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OERs On Campus - Selecting and Creating Instructional Resources for All Students

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An overview of OER and UDL (Universal Design for Learning) by Skip Stahl and Rhianon E. Gutierrez.

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OERs On Campus - Selecting and Creating Instructional Resources for All Students

  1. 1. OERs On Campus: Selecting and Creating Instructional Resources for All Students Presented by Skip Stahl and Rhianon E. Gutierrez UDL On Campus CAST, Inc. August 25, 2014
  2. 2. Objectives 1. Define and give an overview of the benefits and challenges of open educational resources (OERs). 2. Define accessibility and Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and their application in OER creation. 3. Learn how to select and create OERs that will be accessible and consider the three principles of UDL. 2
  3. 3. OERs Defined Open educational resources, or OERs, are “full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, videos, tests, software; and any other tools, materials, or techniques offered freely and openly to educators and students to support access to knowledge.” 3
  4. 4. Benefits of OERs ✦ Instructors need to plan - learning goals, materials, assessments; increasing use of personalization in online practice ✦ Accessibility goes hand in hand with personalization ✦ Instructors need to be informed so they can be equipped with tools to select and create OER content that will enable learners to progress towards and demonstrate mastery in different ways 4
  5. 5. Challenges of OERs ✦ Educational institutions have limited knowledge or the capacity to retrofit digital materials effectively in-house ✦ Inaccessible websites block students with disabilities from accessing resources ✦ Federal education and civil rights statutes compel education institutions to provide equitable access to educational opportunities for students with disabilities including technology-mediated opportunities ✦ 2011 Hewlett Foundation/Virtual Ability Study: ✦ 60 open college textbooks reviewed using federal and international accessibility guidelines ✦ 56% of these materials were web-based ✦ 42% were downloadable PDFs ✦ 42% web-based textbooks had problems with page layout, headers, and tables; none of the PDFs reviewed were accessible 5
  6. 6. Universal Design for Learning (UDL)
  7. 7. Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008 Section 103(24) UNIVERSAL DESIGN FOR LEARNING.-- The term `universal design for learning' means a scientifically valid framework for guiding educational practice that— ``(A) provides flexibility in the ways information is presented, in the ways students respond or demonstrate knowledge and skills, and in the ways students are engaged; and ``(B) reduces barriers in instruction, provides appropriate accommodations, supports, and challenges, and maintains high achievement expectations for all students, including students with disabilities and students who are limited English proficient.''
  8. 8. Universal Design for Learning (UDL) ✦ Learner variability is the norm, not the exception. ✦ Accessibility is the baseline for the larger idea of creating a flexible curriculum with goals, methods, materials, and assessments that support learner achievement. ✦ UDL is based on three principles: representation, action and expression, and engagement 8
  9. 9. The Neurological Foundation Recognition Networks Strategic Networks Affective Networks The WHAT of learning The HOW of learning The WHY of learning
  10. 10. Principle 1: Multiple Means of Representation ✦ Multimodal representation of materials via text, images, symbols, and audio ✦ Options for perception - captioned and transcribed content ✦ Prior knowledge influences interaction with content ✦ Meaning-making is critical 10
  11. 11. Principle 2: Multiple Means of Action and Expression ✦ Support learning processes – set goals, plan, organize, strategize, modify processes as needed ✦ Vary methods of response - digital tools offer greater flexibility for a wider range of learners ✦ Those with assistive technologies would benefit from amplification or magnification of content - not for all, but this option should exist 11
  12. 12. Principle 3: Multiple Means of Engagement ✦ Learners engage in self-assessment, critical reflection ✦ Content is contextualized to their lives ✦ Learners are motivated and seek more information on their own 12
  13. 13. Accessibility and Open Educational Resources (OERs) http://udloncampus.cast.org/page/m edia_oer#.U_MPOVYfLGs 13
  14. 14. Accessibility ✦ Accessibility is the baseline ✦ Section 508 compliance ✦ Accessibility Checks ✦ Quick Check: http://webaim.org/standards/508/checklist ✦ Detailed Review: http://projectone.cannect.org/ ✦ WCAG 2 Technical Details: http://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/quickref/ 14
  15. 15. Importance of Accessibility Features in OERs 15 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 Easily available alternative file formats Ability to customize settings Transcript for any audio/video… Information about built-in… Alternative description for any… Compatibility with screenreader… Compatibility with screen… Compatibility with voice recognition… Keyboard-only navigation Rating from 1-5, with 5 being the most important.
  16. 16. 508 Functional Criteria Subpart C — Functional Performance Criteria § 1194.31 Functional performance criteria.  At least one mode of operation and information retrieval that does not require user vision…  At least one mode of operation and information retrieval that does not require user hearing…  At least one mode of operation and information retrieval that does not require user speech…  At least one mode of operation and information retrieval that does not require fine motor control or simultaneous actions…
  17. 17. Selection and Creation of Materials 1. Provide complete navigation. 2. Create meaningful structure. 3. Provide alternative access to media content. 17
  18. 18. Provide Complete Navigation ✦ Outlines and table of contents - adding structure can auto-generate a navigable table of contents 18
  19. 19. Create Meaningful Structure ✦ Document headings and graphic organizers help connect to content and support executive functions 19
  20. 20. Provide Alternative Access to Media Content ✦ Alt text and image descriptions convey the purpose of the image based on its context ✦ Images: http://udloncampus.cast.org/pa ge/media_image#.U_s6KEt8B Vg ✦ Word 2010 Accessibility Checker: File > Info > Check for Issues > Check Accessibility. 20
  21. 21. Provide Alternative Access to Media Content ✦ Transcripts and captions provide access to visual and audio content and increase search engine optimization (SEO) ✦ Transcripts: http://udloncampus.cast.org/page/media_transcript#.U_s11Ut8BVg ✦ Captions: http://udloncampus.cast.org/page/media_caption#.U_s1wkt8BVg ✦ Audio description provides access to visual content ✦ Audio Description: http://udloncampus.cast.org/page/media_audiodescription#.U_s1z Ut8BVg 21
  22. 22. Provide Alternative Access to Media Content ✦ Video: Executive Functioning in Online Learning Environments ✦ use of captions, collated transcript, and some audio description ✦ http://udloncampus.cast.org/page/teach_executi ve#.U_s7EUt8BVg 22
  23. 23. Flexible Multimedia ✦ Content creators should choose multimedia tools that consider learner variability and are consistent with legal requirements for accessibility ✦ UDL On Campus’ Flexible Multimedia pages address text, images, audio and video in the selection and creation of online content ✦ http://udloncampus.cast.org/page/media_ove rview#.U_s76Et8BVg 23
  24. 24. Conclusion ✦ Instructors need to be informed so that they can be equipped with tools to select and create meaningful OER content. ✦ Accessibility is the baseline and instructors should ensure that all of their educational content is accessible. ✦ Instructors should plan for learner variability. Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a framework that emphasizes learner variability in the design of curriculum. ✦ There are flexible multimedia tools that support the selection and creation of OER content. 24

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