some types: • Transactional – short term, economic exchange. • Transitional –about organisational change –mistrust, uncertainty • Relational – long term/open ended – loyalty • Balanced – dynamic and open ended –mutual success and development - performance based
  • 27. Worklife balance (Odriscoll et al., 2003) • Effective: Better recruitment, retention, productivity less stress • Personalised and goal oriented: Needs to be tailored specifically to needs of individuals e.g. don’t assume childcare is the issue • Authentic: Needs to balance responsibilities and obligations, manage psychological contract, change norms rather than just rules, or there is a gap between management rhetoric and supervisory practice • Relational: Help match personal goals with organisational goals
  • 28. Worklife balance, career development, and OD all require: Requirements • Motivation and constructive engagement about issues • Choice at which level to target the intervention – e.g. individual or group • Solutions not rumination • Context and reality check, not labels