Antoniou: complex systems and web


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OKFN Greece meet-up
Friday, April 6, 2012, 5:00 PM

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Research Dissemination Center

Prof. I. Antoniou (Director of MSc Web Science, AUTH, Steering Committee OKFN Greece). The power of Openness. Open Data and Open Knowledge

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Antoniou: complex systems and web

  1. 1. The power of Openness.Irreversible Non - Hermitian Extensions of Quantum Mechanics Open Data and Open Knowledge I. Antoniou Ioannis E. Antoniou CHAOS AND INNOVATION Research Unit Mathematics Department Mathematics Department Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Aristotle University , 54124 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece 3rd International Workshop on 2012-04-06Pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics
  2. 2. • What is a Complex System?Physico-Chemical OrganizationLifeBrain-MindSocio-economic structuresCommunication NetworksWWW
  3. 3. Complexity emerges in Open Systems Far From Equilibrium ?Poincare, De Donder, Schroedingerindicated the needto extend thermodynamicsto Open Systems Far From Equilibrium.Open Systems may receive Informationcommunicating with their Εnvironment.Entropy S becomes the sum ofInternal Entropy SI and Entropy “Flow” SFS = SI + SFΔS = ΔSI + ΔSFΔSI ≥ 0 the Internal Entropy (2nd Law)Complex networksSocial networksWeb of Knowledge
  4. 4. What are the qualifying Features of Complex Systems?1) Far From Thermodynamic Equilibrium Structures [Ilya Prigogine] Complex Structures Self-Organize Dissipating Energy and/or Information!2) Innovation Complex Processes ⇔ Emergence-Creation of New Information at each Stage Internal Time-Age Operator Complex Processes are not boring !3) Robustness Complex Processes ⇔ Structurally Stable Processes Why Complex Processes emerged in Nature !4) High Interdependence of the Constituent Units There is no constructive Way to represent the system in terms of disentangled fragmented independent components You cannot divide and conquer !5) Distributed Non Local Processing
  5. 5. How to describeInterdependence?Graphs and NetworksThe Structure of Complex SystemsDistributed Processing
  6. 6. Network Links 2Nodes 1.2 0.5 0.2 3 1 2.1 4
  7. 7. The weight distribution defines Network FunctionHow many nodes are linked with k nodes
  8. 8. Crystals: The simplest netwotks
  9. 9. Telephone Networks are not Regular Renyi, Erdos 1960PSTN(Public Switched Telephone Network)Random Networks
  10. 10. The Networks of LifeAre neither Regular nor Random!Prigogine 1980From Being to BecomingLife operates betweenThe perfect predictable CrystalsandThe meaningless structuress RandomnessStudy concrete Life Networks to identifytheir qualifying features
  11. 11. The Networks of Life!2 new Networks were discovered! -Small Worlds Social Nets Εpilepsy Synchronization of Fireflies [Strogats, Watts 1998] -Self-Similar,Scale-Free Networks WWW [Barabasi,Albert 1999]
  12. 12. Small WorldsSmall Communication Pathways
  13. 13. Six Degrees of Separation Kentaro ToyamaMilgram (1967) Allan Robert Mike Wagner ? Sternberg Tarr John Guare wrote the play Six Degrees of Separation, based on this concept.“Everybody on this planet is separated by only six other people. Six degrees ofseparation. Between us and everybody else on this planet. The president of the UnitedStates. A gondolier in Venice… It’s not just the big names. It’s anyone. A native in a rainforest. A Tierra del Fuegan. An Eskimo. I am bound to everyone on this planet by a trailof six people…”
  14. 14. Small Worlds Distribution
  15. 15. Self-Similar NetworksΑναξαγοπαρ:“αρχας των οντων ομοιομεπειαρ απεφηνατο” [Αετιος, DK 59A46]Emelard tablet Alchemy:«As above so below»P(k) ~ k−γ Power Law
  16. 16. World-Wide Web power law
  17. 17. P(k) ~ k−γas Fractals
  18. 18. Real self-simlar networksFriendships Sexual Terrorists(Moody J., 2001) Potterat et al (2002) Web) Airlines
  19. 19. Brain-Web analogyBrain as distributed Complex system (Web)
  20. 20. Web of Documents• Analogy :a global file system• Primary objects :documents• Links between:documents (or sub-parts of)• Degree of structure in objects:fairly low• Semantics of content and links:implicit• Designed for:human consumption
  21. 21. Web 2.0• Wikis• Blogs• Flickr• YouTube• MySpace• Facebook
  22. 22. Web 2.0
  23. 23. Web 2.0DRAWBACKS :• No data integration.• Impossible to run queries in multiple data sources .e.g. which diseases are related to the heart AND have a prevalence>2% AND in 2010 there where >100 publications about them.
  24. 24. What is the Problem?Consider a typical web page: Markup consists of: rendering information (e.g., font size and colour) Hyper-links to related content Semantic content is accessible to humans but not (easily) to computers… 25
  25. 25. OpennessInter- operability
  26. 26. Semantic Processingthe Engineering solution of Nature formanaging ComplexityOpen Knowledge Transfer
  27. 27. The unified open knowledgeThe Vision of EncyclopaedistsΑristotle 384-322 BC
  28. 28. Denis Diderot1713-1784Jean-Baptistele Rond dAlembert1717 –1783
  29. 29. Mikhail Lomonosov 1711 –1765
  30. 30. Open KnowledgeLibetation of IntuitionBringing people togetherfor max mutual benefitHelp us give meaning to our LifeOKFN the universal catalystin the Planetary Transmutation
  31. 31. Psycho-Cybernetics