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- 1. OMM Solutions TECHtalks #13 1< OMM Solutions GmbH > www.tech-talks.eu
- 2. Einmal im Monat ist TECHtalk Zeit! First come first served! < OMM Solutions GmbH > 2
- 3. Talk: Quantum computing - The next BIG thing? Speaker: Olaf Horstmann 3< OMM Solutions GmbH >
- 4. Brief History of Quantum Computing < OMM Solutions GmbH > 4 ● 1980s: Theories and Scientific Papers ● 1990s: First algorithms ○ Shor’s, Grover’s, Deutsch’s ○ all based on theories and without physical devices ● 1998: First 2-qubit quantum computer (Oxford) ● 2000: First 7-qubit quantum computer (Los Alamos) ● 2008: D-Wave creates 128 qubit chip (QA1 ) ● 2015: D-Wave breaks 1000 qubit barrier ● 2017: ○ D-Wave creates chip with over 2000 qubits (QA1 ) ○ IBM creates 50 qubit chip (GM2 ) ○ Intel creates 48 qubit chip (GM2 ) ● 2018: Google announced “Bristlecone”, a 72 qubit chip (GM2 ) ○ said to have achieved “quantum supremacy” 1 Quantum Annealing; 2 Gate Model Quelle: https://blockchainwelt.de/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/quantum-computer-chalmers.jpg; Quanten Computer Chalmers @wikimedia.org
- 5. Short answer: Will Quantum Computing take over the world of today’s bits and bytes? 5 NoYes < OMM Solutions GmbH >
- 6. ● a “classical bit” represents a transistor/gate ○ is either 0 or 1 ○ +100 billion transistors in modern CPU ● a “qubit” represents the state of a quantum particle (electron, photon, ion) ○ is either 0 or 1 or any state in between (which can be thought of as both 1 and 0) ○ “largest” chip today is 2000 qubits What is a Quantum Computer and what are “Qubits”? 6< OMM Solutions GmbH > Quelle: https://www.flickr.com/photos/ibm_research_zurich/32390815144/in/album-72157663611181258/
- 7. Basically: Searching minima on a curve What is “Quantum Annealing”? 7 Quelle: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_annealing#/media/File:Quant-annl.jpg < OMM Solutions GmbH > Quelle: http://cdn4.spiegel.de/images/image-932123-breitwandaufmacher-uiqj-932123.jpg
- 8. What is “Quantum Annealing”? 8 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1
- 9. Optimization Problems ● e.g. “best way to stack items in a shipping container” ● or “best route through a given set of locations” ● machine learning ● protein folding ● challenge: reformulate each original problem, so it could be represented by a curve What can quantum annealing be used for? 9< OMM Solutions GmbH >
- 10. ● In short: A quantum version of “classical” binary logic gates ● Databases ○ searching for a specific entry in a set of entries ■ e.g.: in 1 Mio. entries, a classical system might need to check all 1 Mio. a quantum algorithm (Grover’s Search) would only take √1 Mio. = 1000 tries as max. ● Cryptography ○ factoring prime-numbers ■ today’s computer are good at multiplying prime-numbers, but very bad at factoring them (Shor’s algorithm) ■ the highest prime-factorized number to date is 291311 A solution, for what is currently only possible by brute force What can a “Gate Model”-Quantum Computer be used for? 10< OMM Solutions GmbH >
- 11. ● most systems require super cooling (barely above the absolute zero) ● high error-rates (magnet-fields from individual atoms can disturb the calculation) ● the quantum states(superposition, entanglement, ect.) can only be held up for some 10s of microseconds currently ● impossible to “debug” the systems by classical understanding ○ every taken measurement would alter the state of the system and thus return new data unrelated to the “bug” Challenges in building quantum computers 11
- 12. Still: “Yes and no” ● Will I be walking around with a quantum processor in my smartphone? ○ probably not ○ in most of today’s applications there will be no benefit ● Is our current encryption in danger? ○ probably not (yet) ○ by the time quantum-computers can crack today’s encryption, alternatives will be available ● So where will quantum computing be used? ○ in a limited set of applications (e.g. databases or encryption) ○ But: When the first computer was developed, probably nobody did foresee the invention of the internet or smartphones. So will quantum computers eventually take over or not? 12
- 13. Vielen Dank für Eure Aufmerksamkeit! 13< OMM Solutions GmbH >
- 14. 14< OMM Solutions GmbH > www.omm-solutions.de OMM Solutions GmbH Vor dem Lauch 4 70567 Stuttgart Geschäftsführer Martin Allmendinger Malte Horstmann Olaf Horstmann Kontakt Telefon: +49 711 6747 051-0 E-Mail: info@omm-solutions.de Umsatzsteuer-ID: DE295716572 Sitz der Gesellschaft: Stuttgart Amtsgericht Stuttgart, HRB 749562 Impressum