Proceedings of the symposium "ALGAE: THE BLUE REVOLUTION FOR A SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY" (English)

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Nearly thirty scientists of the highest level, Breton specialists in marine sciences and in algae, representatives of research labs, of CNRS Roscoff, of the University of Western Brittany, of the University of Southern Brittany, of the INRA and of the regional SMEs presented the richness and the potential of algae, especially green algae, to provide solutions to the world issues of nutrition and health, particularly of animals and plants.
With the help of this impressive line-up of experts, 400 specialists in animal nutrition and breeding coming from 24 countries, discovered the future uses of these algae (green algae), available in a variety of products intended for tomorrow’s breeding, aquaculture and agriculture.
This symposium was organized under the high patronage of Mr. Kobenan Kouassi Adjoumani, Minister of Animal and Halieutic Ressources of Côte d’Ivoire. It is at the invitation of Mr. Hervé Balusson, chairman and managing director of OLMIX, that the Minister of Côte d’Ivoire, accompanied by a delegation of scientists, came in parallel with SPACE to discover the expertise and the breeding techniques in Brittany, in order to develop effective industries in his country.

More information about the symposium Algae: The Blue Revolution for a Sustainable Chemistry in: http://goo.gl/hhZXL

More information about ULVANs - algae valorization: http://goo.gl/i6w9d

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Proceedings of the symposium "ALGAE: THE BLUE REVOLUTION FOR A SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY" (English)

  1. 1. Olmix Symposium September, 10th 2012 FRANCE - Palais des Congrès of Pontivy « Algae : The Blue Revolution for a Sustainable Chemistry » How Algae can bring solutions to Global Nutrition & Health issuesThis event is organized by Olmix with the support of its partners:
  2. 2. 1st Olmix Algae SymposiumPalais des Congrès of Pontivy (France)September, 10th 2012 Dear partner, OLMIX, pioneer in algae use for animal nutrition since 1995 has the pleasure to invite you to attend the 1st olmix algae symposium dedicated to “global nutrition and health issues”. Using algae extract for their polysaccharides and trace-elements materials became com- mon for Olmix in the beginning of the second millennium. It all started when OLMIX‘s R&D team had the feeling that they could increase the binding potential of Clay by including inside algae polysaccharides. The idea was to increase the interlayer space of natural montmorillonite clay thanks to the ulvans, green algae poly- saccharides. A full program was then developed with CNRS (National Center of Scientific Research) and CEVA (Center for study and valorization of algae) and gave birth to Ama- deite®, the algae based revolutionary and worldwide patented hybrid material. The first great commercial success using Algae in animal feeding was born: MTX+. These successes encouraged OLMIX to increase its use of Algae for animal and vege- tal health and nutrition. Today ULVANS, a new R&D program, is aimed to provide even more Algae based solutions to the field with more technology inside, using enzymatic hydrolysis and separation techniques from harvest to the final product. How Can Olmix innovate so much in Algae use? Its location, based right in the middle of a region of the world where most of the Algae scientific knowledge, supply and diversity is concentrated: BRITTANY. To share this Algae Blue revolution for a sustainable Chemistry with its partners OLMIX organize on September 10th the 1st OLMIX ALGAE SYMPOSIUM “How algae can bring solutions to global nutrition and health issues”. Speakers from the most recognized specialized institutions will share with us the latest knowledge on Algae science and yet more… On behalf of Hervé Balusson, OLMIX CEO, we are looking forward to welcoming you soon in Brittany. Olmix team 1
  3. 3. 1st Olmix Algae Symposium Palais des Congrès of Pontivy (France) September, 10th 2012 PROGRAM «Algae: The Blue Revolution for a Sustainable Chemistry» How Algae can bring solutions to Global Nutrition & Health issues Morning sessions under the Chairmanship of Catherine Boyen Director of the “Marine plants and biomolecules” laboratory - Roscoff Biological Station- CNRS UMR 7139 - Steering committee of Biogenouest® 8.30 Welcome reception Welcome speech 9.00 Hervé Balusson Olmix Group President and CEO Session 1 Algae: A new world to discover Introduction - Brittany, historic region in algae valorisation • History of algae situation in the region 9.10 • Sea World professional organizations and institutes - Current actions p.12 Dr. Christine Bodeau-Bellion Science et Mer Laboratory - President of the Syndicate of Seaweed and Marine Plants - Le Relecq Kerhuon Brittany an area of excellence in algae knowledge • Research organizations in Brittany - Their expertise 9.30 • Present and future research programs Pr. Eric Deslandes University of Western Brittany - Brest Discovering the Blue Chemistry • General information on algae, their origin and biological characteristics 9.50 p.18 Dr. Philippe Potin Research Director - Roscoff Biological Station - CNRS UMR 7139 - IDEALG project coordinator Algae: A sugared treasure 10.20 p.31 Dr. Mirjaml Czjzek Research Director - Roscoff Biological Station - CNRS UMR 1931 11.00 Coffee break Session 2 Algae in the service of Health Enzymatic hydrolysis in chemistry of seaweeds 11.30 Pr. Nathalie Bourgougnon LBCM (Biotechnology and Marine Chemistry Laboratory) - p.38 University of Southern Brittany - Vannes2
  4. 4. 1st Olmix Algae SymposiumPalais des Congrès of Pontivy (France)September, 10th 2012 Bioactivities of Marine Polysaccharides in human and animal health 12.00 (Update) p.48 Dr. Henri Salmon Research Director - INRA Tours - Nouzilly (French National Institute for Agricultural Research) Marine lipids in amplifying cancers chemotherapy 12.30 Pr. Philippe Bougnoux Oncologist, Director of the Unit «Nutrition, growth and cancer» - INSERM p.59 (National Institute for Health and Medical Research) - Chief of cancerology service - CHU Tours (University Hospital Center) 13.00 Lunch (marine buffet) Afternoon sessions under the Chairmanship of Dr. Christine Bodeau-Bellion Science et Mer Laboratory - President of the French Syndicate of Seaweed and Marine Plants - Le Relecq Kerhuon Session 3 Industrial applications originating from algae chemistry The algae industry in Chile 14.15 Eliana Henriquez Flores Agronomist - Head of the International Affairs Unit - CIREN p.69 (Centre for Renewable Natural Resources Information) - Santiago, CHILE Algae, source of active principles in cosmetics 14.30 p.75 Alexis Rannou Deputy Managing Director in charge of Innovation - ARD Soliance - Pommacle Algae, source of nutriments for humans 14.50 Dr. Maria Hayes Scientific Project Manager - NutraMara - Teagasc Ashtown Food Research p.88 Centre - IRELAND Christine Le Tennier Algues de Bretagne - Globe Export SARL - Rosporden p.102 Algae in the service of soils nutrition 15.25 p.105 Dr. Bruno Daridon Research and Development Director - PRP Technologies - Paris 16.00 Coffee break Session 4 Industrial applications originating from algae chemistry (follow) Algae in the service of terrestrial plants health 16.15 p.120 Dr. Adeline Picot Plants Pathology Laboratory - VEGENOV BBV - St Pol de Léon Algae, source of nutrients in animal nutrition 16.40 Pr. Simon Davies Professor of Aquaculture Nutrition at the University of Plymouth (UK). Member of World Aquaculture Society 17.10 Round table: From research to industrial application. 18.30 Cocktail: Marine algae in the castle 20.00 Gala dinner and evening festivities - Pontivy castle - Palais des Congrès 3
  5. 5. 1st Olmix Algae Symposium Palais des Congrès of Pontivy (France) September, 10th 2012 GUEST SPEAKERS Introduction and presentation Mr Hervé Balusson Olmix Group President and CEO Hervé Balusson is the founder and Chairman of Olmix Group, specialized in the trace-elements feed additives and organic fertilizer. He has succee- ded in bringing Olmix from a regional stage into international coverage. Olmix products are now available in more than 50 countries. Ms Catherine Boyen Director of the “Marine plants and biomolecules” laboratory - Roscoff Biological Station- CNRS UMR 7139 - Steering committee of Biogenouest®. Dr. Christine Bodeau-Bellion Science et Mer Laboratory - President of the Syndicate of Seaweed and Marine Plants - Le Relecq Kerhuon Pr. Eric Deslandes University of Western Brittany - Brest Dr. Philippe Potin Research Director - Roscoff Biological Station - CNRS UMR 7139 - IDEALG pro- ject coordinator Philippe Potin (49), Docteur en biologie, HDR, Directeur de Recherche 2ème classe au CNRS depuis oct. 2006 (SBR, UMR 7139 CNRS-UPMC- Paris6) Dr. Philippe Potin, marine biologist and biochemist has obtained his Ph.D. from the University of Brest in 1992 and continued his post-doctoral research at the NRC Institute for Marine Biosciences in Halifax (NS Canada) and was hired by CNRS in Roscoff. P. Potin’s scientific interests (>70 primary publications) are in the bases of pathogen defense reactions and signaling in marine algae, with an emphasis of the specific traits of marine plants such as the halide metabolism. Research in his team investigates fundamental processes underlying interactions between seaweeds and pests. He was also interested in technology transfer with the Goëmar Laboratories, to develop the use of oligosaccharides for disease control in agricultural crops (4 patents, one product on the market) and during his mandate as a project manager for4
  6. 6. 1st Olmix Algae SymposiumPalais des Congrès of Pontivy (France)September, 10th 2012GUEST SPEAKERSIntroduction and presentation the marine biotechnologies at the Maritime Cluster “Pôle Mer Bretagne”. He is currently the scientific coordinator of IDEALG, a 10-year national integrative pro- ject, within the framework of the French Stimuli Program Investis- sements d’Avenir, to capitalize on the recent breakthroughs in algal genomics to develop seaweed genetics and biotechnology. Philippe POTIN, Station Biologique de Roscoff, BP 74 - 29680 Roscoff, Tel.33-2. 98.29.23.75, Fax.33-2. 98.29.23.85, Mail potin@sb-roscoff.frDr. Mirjaml CzjzekResearch Director - Roscoff Biological Station - CNRS UMR 1931 Mirjam Czjzek has studied chemistry at the University of Frankfurt, then at the TH Darmstadt in Germany where she has obtained her PhD in crystallography. After one year of a post-doctoral position in the ‘Labo- ratory for crystallography of biological macromolecules’ (LCMB) of Mar- seille, she has been recruited at the CNRS in October 1992. She is crys- tallographer by education and has started to work on CAZymes solving the crystal structures of cellulases and beta-glucosidases during several years in the group of Bernard Henrissat in Marseille, France. In 2005 she moved to the Station Biologique de Roscoff, where she is now ‘directrice de recherche’ of CNRS in the laboratory for ‘Marine plants and biomolecules’. Her research program entitled ‘Marine Glycobiology’ currently focuses on the structures and functions of carbohydrate-active enzymes, including their CBMs, which are involved in marine algal cell wall polysaccharide depolymerization.Pr. Nathalie BourgougnonLBCM (Biotechnology and Marine Chemistry Laboratory) - University of Sou-thern Brittany - Vannes Nathalie Bourgougnon has been working in the Laboratoire deBio- technologie et Chimie Marines (LBCM) at Université de Bretagne- Sud since 2001. Previously, she was lecturer at the University de la Rochelle during 8 years. The principal thematic of her research relates to the search for marine substances with biological activities mainly extrac- ted from algae. She has a good experience in the field of the extraction, purification, characterization and evaluation of biological (antiviral, antifouling, antiprolifera- tive…) activities of marine compounds. She has published ca. 55 papers in peer-reviewed journals and book chapters, in particular on antifouling or antiviral substances extracted from seaweeds, extraction and purification of bioactive marine substances. She has deposit two patents about antiviral substances. She has been involved in 5
  7. 7. 1st Olmix Algae Symposium Palais des Congrès of Pontivy (France) September, 10th 2012 GUEST SPEAKERS Introduction and presentation several Euro- pean projects (e.g. FP4 Bioactive Marine Natural Products in the Field of Antitumo- ral, Antiviral and Immunomodulant Activity, MAST III; FP5 AVINSI- Anti Viral Infection Non Specific Immunity: Basis of non specific immunity against viral diseases in aquacultured species; FP6 Valbiomar Biotechnologique valorization of the marine resources; FP7 Biotecmar: integrated transregional project for communication, technical information and technology transfer in the domain of biotechnological exploitation of marine products and by-products) and recently in OSEO program ULVANS. She has coordinated the project ASEM-DUO from MAE between France and Malaysia (2007-2009). She is member of several networks, Two French networks: BioChiMar concerning marine substances with biological activity and SEAPro (Sustanaible Exploitation of Aquatic PRO- ducts) concerning biotechnological up-grading of fish, seaweeds or aquaculture by-pro- ducts; and an international network: RAQ Quebec Aquaculture Network. At the national level, Nathalie Bourgougnon has collaborated with Dr. JL Mouget (Université du Mans) for physiological approaches of antifouling substances extracted from seaweeds, V. Stiger (Université de Bretagne Occidentale) for marine substances extracted from red seaweeds, Dr T. Renault (IFREMER, La Tremblade) for defences mechanisms of oysters against bacteria and viruses , JP Bergé (IFREMER, Nantes) for upgrading of marine resources and at the international level, she gained experience in cooperation with Morocco (University Tétouan; Pr. H. Riadi), Institute of Marine Biotechnology of University Malaysia Terengganu (Pr. Effendy) for biological compounds extracted from seaweeds, ISMER (Québec, Dr. R. Tremblay) for biological compounds extracted from seaweeds, microalgae, invertebrates. She is Vice-president of International PhD School (Coordination of Doctoral program) of the Université européenne de Bretagne (UEB) www.ueb.eu. At University de Bretagne-Sud, she is in charge of research program and Coordinator of master «Biotechnology» (www- lbcm.univ-ubs.fr). Dr. Henri Salmon Research Director - INRA Tours - Nouzilly (French National Institute for Agricul- tural Research) Dr. Henri Salmon is a Research Director in the Institute of National Agro- nomic Research (INRA) in France. He earned his DVM from the National Veterinary School-Alfort in Paris and his PhD in Immunology from the University of Paris. Prior to joining INRA, he served 6 years as a Research Assistant at Col- lege of Veterinary Medicine in Alfort. Since 1984, he has served as Director of Research, INRA, laboratory of Animal Infectiology and Public Health, Tours-Nouzilly. He served one year in Transplantation Research Biology Center, Harvard Medical School and Massasuchetts General Hospital (Boston, MA).6
  8. 8. 1st Olmix Algae SymposiumPalais des Congrès of Pontivy (France)September, 10th 2012GUEST SPEAKERSIntroduction and presentation The objective of his research is an understanding of the interrela- tions («immune links») between digestive, pulmonary and mammary mucosal im- mune responses to improve protection against pathogens. He has dissected the mechanisms under- lying the migration of IgA plasma cells from the mucosae to the mammary gland in the sow ; these mechanisms substantiate the production of IgA in colostrum and milk. and hence are responsible of passive mucosal protection of the suckling piglets. Now he is looking at the means to shorten the onset of IgA response in gut of weaned piglet. To replace the anti- biotics-growth factors in food, he designed «immunoprobiotic», as vectors to enhance the neonatal gut immunity which deliver enhacing factors of IgA immune response including pre- and probiotics.Pr. Philippe BougnouxOncologist, Director of the Unit «Nutrition, growth and cancer» - INSERM (Natio-nal Institute for Health and Medical Research) - Chief of cancerology service -CHU Tours (University Hospital Center) Philippe Bougnoux is a medical oncologist, specialized in breast and gynaecologic cancers. He performed his trainings in medicine in Tours and in immunology at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. After a 3 years post- doctoral staying as a Fogarty fellow at the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, MD, he became professor of cancer biology at the university of Tours, and chief of the cancer outpatient unit at the university cancer centre Henry S. Kaplan. He belongs to the Inserm research Unit 1069 « Nutrition, growth and Cancer » and has been coordina- ting a consortium of research units in chemistry and biology on marine-derived anticancer agents within the canceropôle of the western part of France, which he heads now. His research interests are to understand how diet and lipid nutrients influence the molecu- lar alterations which result in malignant tumors and how they integrate to delay breast can- cer occurrence or individual response to anticancer agents. He does translational research in the field of dietary lipids in relation to breast cancer prevention and treatment. He is currently carrying out randomized clinical trials of dietary intervention with omega-3 poly- unsaturated fatty acids to enhance the sensitivity of tumors to radiation or chemotherapy. Address: INSERM U1069, Henry S. Kaplan Cancer Centre, University Hospital Breton- neau, 37044 Tours, France Telephone: +33 (0) 2 4747 8261 Email: philippe.bougnoux@inserm.fr Web site: www.n2c.univ-tours.fr 7
  9. 9. 1st Olmix Algae Symposium Palais des Congrès of Pontivy (France) September, 10th 2012 GUEST SPEAKERS Introduction and presentation Ms Eliana Henriquez Flores Agronomist - Head of the International Affairs Unit - CIREN (Centre for Re- newable Natural Resources Information) - Santiago, CHILE Agronomist - Head of the International Affairs Unit - CIREN (Centre for Renewable Natural Resources Information) - Santiago, CHILE In the period between the years 2004-2008, working as Chief of Labora- tory Sub-department and Quarantine Agricultural Station, from the Agricultural and Lives- tock Service, she has made an important management of inter-agency cooperation at the national and international level with different research institutions of great renown and reco- gnized academic prestige around the world. This has enabled that SAG, at present, has signed various «Memorandum of understanding» or Agreements of International Coope- ration with institutions of Spain, Scotland, Italy and United States. Thus, all the necessary efforts were made that will, in the near future, allow to establish agreements with England, Australia, France and New Zealand. The technological horizon for Laboratory Sub-Department and Agricultural Quarantine Station was expanded through the emphasis on inter-agency, both national and foreign cooperation. In this way, one can access to the techniques implemented and developed in important centers of research around the world M Alexis Rannou Deputy Managing Director in charge of Innovation - ARD Soliance - Pommacle Ingénieur Agricole (ISAB) 1991 Ingénieur d’études ARD (Agro industrie Recherche et développement) en charge de la sélection variétale de la betterave biotechnologie pour la fabrication d’acide galacturonique. 1994 Responsable du pilote industriel ARD mise au point de tension-actifs verts (Uronate de sodium et Alkyl polypentosides) 1997 Directeur technique SOLIANCE & développement industriel Amadéïte avec OLMIX 2000 Formation IFG CGDPME (Gestion des entreprises) 2002 Directeur Général Adjoint en charge de la production et du compte l’Oréal 2007 DGA en charge de l’innovation (8 Brevets) 20 bx produits et du marketing stratégique 2012 DGA en charge de l’innovation Soliance et Wheat Oléo8
  10. 10. 1st Olmix Algae SymposiumPalais des Congrès of Pontivy (France)September, 10th 2012GUEST SPEAKERSIntroduction and presentationDr. Maria HayesScientific Project Manager - NutraMara - Teagasc Ashtown Food Re-search Centre - IRELAND NutraMara Scientific Programme Manager & Principle Investigator - Work Package 2 and 7. Main Research Interests: • Isolation, purification and characterisation of marine derived molecules, especially peptides and phlorotannins from marine seaweeds and by-products • Fermentation • Bioassay development with a particular focus on heart and mental health disorders – i.e., renin, ACE-I, PAF-AH, PEP and inhibition of other enzymes with heart and mental health effects • Generation of chitin and chitosan from marine shellfisheries waste streams • Isolation and characterisation of enzymes (in particular chitinolytic enzymes) Short Biography: Dr Hayes obtained her BSc (Hons) in Science, specialising in Industrial Microbiology and Chemistry from University College Dublin (UCD). She carried out her PhD at the Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark and University College Cork in the area of bioactive peptide isolation and characterisation from milk proteins and waste streams (whey and casein). She then carried out Post-doctoral work at the Centre of Applied Marine Biotech- nology in Donegal where she worked on the isolation of chitinolytic enzymes from shell- fisheries crab and whelk waste streams. She is currently the NutraMara Scientific Pro- gramme Manager and supervises two NutraMara PhD researchers who are funded by the Teagasc Walsh Fellowship programme. These students are Mr Ciaran Fitzgerald and Ms Michelle Tierney. Selected publications: Fitzgerald, C., Gallagher, E., Tasdemir, D., Hayes, M., (2011), Heart Health peptides from macroalgae and their potential use in functional foods. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, DOI: 10.1021/jf201114d Di Bernardini, R., Harnedy, P., Bolton, D., Kerry, J., O’ Neill, E., Mullen, A. M., Hayes, M., (2011), Antioxidant and antimicrobial peptidic hydrolysates from muscle protein sources and by-products. Food Chemistry, 124, 1296-1307. Tierney, M. S., Croft, A. K., Hayes, M., (2010) A review of antihypertensive and antioxidant activities in macroalgae, Botanica Marina, 53 (2010), 387-408. 9
  11. 11. 1st Olmix Algae Symposium Palais des Congrès of Pontivy (France) September, 10th 2012 GUEST SPEAKERS Introduction and presentation Hayes, M., Carney, B., Slater, J., Bruck, W., (2008), Mining marine shellfish wastes for bioac- tive molecules: Chitin and chitosan; Part B: Applications. Biotech- nology Journal, 3, 7, 871-877. Hayes, M., Barrett, E., O’Connor, P., Gardiner, G., Fitzgerald, G., Hill, C., Stanton C., Ross R.P. (2007), Salivaricin P: one of a family of two component anti-listerial bacteriocins pro- duced by intestinal isolates of Lactobacillus salivarius, Appl Environ Microbiol. 73, 11, 3719- 3723. Ms Christine Le Tennier Algues de Bretagne - Globe Export SARL - Rosporden «“I was born an entrepreneur” Christine Le Tennier is a dynamic person. An impulsive one. She is com- plete. Political cant, she does not know it. “I was born an entrepreneur.” A witticism? Not at all. Before she was 20 years old, Christine Le Tennier did not have any idea about what the wage system was. “My grandpa- rents were corporate managers.” Farmer on her paternal side, tinsmith in Alger for her maternal grandmother. When she was 20, she was hired by Hilton. As a barmaid. At age 22, she became a commercial executive. Still at Hilton. In Ontario – where she was born – and in New York State. When she was offered a big job in Africa, she turned it down. Went back to Brittany, met her future husband and went back to school to study international business. In 1986 Christine Le Tennier created Snc Glob’export with the aim of international consul- ting and trade. Globe export became Sarl Globe Export – Seaweed of Brittany in 1993, opening date of the first production factory of seaweed-based products. Today edible seaweed are lacking in Brittany, studies foresee a field for seaweed in 10 years. “But I do need seaweed here and now.” Meanwhile the development of this field, Christine Le Tennier imports a part of seaweed she transforms and makes a turnover of 2 million Euros with 13 to 15 employees. Customers of Seaweed of Brittany: industry, catering, retail, export (20%), mail order selling. The strategy developed in 2012 can be summarized in 2 major divisions: innovation and interna- tional.10
  12. 12. 1st Olmix Algae SymposiumPalais des Congrès of Pontivy (France)September, 10th 2012GUEST SPEAKERSIntroduction and presentationDr. Bruno DaridonResearch and Development Director - PRP Technologies - Paris Bruno Daridon, 51 years old, integrated PRP Technologies in March 2007 as R&D manager, and then joined the executive committee. He is an agronomist (ENSAIA Nancy-1984) and Doctor in Biotechnology and Food Process Engineering (INPL Nancy- 1988). From 1993 to 1997, he created as a R&D engineer, Prabil S.A., a society of research on hire about extraction and functionalization of plant molecules and valuations of non-food agricultural products, then became its general manager in 1997. From 2004 to 2007, he was in charge of the site Novasep Brabois where he developed processes of fractionation and purification of biomolecules for the pharmaceutical industry.Dr. Adeline PicotPlants Pathology Laboratory - VEGENOV BBV - St Pol de Léon After graduating with a PhD in plant pathology from the University of Paris-Sud 11 in 2010, Adeline Picot has been working at Vegenov as a Plant pathology assistant for one year. Her field of research focuses on the evaluation of plant defense elicitors and the optimization of their use in several pathosystems including grey molds and powdery and downy mildews in tomato, strawberry… She is involved in the French network Elicitra which aims at understanding, developing and promoting the strategy of plant de- fense elicitors.Pr. Simon DaviesProfessor of Aquaculture Nutrition at the University of Plymouth (UK). Member of World Aquacul- ture Society. 11
  13. 13. La Bretagne : Terre historique de la valorisation des algues Christine BODEAU Présentation dédiée à : • Jean DUGOUJON, créateur de la Chambre Syndicale des Algues et Végétaux Marins • Pierre ARZEL, Chercheur à IFREMER • Jean-Yves FLOCH, Professeur à l’Université de Bretagne Occidentale 1 La Chambre Syndicale des Algues et Végétaux Marins  3 entreprises dans années 1960’  21 entreprises aujourd’hui : diversité des applications Bret’algue Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 2 La Bretagne : Une situation géographique unique Source : Google Earth12 Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 Source : Google Earth3
  14. 14. La Bretagne : Une région au marnage exceptionnel Jusqu’à 13 m de marnage dans la Manche ! Les algues se répartissent sur tout l’estran :Marnages dans le Monde. - Source : SHOM Plus petits = verts / Plus grands = rouges Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 4 Les débuts de la récolte en bateau Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 5 La récolte à pied Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 6 13
  15. 15. La récolte à pied M.Philippe Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 7 L’algoculture Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 8 Le séchage14 Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 9
  16. 16. Le brulageOlmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 10 Extraction d’iodeOlmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 11 Les utilisations industrielles et domestiques  XVIIème fabrication du verre  Engrais  Début XIXème, fabrication de l’iode (jusqu’en 1955)  Nourriture du bétail (depuis le XIXème)  Literie  Épaississant et gélifiant : alginates début du XXème / carraghénanes 1960  Alimentaires, légumes de la mer, 1980 (essor)  Cosmétique, pharmaceutiqueOlmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 12 15
  17. 17. Algues et biochimie Oligoéléments Polysaccharides Sels minéraux Sucres osmolytes Molécules à rôle physiologique de survie : antibiotiques, antioxydants… Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 13 Algues et biochimie • Engrais • Cosmétiques • Thalassothérapie Oligoéléments • Alimentation Sels minéraux • Diététique (calcium) • Médecine (iode) • Nutrition animale Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 14 Algues et biochimie Alginates Produits (Algues brunes) épaississants et gélifiants Carraghénanes (Algues rouges) Polysaccharides Sucres Laminarine (accélérateur de Engrais croissance) Pharmacie Divers Alimentation Diététique16 Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 15
  18. 18. Algues et biochimie Molécules à rôle Molécules à physiologique haute valeur de survie : ajoutée antibiotiques, antioxydants…Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 Algues et Mer © 16 Alimentaire Bord à Bord ©Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 Algues de Bretagne© 17 La récolte aujourd’hui en bateauOlmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 18 17
  19. 19. Discovering the Blue Chemistry of algae: Their origin, biology and metabolism Philippe POTIN - Team Algal Defenses CNRS-UPMC UMR 7139 - Marine Plants & Biomolecules 1 Seaweeds from Roscoff: an exceptional place for studying biodiversity Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 2 Seaweed belts on the shore18 Floch, J.-Y. (1964). Distribution verticale et écologie des algues marines sur les côtes Bretonnes. Penn ar Bed 4(37) Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 3
  20. 20. Reds and greens Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 4 Brown’s Phaeocystis globosa Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 5 Blue green algae 2.724 billion years ago as far back as 3.450 billion years ago Modern stromatolites in Shark Bay, Western Australia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stromatolite Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 6 19
  21. 21. Algae origins are not only a matter of pigments Algae are photosynthetic organisms. Based on the pigment and food reserve, algae are classified into different types, namely, blue green algae (BGA), green algae, red algae and brown algae. Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 7 The tree of life (Haeckel, 1866, c/o Simonetta Gribaldo). Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 8 Algae in the eukaryotic tree20 Olmix Algae Symposium et al, TREE, Lane - Sept. 10th, 2012 2008 9
  22. 22. The endosymbiotic origins of eukaryotesEndosymbiotic gene transfer: organelle genomes forge eukaryotic chromosomesTimmis et Algae Symposium - Sept. 10 , 2012 Genetics 5, 123-135 Olmix al. (2004) Nature Reviews th 10 The endosymbiotic origins of eukaryotesbetween 2 and 1.5 billion yearsEndosymbiotic gene transfer: organelle genomes forge eukaryotic chromosomesTimmis et Algae Symposium - Sept. 10 , 2012 Genetics 5, 123-135 Olmix al. (2004) Nature Reviews th 11 Secondary endosymbiotic origin of brown’s ? about 1,2 billion yearsThe life of Algae Symposium -worlds 2012 Olmix diatoms in the Sept. 10 , oceans E. Virginia Armbrust Nature 459, 185-192 th 12 21
  23. 23. Secondary endosymbiotic origin of other algae Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 13 Seaweeds belong to independant lineages Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 14 Porphyra life cycles (1949) Dr Kathleen Drew-Baker22 Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 15
  24. 24. Porphyra aquaculture in Asia (nori)Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 16 Ulva life cyclesOlmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 17 Kelp forests and life cycles Sauvageau 1917Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 18 23
  25. 25. Kelp aquaculture Source: Ifremer Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 19 Kelp aquaculture www.seaweedenergysolutions.com/ - Saccharina latissima farming Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 20 Algal metabolisms24 Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 21
  26. 26. Kelp biorefinery Co-extraction of laminarin, mannitol , fucans with alginates Acid Calcium Na2CO3 LAMINARIN MANNITOL FUCANS Na- ALGINATE Find an alternative to the storage of fresh biomass in formaldehyde Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 22 Kelps : a major source of iodine Iodine first discovered in 1811 by Courtois in kelp ashes Production of « soda » bricks by seaweed harvesters by burning dried kelps in stone ovens Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 23 Iodine may serve as an inorganic antioxydant in kelps Küpper,. et al. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 6954-8 Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 24 25
  27. 27. Brown algal genomics The Ectocarpus genome (200 Mb) project J.-M. Cock GENOME SEQUENCING: 3,000,000 reads (10X, shotgun) cDNA SEQUENCING: 100,000 reads (full-length cDNAs) J. M. Cock, Roscoff P. Rouzé / Y. van der Peer + Es Genome Consortium - STRAIN SELECTION - LIBRARIES - BIOLOGICAL MATERIAL - SEQUENCING - AUTOMATIC ANNOTATION - LIBRARIES - ASSEMBLY - EXPERT ANNOTATION Cock JM et al. (74 authors) Nature. 2010 Jun 3; 465:617-21 and more than 20 papers during the two last years. Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 Brown algal genomics  The origin of alginate synthesis route in brown algae is likely the result of an horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from Actinobacteria Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 Michel et al. New Phytol. 2010 PMID: 20618907 26 Brown algal genomics Hypothetical biosynthetic pathway for the formation of phloroglucinol derivatives in marine brown algae (based on Ectocarpus genome data)26 Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 27
  28. 28. Brown algal genomicsPhylogenetic relationships 78 Bacteroidetes (3)of brown algal E. siliculosus PKS2Type III 89 E. siliculosus PKS3Polyketide synthases E. siliculosus PKS1 81 F. vesiculosus PKS Brown algae 88 76 F. spiralis PKS S. binderiPKS 97 100 Actinobacteria (7) 99 Amoebozoa (2) 81 100 Fungi (9) Type III Polyketide synthases Chalcone synthases 95 Stilbene synthases Plants (28) Resveratrol synthasesThe origin of Pyrone synthases Acridone synthasephlorotannin 100 Bisphenyl synthasesin brown algae is likely …the result of an horizontalgene transfer (HGT) 98 Bacteria (10)from Actinobacteria Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 Beta-ketoacyl synthases (outgroup) 28Phloroglucinol synthesis in Pseudomonas fluorescens Type III Polyketide synthase (PKS)Phloroglucinol synthesis in Ectocarpus siliculosus Abundance Extracted ion m/z 342 → Phloroglucinol Boiled control 1 hour 3 hours 5 hours Time → Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 CNRS patent sept.2011 n° 11 58728 Meslet et al submitted soon. 29 Other brown seaweedsMacrocystis pyrifera (L.)C.Agardh  A kelp with major ecological importance  A maricultured kelp  A proposal for a project between Chile, Germany, USA & France submitted to JGI Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 30 27
  29. 29. Red algal genomics The Chondrus The Porphyra genome project genome projects Jonas Collén Catherine Boyen Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 31 An industrial reality Chondrus crispus flowering (NS, Canada, ASP) Hana-Tsunomata™ when translated from Japanese means "Flower Chondrus". Other common references to Hana-Tsunomata™ sea vegetables include Hana- nori™ ("Flower seaweed"), Cultivated Chondrus, Kaede-nori ("Maple seaweed") and Hana- sakura-sou ("Cherry blossom sea plant"). Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 32 Ulva genomics John Bothwell The Ulva genome project 150 Mbp FSU Jena28 Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 33
  30. 30. Ulva mariculture Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 34 Trends in seaweed blue chemistry Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 35 IDEALG IDEALG 2011-2020 Seaweed biotechnology and bioresources A national 10-year large integrative project to merge algal genomics with mariculture, biotechnology and chemistry.18 partners: UEB coordination, SBR: UMR 7139-6 teams, UMR 7144-3 teams+ FR2424,CEVA Pleubian, AMURE-UBO, IFREMER Brest, UBS-LBCM Lorient, Agro-Campus, ENSCR, IRISA-Symbiose (Rennes), CNRS U-Nantes,INRA-LBE, 1 large company : Danisco & 4 SMEs, C-Weed, Aleor, France Haliotis, Bezhin Rosko Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 36 29
  31. 31. Knowledge transfer:  Apply knowledge of metabolic pathways and networks,  enzymes, molecules, biocatalyzers, bioconversion,  bioengineering and aquaculture of domesticated seaweeds,  Pre-pilot scale projects and technological research Seaweedomics toward Domestication Systems biology Biotechnology Sustainable Chemistry seaweed.ie Develop basic research on brown, red and green seaweeds toward domestication of local crops and improvement of seaweeds uses in biotechnology and blue-green chemistry Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10 , 2012 th 37 Thanks for your attention! C. Leblanc M. Czjzek J.M. Cock G. Michel J. Collén C. Boyen B. Kloareg 3830
  32. 32. Marine macroalgae: a sweet treasure Dr. Mirjam Czjzek 1 Marine seaweeds: a large diversity of original polysaccharides Ectocarpus siliculosus Chondrus crispus 1 cm Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 Baldauf (2003) Science 2 Marine seaweeds: a large diversity of original polysaccharides agar/carrageenans OH OH OSO - O 3 O O O OSO - HO 3 OSO - 3xyloglucan HO OH OH HO Me O O O O OSO 3- O - 3OSO HO Me O O OH O OH OSO 3- HO O O O OH fucans O HO OHulvan HO2C O O O OH3C O HO OH O X+ -O3S OH n dermatan OSO - 3 OH O O O O HO OH NH Baldauf (2003) Science Olmix Algae Symposium O OH - Sept. 10th, 2012 O 3 31
  33. 33. The diversity of sugars and their linkages in polymers…. 4 6 5 3 1 2 glucose cellulose 4 galactose 1 lichenan 2 1 mannose glucomannan Biosynthesis Catabolism, remodeling glycosyl transferases GT GH glycosyl hydrolases or GT or GH Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 ….goes hand in hand with the diversity of enzymes 4 Algal polysaccharides: the complexity of organic matter in ocean Chlorophyta Rhodophyta Heterokonts (Green algae) (Red algae) (Brown algae & diatoms) Cellulose Cellulose Cellulose Neutral polysaccharides Xylan Mannan Mannan Chitin (Diatoms) (mostly shared with land Chitin plants) Starch Floridean starch Laminarin Macroalgae Agars Alginates Polyanionic Ulvans Carrageenans Fucanes polysaccharides Unicellular algae Capsulans Sulfated Carboxysulfated (unique to marine algae) glucogalactoxylans polysaccharides (Prasinococcus) (Porphyridium) (Phaeodactylum) Carboxy-sulfated Sulfated carboxylated Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 5 Red algal galactans porphyran Gels of 1 % Increase in density of negative charge b(1-4) a(1-3) OH O Decrease in gel strength OH O O agarose O O OH OH OSO3- OH O O O k-carrageenan O O OH OH OSO3- OH O O O O O i-carrageenan OH OSO3- OH OH OSO3- O O l-carrageenan O O OSO3- HO OSO3-32 Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 6
  34. 34. Conformational state of k-carrageenan (iono- and thermo-reversible gels) NaCl NaI KCl Random coils or Helices Aggregation of helices Flexible rods Gel formation Variables Temperature [carrageenan] [salt] Type of saltOlmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 7 Structural determinants of the k-carrageenase Extended loops b-agarase k-carrageenaseOlmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 8 Structural determinants of the k-carrageenase Extended loops Trp95 Arg151 k-carrageenaseOlmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 9 33
  35. 35. Mode of action of the Pseudoalteromonas k-carrageenase Anion exchange citrate endo chromatography DP4 DP6 DP8 % hydrolysis 0 µS 36 47 49 soluble 51 substrate 10 60 15 20 25 30 Time (min) processive! jellified 0,3 citrate substrate DP4/Citrate DP4 % hydrolysis 0 0,2 18 µS 40 42 0,1 56 62 0 10 15 20 25 30 0 10 20 30 40 Time (min) Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 Hydrolysis (%) 10 Mode of action of the Pseudoalteromonas k-carrageenase DP4 DP4 DP4 Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 11 Agarose sol/gel transition Electronic Scanner microphotograph of a 2 % agarose gel Attack of colloidal microgel by Zobellia galactanivorans34 Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 12
  36. 36. Agarose sol/gel transition ( ) b(1-4) O a(1-3) OH CH2OH O O O O OH O OH agarose n Handbook of hydrocolloids Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 (Medin, A. S. 1995) 13 Zobellia galactanivorans, (Bacteroidetes) a specialized marine polysaccharide degrader Barbeyron et al. 2001 Genome project : counting the carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) CeBiTech 114 glycoside hydrolases (GH), 12 Polysaccharide lyases (PL), 17 carbohydrate esterases (CE) and 72 sulfatases ! several polyspecific familes such as 16 GH16 Genome Project – MPI Bremen F. O. Glöckner, M. Bauer, R. Amann 14 Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 Marine bacteria secrete specific enzymes for the degradation of algal polysaccharidesa-Agarase CBM6 TPS3 CBM6 TPS3 TPS3 TPS3 TPS3 CBM6 GH96 Pseudomonas agaralyticus Flament et al. (2007) Appl Environ Microbiolb-Agarases GH-16 X-70 UNK AgaA AgaB GH-16 AgaB Zobellia galactanivorans Jam et al. (2005) Biochem Jk-Carrageenases GH-16 Big2 GH-16 CBM16 P. carrageenovora, Z. galactanivorans Barbeyron et al. (1998) Mol Biol Evoli-Carrageenases GH-82 GH-82 Alteromonas fortis, Z. galactanivorans Barbeyron et al. (2000) J Biol Cheml-Carrageenase WD repeat domain New GH Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora Guibet et al (2007) Biochem JFucanase GH107 Cad Cad Cad UNK Mariniflexile fucanivorans Colin et al. (2006) GlycobiologyAlginate lyase New PL Pseudomonas alginovora Chavagnat et al. (1996) Biochem J Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 15 35
  37. 37. Phylogenetic analysis of Zobellia enzymes from family GH16 Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 16 The variable compositions of agaroids Neutral, ideal a(1-3) OH b(1-4) O CH2OH O O M. Lahaye and C. Rochas 1991 O O O Agarose OH OH O HO HO OH CH2OMe Me O OH OH O O O O O O O O OH O O O OH OH O OH CH3 b(1-4) a(1-3) b(1-4) a(1-3) HO2C O OSO3- O O O CH2OMe CH2 O O O O O O O O OH O O OH OH OH Various modifications can be observed like, pyruvate groups, methylation, sulfatation, or even branching .... These modified agar components are often called agaropectins Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 17 Activity screening on algal cell wall extracts L6S = L-galactose-6-sulfate LA = 3,6-anhydro-L- galactose  Correlation with increasing L-galactose-6-sulfate units  Maximum activity on red algae Porphyra sp.36 Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10 , 2012 th 18
  38. 38. Structural analysis by crystallographyBasic residues are conserved at -2critical for porphyran recognition R59 W56 G H53 -3 W131 E144 L6S -2 G -4 -1 L6S R133 Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 E139S catalytic residues 19 Z. galactanivorans contains a complex agarolytic system Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 20 Thanks for your attention! 21 37
  39. 39. Enzymatic hydrolysis in chemistry of seaweeds Nathalie Bourgougnon, Kevin Hardouin, Loannes Le Bars, Gilles Bedoux, Christel Marty, Justine Dumay*, JP Bergé ** Laboratoire de Biotechnologie et Chimie Marines, UBS, PRES UEB, IUEM * Mer Molécules Santé, Université Nantes ** IFREMER, Nantes 1 Laboratoire de Biotechnologie et Chimie Marines  15 teachers/researchers - 10 PhD students - 2 technical assistants “Marine biofilm: biological and chemical approaches” program  Study of the interactions between organisms and abiotic surfaces  Study of physical and chemical parameters involved in bacterial adhesion by conceiving model substrates  Development of antifouling systems combining efficiency and environmental respect  Cell-cell interfaces  Complex bacterial biofilms  Procaryote-eucaryote interactions and communications  Biotechnology: valorization of marine molecules Purification and characterization of compounds of interest from invasive marine organisms (sponges, algae, bacteria, echinoderms...) Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 2 Laboratoire de Biotechnologie et Chimie Marines  Professional Licence Biotechnologie Ingénierie des produits cosmétiques et de santé  Master Biotechnologie Biomolécules, micro-organismes and bio-procédés38 Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 3
  40. 40. Which biomasses to screen? Marine Drug design ? Resources halieutics, Biotechnologic biomass ? Selection of phyla know to by-products…? synthesize cytotoxic molecules Extracts with biological activities Interesting molecules Lot of biological molecules Many ways of upgrading Simple extraction Inexhaustible resource Many ways of upgrading Identification of the producer? Few active molecules extraction and purification, Synthesis very difficult, limited resourceOlmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 4 French Brittany Seaweed A good biomass Harvest of marine macroalgae in Brittany (2009) Brown Red Green Others 3.9% 1.1% 0.3% 94.7%  Important biodiversity  Harvested wild seaweed 70 000T/year CSAVM 2010  Long tradition of the use of seaweeds  Good economic context with a lot of active companies using macroalgae Sangiardi 2010  Invasive seaweedsOlmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 5 Technologies Extraction from marine Chemical synthesis organisms of natural substances Animal and human foods Health market CosmeticsOlmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 6 39
  41. 41. Extraction technologies Extraction from marine organisms  Maceration in a mixture of solvants  Liquid/liquid partition  Fractionation by chromatography  Purification by HPLC Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012  Identification RMN, Malditof…. 7 Enzymatic hydrolysis Obtain compounds which can be the object of later upgrading from seaweeds  Low energy consummation  Low cost  Processes environment-friendly (no toxic, biodegradable) Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 8 Enzyme molecules  Protein nature  Product was not consumed during the reaction  Active in small proportion  Do not modify the balance thermodynamics reaction  Accelerate only the speed of the reaction  Specific of a reaction  Large-scale production40 Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 9
  42. 42. Enzyme classification Numbering ECOlmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 10 Enzymatic hydrolysis technology pH stat method  Temperature  Quantity enzyme  Time of hydrolysis  pH  H2O Volume Parameters studied  pH Regulation  Temperature Control  Calculation of Hydrolysis degreeOlmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 11 Enzymatic hydrolysis technology Raw material Enzyme (seaweed) (1v) (large spectra) 1.0% Water (1v) Temperature Time 60°C 3 hours ReactionOlmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 12 41
  43. 43. Example of enzymatic hydrolysis Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 13 Example of enzymatic hydrolysis Alcalase EC 3.4.21.62 Leu-Trp-Lys-Arg-Glu-Ile-Tyr-Phe-Arg-Gln-Ser-Val-Asp-Thr-Ala-Pro-Asn Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 14 Example of enzymatic hydrolysis Alcalase EC 3.4.21.62 Protamex EC 3.4.21.62 & EC 3.4.24.28 Leu-Trp-Lys-Arg-Glu-Ile-Tyr-Phe-Arg-Gln-Ser-Val-Asp-Thr-Ala-Pro-Asn42 Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 15
  44. 44. Example of enzymatic hydrolysis Alcalase EC 3.4.21.62 Flavourzyme EC 3.4.11.1 Protamex EC 3.4.21.62 & EC 3.4.24.28Leu-Trp-Lys-Arg-Glu-Ile-Tyr-Phe-Arg-Gln-Ser-Val-Asp-Thr-Ala-Pro-Asn Enzymes tested only or in combinationOlmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 16 Enzymatic hydrolysis Process Identification of seaweed biomass Good knowledge of biomass composition SEAWEEDS Analysis Quality Quantity Non FoodProtein Lipid Polymer Mineral Food grade Seasonality Geography … GradeOlmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 17 Enzymatic hydrolysis Process Define the objectives of upgrading SEAWEEDS Analysis Quality Non FoodProtein Lipid Polymer Mineral Food grade GradeOlmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 18 43
  45. 45. Enzymatic hydrolysis Process Define the objectives of upgrading SEAWEEDS Analysis Quality Non Food Protein Lipid Polymer Mineral Food grade Grade Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 19 Enzymatic hydrolysis Process Estimate the availability of the biomass SEAWEEDS Analysis Quality Quantity Non Food Protein Lipid Polymer Mineral Food grade Seasonality Geography … Grade Olmix Algae Symposium - Sept. 10th, 2012 General Strategy 20 Enzymatic hydrolysis Process Analysis Quality Quantity Protein Polymer Mineral Non Food Lipid Food grade Seasonality Geography … 10-24% 38-60% 14-29% Grade44 Olmix100 g Symposium g / Algae MS - Sept. 10th, 2012 21

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