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Open solutions ttoo aa ‘‘nnaattiioonnaall ccrriissiiss’’:: 
TThhee iimmppaacctt ooff OOEERR oonn tteeaacchheerr-- 
eedduuccaattiioonn iinn IInnddiiaa 
Dr Leigh-Anne Perryman, OER Research Hub, Open University, UK 
@laperryman leigh.a.perryman@open.ac.uk #oerrhub 
oerresearchhub.org
IInnddiiaa:: aann ‘‘aallaarrmmiinngg ddeeggeenneerraattiioonn 
iinn lleeaarrnniinngg qquuaalliittyy’’ ((AASSEERR,, 22001122)) 
oerresearchhub.org 
Infographic credit: Akshan Ish. 
http://inpec.in/2012/12/22/infographic-literacy-in-india/ 
• 1.3 million shortfall in teachers
oerresearchub.org 
Infographic credit: Akshan Ish. 
http://inpec.in/2012/12/22/infographic-literacy-in-india/ 
WWhhyy tthhee ‘‘aallaarrmmiinngg ddeeggeenneerraattiioonn’’??
TTeeaacchheerr eedduuccaattiioonn iinn IInnddiiaa 
• An insufficient supply of teachers ++ 
• Limited capacity for teacher training ++ 
• Disparities in pupil-teacher ratios ++ 
• Large numbers of unqualified teachers ++ 
• Inadequate continuing professional 
development… 
== inadequate access to education and poor 
standards of learning for those already in 
the education system 
oerresearchhub.org
Teacher education in India Photo credit: Leigh-Anne Perryman CC-BY 
2013: 9999%% of Bachelor of Education (BEd) graduates failed to pass the Central 
Teacher Eligibility Test (CTET) - mandatory for becoming a teacher in any central 
government school… Many were already elementary school teachers. 
oerresearchhub.org 
AArree OOEERR 
tthhee 
aannsswweerr??
oerresearchhub.org 
OOEERR iinn IInnddiiaa 
http://nroer.in/home/ 
http://oscar.iitb.ac.in/oscarHome.do 
2008: ‘national e-content and 
curriculum initiative’ to 
stimulate the creation, 
adaptation and utilization of 
OER by Indian institutions, in 
addition to leveraging 
globally-produced OER. 
http://knowledgecommission. 
gov.in
• Creating OER for training new & existing teachers 
• Leadership development units + teacher 
development units 
• Delivered in 7 states & 4 languages 
• Face-to-face, then web, CD/DVD, SD 
• Engages school leaders, teacher educators and 
state administrators in understanding/applying 
effective management strategies, such as school 
self-review 
• Engage teachers in learner-centered, activity 
based pedagogy 
• www.TESS-India.edu.in 
oerresearchhub.org
LLooccaalliissaattiioonn ooff OOEERR 
oerresearchhub.org 
“Localization unlocks the 
power of OER and must 
involve locals.”
TThhee ppootteennttiiaall ffoorr OOEERR iinn 
IInnddiiaa’’ss tteeaacchheerr eedduuccaattiioonn 
ssyysstteemm “Teacher-educators need 
exposure to good practices 
from here and abroad, but in 
most instances they don’t get 
it. If they were connected, 
and used the Internet and 
OER...they would have a 
direct link with the rest of the 
world and with new ideas 
and ways of teaching.” 
oerresearchhub.org
OOEERR ccoouulldd…… 
• Contribute to ICT-focused 
professional development for 
teachers and teacher-educators; 
• Broaden the range of the 
curriculum; 
• Allow teachers to make 
lessons more engaging for 
hard-to-retain pupils; 
• Encourage teachers and 
teacher-educators to reflect on 
their practice in the light of 
information about pedagogies 
that are different from their 
own habitual approach. BBuutt… 
oerresearchhub.org 
Photo credit: Leigh-Anne Perryman CC-BY
BBaarrrriieerrss ttoo OOEERR uussee iinn 
IInnddiiaann tteeaacchheerr eedduuccaattiioonn 
1) Lack of ICT equipment and skills 
oerresearchhub.org 
Photo credits: 
Leigh-Anne Perryman 
CC-BY 
“We are very limited in the 
computers and resources 
we have available. The 
faculty have very limited 
ICT capabilities too and 
have many professional 
development needs for ICT 
training. The Lecturers 
here are very well qualified, 
many with PhDs, but I don’t 
think many of them are 
using the Internet.”
Lack of ICT equipment and skills 
oerresearchhub.org 
Photo credits: 
Leigh-Anne Perryman 
CC-BY 
“There is a great 
need for CPD in using 
OER. Almost half the 
teacher-educators 
here are not using 
email, despite 
persuasion...Basic 
capacity building is 
highly required 
allowing teacher-educators 
to choose 
and evaluate OER 
according to their 
needs and the needs 
of their students, to 
reuse and adapt, and 
to feel ownership.”
BBaarrrriieerrss ttoo OOEERR uussee 
‘A change of attitude towards ICT is needed’ 
oerresearchhub.org 
“Some of the teachers have 
the ICT skills but don’t use 
them for professional 
development. They need to 
look beyond Facebook and 
email and social 
networking...before we can 
realise the potential of OER 
here and elsewhere.” 
Photo credit: 
Leigh-Anne Perryman CC-BY
BBaarrrriieerrss ttoo OOEERR uussee 
Resistance to openness in a hierarchical society 
oerresearchhub.org 
The OER Engagement Ladder 
© 2012 Joanna Wild, CC-BY 
“The true openness associated with OER adaptation may not align well 
with India’s hierarchical caste-based culture where there are quite rigid 
notions about who owns (and should own) the knowledge and who should 
share it. The adaptation possibilities offered by OER bring the 
pedagogical approach to life...but it remains to be seen whether 
educators from all levels of the Indian education system will buy into the 
full potential of OER.”
BBaarrrriieerrss ttoo OOEERR uussee 
A deficit view of India’s teachers 
oerresearchhub.org 
Photo credit: Leigh-Anne Perryman CC-BY
EEmmppoowweerrmmeenntt && mmoottiivvaattiioonn 
tthhrroouugghh ccoommmmuunniittiieess ooff pprraaccttiiccee 
“Building a culture of sharing’ is a 
key challenge as sharing is not 
embedded in Indian society…OER 
are more likely to work in India if 
we focus on developing 
communities of practice within the 
education sector, especially 
amongst teacher-educators in the 
DIETs, as the basis for resource-generation, 
oerresearchhub.org 
ICT skills-development 
and other forms of CPD.” 
Sanjaya Mishra, CEMCA 
http://www.cemca.org.in
http://rmsa.karnatakaeducation.org.in 
• Pilot: 2011 – 2012 
• 800+ high schools with government-provided ICT 
facilities 
• 14 districts of Karnataka 
• ‘Enhanced cascade’ model: state level workshops 
developed 240 Maths, Science & Social Science high 
school teachers as ‘resource persons’ 
• Subsequently trained 2,000 teachers/ 800 schools, 
using DIET ICT labs. Workshops: ICT skills, the use of 
public educational software tools and discussions about 
educational policy and digital pedagogy. 
• Complemented by mailing groups + web portal through 
which teachers discussed their discipline in addition to 
creating and sharing OER. 
• STF project is now being extended to cover additional 
disciplines and schools. 
oerresearchhub.org
http://bangalore.karnatakaeducation.org.in 
• More intensive 
• 20 primary schools 
• Working with all teachers in those schools 
on ICT skills development, the creation of 
OER and the integration of ICT into the 
classroom. 
• 2010 - 2011 IT for Change implemented 
online learning communities for teachers in 
these schools - opportunity to network 
with/support each other, to share resources, 
and to critically engage with education policy 
and practice. 
oerresearchhub.org
TTaakkee hhoommee mmeessssaaggee…… 
• OER can help in training new and existing 
teachers and teacher-educators in India 
BUT, there’s a need for: 
• ICT equipment 
• ICT skills development 
• Change of attitude to ICT use for work 
purposes 
• Resources localized in language and content 
• A communities of practice approach that 
gives teachers autonomy and access to peer 
support and reputation management 
oerresearchhub.org
www.oerresearchhub.org.uk 
oer-research-hub@open.ac.uk 
Twitter: @OER_Hub 
#OERRHub 
@laperryman 
leigh.a.perryman@open.ac.uk 
Supported by

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Open Solutions to a National Crisis: The Impact of OER on teacher education in India

  • 1. Open solutions ttoo aa ‘‘nnaattiioonnaall ccrriissiiss’’:: TThhee iimmppaacctt ooff OOEERR oonn tteeaacchheerr-- eedduuccaattiioonn iinn IInnddiiaa Dr Leigh-Anne Perryman, OER Research Hub, Open University, UK @laperryman leigh.a.perryman@open.ac.uk #oerrhub oerresearchhub.org
  • 2. IInnddiiaa:: aann ‘‘aallaarrmmiinngg ddeeggeenneerraattiioonn iinn lleeaarrnniinngg qquuaalliittyy’’ ((AASSEERR,, 22001122)) oerresearchhub.org Infographic credit: Akshan Ish. http://inpec.in/2012/12/22/infographic-literacy-in-india/ • 1.3 million shortfall in teachers
  • 3. oerresearchub.org Infographic credit: Akshan Ish. http://inpec.in/2012/12/22/infographic-literacy-in-india/ WWhhyy tthhee ‘‘aallaarrmmiinngg ddeeggeenneerraattiioonn’’??
  • 4. TTeeaacchheerr eedduuccaattiioonn iinn IInnddiiaa • An insufficient supply of teachers ++ • Limited capacity for teacher training ++ • Disparities in pupil-teacher ratios ++ • Large numbers of unqualified teachers ++ • Inadequate continuing professional development… == inadequate access to education and poor standards of learning for those already in the education system oerresearchhub.org
  • 5. Teacher education in India Photo credit: Leigh-Anne Perryman CC-BY 2013: 9999%% of Bachelor of Education (BEd) graduates failed to pass the Central Teacher Eligibility Test (CTET) - mandatory for becoming a teacher in any central government school… Many were already elementary school teachers. oerresearchhub.org AArree OOEERR tthhee aannsswweerr??
  • 6. oerresearchhub.org OOEERR iinn IInnddiiaa http://nroer.in/home/ http://oscar.iitb.ac.in/oscarHome.do 2008: ‘national e-content and curriculum initiative’ to stimulate the creation, adaptation and utilization of OER by Indian institutions, in addition to leveraging globally-produced OER. http://knowledgecommission. gov.in
  • 7. • Creating OER for training new & existing teachers • Leadership development units + teacher development units • Delivered in 7 states & 4 languages • Face-to-face, then web, CD/DVD, SD • Engages school leaders, teacher educators and state administrators in understanding/applying effective management strategies, such as school self-review • Engage teachers in learner-centered, activity based pedagogy • www.TESS-India.edu.in oerresearchhub.org
  • 8. LLooccaalliissaattiioonn ooff OOEERR oerresearchhub.org “Localization unlocks the power of OER and must involve locals.”
  • 9. TThhee ppootteennttiiaall ffoorr OOEERR iinn IInnddiiaa’’ss tteeaacchheerr eedduuccaattiioonn ssyysstteemm “Teacher-educators need exposure to good practices from here and abroad, but in most instances they don’t get it. If they were connected, and used the Internet and OER...they would have a direct link with the rest of the world and with new ideas and ways of teaching.” oerresearchhub.org
  • 10. OOEERR ccoouulldd…… • Contribute to ICT-focused professional development for teachers and teacher-educators; • Broaden the range of the curriculum; • Allow teachers to make lessons more engaging for hard-to-retain pupils; • Encourage teachers and teacher-educators to reflect on their practice in the light of information about pedagogies that are different from their own habitual approach. BBuutt… oerresearchhub.org Photo credit: Leigh-Anne Perryman CC-BY
  • 11. BBaarrrriieerrss ttoo OOEERR uussee iinn IInnddiiaann tteeaacchheerr eedduuccaattiioonn 1) Lack of ICT equipment and skills oerresearchhub.org Photo credits: Leigh-Anne Perryman CC-BY “We are very limited in the computers and resources we have available. The faculty have very limited ICT capabilities too and have many professional development needs for ICT training. The Lecturers here are very well qualified, many with PhDs, but I don’t think many of them are using the Internet.”
  • 12. Lack of ICT equipment and skills oerresearchhub.org Photo credits: Leigh-Anne Perryman CC-BY “There is a great need for CPD in using OER. Almost half the teacher-educators here are not using email, despite persuasion...Basic capacity building is highly required allowing teacher-educators to choose and evaluate OER according to their needs and the needs of their students, to reuse and adapt, and to feel ownership.”
  • 13. BBaarrrriieerrss ttoo OOEERR uussee ‘A change of attitude towards ICT is needed’ oerresearchhub.org “Some of the teachers have the ICT skills but don’t use them for professional development. They need to look beyond Facebook and email and social networking...before we can realise the potential of OER here and elsewhere.” Photo credit: Leigh-Anne Perryman CC-BY
  • 14. BBaarrrriieerrss ttoo OOEERR uussee Resistance to openness in a hierarchical society oerresearchhub.org The OER Engagement Ladder © 2012 Joanna Wild, CC-BY “The true openness associated with OER adaptation may not align well with India’s hierarchical caste-based culture where there are quite rigid notions about who owns (and should own) the knowledge and who should share it. The adaptation possibilities offered by OER bring the pedagogical approach to life...but it remains to be seen whether educators from all levels of the Indian education system will buy into the full potential of OER.”
  • 15. BBaarrrriieerrss ttoo OOEERR uussee A deficit view of India’s teachers oerresearchhub.org Photo credit: Leigh-Anne Perryman CC-BY
  • 16. EEmmppoowweerrmmeenntt && mmoottiivvaattiioonn tthhrroouugghh ccoommmmuunniittiieess ooff pprraaccttiiccee “Building a culture of sharing’ is a key challenge as sharing is not embedded in Indian society…OER are more likely to work in India if we focus on developing communities of practice within the education sector, especially amongst teacher-educators in the DIETs, as the basis for resource-generation, oerresearchhub.org ICT skills-development and other forms of CPD.” Sanjaya Mishra, CEMCA http://www.cemca.org.in
  • 17. http://rmsa.karnatakaeducation.org.in • Pilot: 2011 – 2012 • 800+ high schools with government-provided ICT facilities • 14 districts of Karnataka • ‘Enhanced cascade’ model: state level workshops developed 240 Maths, Science & Social Science high school teachers as ‘resource persons’ • Subsequently trained 2,000 teachers/ 800 schools, using DIET ICT labs. Workshops: ICT skills, the use of public educational software tools and discussions about educational policy and digital pedagogy. • Complemented by mailing groups + web portal through which teachers discussed their discipline in addition to creating and sharing OER. • STF project is now being extended to cover additional disciplines and schools. oerresearchhub.org
  • 18. http://bangalore.karnatakaeducation.org.in • More intensive • 20 primary schools • Working with all teachers in those schools on ICT skills development, the creation of OER and the integration of ICT into the classroom. • 2010 - 2011 IT for Change implemented online learning communities for teachers in these schools - opportunity to network with/support each other, to share resources, and to critically engage with education policy and practice. oerresearchhub.org
  • 19. TTaakkee hhoommee mmeessssaaggee…… • OER can help in training new and existing teachers and teacher-educators in India BUT, there’s a need for: • ICT equipment • ICT skills development • Change of attitude to ICT use for work purposes • Resources localized in language and content • A communities of practice approach that gives teachers autonomy and access to peer support and reputation management oerresearchhub.org
  • 20. www.oerresearchhub.org.uk oer-research-hub@open.ac.uk Twitter: @OER_Hub #OERRHub @laperryman leigh.a.perryman@open.ac.uk Supported by