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Removing 
‘unfreedoms’ through 
OER use in India’s 
teacher education 
system 
Teacher Education 
through School-based 
Su...
The power of OER to remove 
‘unfreedoms’ 
• Amartya Sen: ‘Unfreedoms’: e.g. 
poverty, limited economic opportunity, 
inade...
The need for OER localisation 
Photos: Leigh-Anne Perryman CC-BY 
“What is the future of open 
education? Where is it goin...
Research questions 
• What are the challenges 
to localising OER for use 
in development 
education? 
• What is the impact...
Background 
● India: needs 1.33 million 
teachers; 
● Bihar: 75% of teacher ed. 
colleges did no training 
between 2007-20...
Focus States 
Assam, Bihar, Karnataka, 
Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Uttar 
Pradesh, West Bengal 
Subject areas 
English, Math ...
Photos: TESS-India CC-BY-SA 
The TESS-India OER
Research methods 
Interviews with localisers 
and localisation facilitators 
Research 
Methods 
Document analysis 
of adap...
TESS-India localisation process 
 State based workshops led by third party NGO; 
 State Localisation Managers (SLM) – QA...
Challenges: Translation 
● Localisers don’t have 
translation skills + 
translation agency doesn’t 
have context/education...
Impact of context 
• Navigating localiser 
preferences, perceptions and 
experiences; 
• Hierarchical view of 
knowledge o...
Navigating perceptions 
and experience 
• SLEs’ background 
as textbook writers 
• Focus on subject 
over method 
• Prefer...
Improving localiser support 
• More time on OER familiarisation; 
• More development re. unfamiliar 
pedagogies; 
Photo: T...
Empowerment, 
development & OER 
Neo-Colonialism Knowledge partnership 
The OER Engagement Ladder © 2012 Joanna Wild, CC-B...
Creating a knowledge 
partnership 
Knowledge 
partnership 
Respect for 
individual 
perceptions & 
experience 
Institution...
Control, freedom and openness
Thank you for listening. 
www.TESS-India.edu.in 
www.oerresearchhub.org 
@TESSIndia @oer_hub @laperryman 
@tim10101 @golde...
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Removing 'unfreedoms' through OER use in India's teacher education system

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OER Research Hub fellow Leigh-Anne Perryman's presentation at OpenEd 2014, Washington DC in November 2014.

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Removing 'unfreedoms' through OER use in India's teacher education system

  1. 1. Removing ‘unfreedoms’ through OER use in India’s teacher education system Teacher Education through School-based Support in India Presented by Leigh-Anne Perryman, OER Research Hub Fellow Additional researchers Alison Hemmings-Buckler, Open University Tim Seal, TESS-India Technical Director #OpenEd14 #OER4D @OER_Hub @laperryman @TESSIndia
  2. 2. The power of OER to remove ‘unfreedoms’ • Amartya Sen: ‘Unfreedoms’: e.g. poverty, limited economic opportunity, inadequate education and access to knowledge, deficient health care, and oppression; • ‘Increasing the freedoms that men and women enjoy is a definition of development, and greater freedom empowers people to be more effective agents of development.’ (CoL 3 yr Plan); • OER: more teachers; better teachers; more engaged learners; improved learner retention; better access to Photo: Leigh-Anne Perryman CC-BY
  3. 3. The need for OER localisation Photos: Leigh-Anne Perryman CC-BY “What is the future of open education? Where is it going? I think there is only one answer: localisation.” (David Wiley, 2005) “Localization unlocks the power of OER.” (Tiffany Ivins, 2012)
  4. 4. Research questions • What are the challenges to localising OER for use in development education? • What is the impact of context and localiser perceptions? • How can OER localisers best be supported? • What is the relationship between institutional control, localiser freedom, and the spirit Photo: Leigh-Anne Perryman CC-BY
  5. 5. Background ● India: needs 1.33 million teachers; ● Bihar: 75% of teacher ed. colleges did no training between 2007-2010; ● India - Bihar: 45% of teachers don’t have minimum qualification; ● India: some states, only 1% pass Teacher Eligibility Test; ● India – ASER: “A ritual exercise bringing the same disturbing but worsening news” (Deccan Herald, 2013). Photo: Eric Parker CC-BY-NC
  6. 6. Focus States Assam, Bihar, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal Subject areas English, Math Science, Leadership, Language & Literacy Content • 125 Pan Indian study units; • Developed collaboratively; • Standalone, self-directed; • Support teachers in changing their practice; • Suggest and inspire, not prescriptive; • Promote reflection. Photo: TESS-India CC-BY-SA
  7. 7. Photos: TESS-India CC-BY-SA The TESS-India OER
  8. 8. Research methods Interviews with localisers and localisation facilitators Research Methods Document analysis of adapted OER Participant observation at localisation workshops Conducted in Hindi and English Photo: Leigh-Anne Perryman CC-BY
  9. 9. TESS-India localisation process  State based workshops led by third party NGO;  State Localisation Managers (SLM) – QA;  Subject Localisation Experts (SLE);  No direct control of adaptation;  Materials translated into Hindi before localisation. Photo: TESS-India CC-BY-SA
  10. 10. Challenges: Translation ● Localisers don’t have translation skills + translation agency doesn’t have context/educational knowledge; ● Possible distortion of meaning; ● Localisers have to correct this, but have to look at English version to do so; ● Little use of Hindi keyboard so annotated hard copies Photo: Leigh-Anne Perryman CC-BY-SA used - time consuming.
  11. 11. Impact of context • Navigating localiser preferences, perceptions and experiences; • Hierarchical view of knowledge ownership and expertise; • Little understanding of OER or online learning. Photo: TESS-India CC-BY-SA “Localization must involve locals; [...] effective localization is directly proportional to understanding local contexts.” (Tiffany Ivins, 2012) Photos: TESS-India CC-BY-SA
  12. 12. Navigating perceptions and experience • SLEs’ background as textbook writers • Focus on subject over method • Preference for formal, rather than conversational writing style • Unfamiliarity with activity-based pedagogy Photo: Leigh-Anne Perryman CC-BY
  13. 13. Improving localiser support • More time on OER familiarisation; • More development re. unfamiliar pedagogies; Photo: TESS-India CC-BY-SA • Time for reflection after the workshops; • Follow-up meetings allowing communities of
  14. 14. Empowerment, development & OER Neo-Colonialism Knowledge partnership The OER Engagement Ladder © 2012 Joanna Wild, CC-BY
  15. 15. Creating a knowledge partnership Knowledge partnership Respect for individual perceptions & experience Institutional (quality) control & guidance Sensitivity to context (e.g. status of knowledge ownership) Openness & ‘embedded’ engagement with OER
  16. 16. Control, freedom and openness
  17. 17. Thank you for listening. www.TESS-India.edu.in www.oerresearchhub.org @TESSIndia @oer_hub @laperryman @tim10101 @goldensyrupgirl

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