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OER Impact at Community
Colleges
Dr. Rob Farrow
The Open University
Una Daly
CCCOER
Background
• Research project at The Open University (UK)
• Funded by William & Flora Hewlett Foundation for two years
• Two professors lead four researchers among a team of ten
• Tasked with building the most comprehensive picture of OER impact
• Organised by eleven research hypotheses
• Collaboration model across different educational sectors
• Global reach but with a USA focus
OER Research Hub
oerresearchhub.org
Keyword Hypothesis
Performance OER improve student performance/satisfaction
Openness People use OER differently from other online materials
Access OER widen participation in education
Retention OER can help at-risk learners to finish their studies
Reflection OER use leads educators to reflect on their practice
Finance OER adoption brings financial benefits for students/institutions
Indicators Informal learners use a variety of indicators when selecting OER
Support Informal learners develop their own forms of study support
Transition OER support informal learners in moving to formal study
Policy OER use encourages institutions to change their policies
Assessment Informal assessments motivate learners using OER
Collaboration Model
Collaboration Model
Collaboration Model
Collaboration Model
CCCOER Mission & Goals
Promote adoption of OER to enhance teaching and learning
• Document impact of OER on teaching and learning
• Promote integration of OER into curricula
• Share best practices for OER through professional development opportunities.
Funded by the William & Flora Hewlett Foundation
General stuff about OERRH & CCCOER, collaboration
240+ Colleges in 16 states & provinces
Research Collaboration
Focus on impact of OER adoption on teaching practice, institutional policies and
factors of cost and access
Feb-May 2013
Faculty Survey
Development
IRB Process
May-Dec 2013
Survey Deployment
Ongoing
Interviews and focus
groups with faculty;
policymakers; students
Incorporation of
institutional evidence
into impact map
Jan-Apr 2014
Analysis &
Dissemination
Survey Research in Community Colleges
• Many community colleges require IRB approval for faculty surveys
• IRBs may meet infrequently particularly during academic breaks
• IRBs limit approvals to prevent duplication and survey fatigue
• The process can take longer than expected - good planning is essential!
OER Impact Map
OER Impact Map
http://chaos.open.ac.uk
OER Impact Map
http://chaos.open.ac.uk
Survey of College Educators
Methodology
136 usable survey responses were recorded:
• De Anza College, CA (5)
• Foothill College, CA (33)
• Houston Community College, TX (41)
• Northern Virginia Community College (30)
• Roane State Community College, TN (13)
• South Florida Community College, FL (4)
This is being supplemented with qualitative data gathered from college
visits in Virginia, Maryland, Washington, and California.
Masters Degree
61%
PhD or Professional
Doctorate
35%
Bachelors Degree
4%
Highest Educational Qualification
72%
11%
10%
6% 1%
Years of Teaching Experience
More than 10
7-10
4-6
1-3
Less than 1
Work-based training
Part-time blended
(face to face and
distance/online)
teaching
Part-time face-to-
face teaching
Full-time
distance/online
teaching
Full-time blended
(face to face and
distance/online)
teaching
Part-time
distance/online
teaching
Full-time face to
face teaching
Series1 20 23 26 31 39 46 49
15%
17%
19%
23%
29%
34%
36%
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
No.ofresposes
Types of Teaching Activity
52%
24%
18%
11% 9%
7%
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
I have adapted
open educational
resources to fit my
needs
I have created
open educational
resources for
study or teaching
I have added a
resource to a
repository
I have created
resources myself
and published
them on a Creative
Commons (CC)
licence
I have added
comments to a
repository
regarding the
quality of a
resource
I have added
comments to a
repository
suggesting ways of
using a resource
Patterns of OER Use
Of those that create
OER (24%) less than
half publish them on an
open (CC) licence
• Most respondents were
experienced teachers with
postgraduate degrees
• A majority teach full-time and are
involved in online instruction
• Around half have adapted/used
OER but only around half of these
create or upload OER
OER Behaviours
7.9%
10.8%
12.2%
18 %
23%
25.2%
25.9%
29.5%
32.4%
34.5%
37.4%
38.1%
38.8%
64.7%
69.8%
Data sets
Whole course
Interactive games
Infographics
Audio podcasts
Learning tools, instruments and plugins
Lesson plans
E-books
Tutorials
Elements of a course (e.g. a module/unit)
Open textbooks
Quizzes
Lectures
Images
Videos
Types of OER Used
Multimedia content is
around twice as popular
as other OER (including
textbooks)
Few reported using a
whole course of
OER, suggesting they
cherry pick resources as
needed
Very few are using
openly available data to
teach
OER Repositories Used
1% 2% 4% 5%
9% 11% 13%
17% 20%
26% 26%
32% 35%
43%
71%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
Factors relevant to choosing OER
7%
9%
21%
29%
33%
36%
42%
42%
43%
43%
48%
48%
48%
49%
51%
58%
69%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%
Being required to use a resource for a project/task
The resource featuring a catchy title or attractive image(s)
The resource having previously been used with students
Evidence of interest in that resource (e.g. lots of downloads)
The length/complexity of the resource
The resource being recently created, uploaded or updated
Personal recommendation
Having previously used this resource successfully
Use of interactive or multimedia content
Positive user ratings or comments about the resource
A description of learning objectives or outcomes being provided
The resource having a Creative Commons license
A detailed description of the resource content
The resource being easy to download
The resource having an open license allowing adaptation
Created/uploaded by a reputable/trusted institution/person
The resource being relevant to my particular interests/needs
Factors relevant to choosing OER
7%
9%
21%
29%
33%
36%
42%
42%
43%
43%
48%
48%
48%
49%
51%
58%
69%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%
Being required to use a resource for a project/task
The resource featuring a catchy title or attractive image(s)
The resource having previously been used with students
Evidence of interest in that resource (e.g. lots of downloads)
The length/complexity of the resource
The resource being recently created, uploaded or updated
Personal recommendation
Having previously used this resource successfully
Use of interactive or multimedia content
Positive user ratings or comments about the resource
A description of learning objectives or outcomes being provided
The resource having a Creative Commons license
A detailed description of the resource content
The resource being easy to download
The resource having an open license allowing adaptation
Created/uploaded by a reputable/trusted institution/person
The resource being relevant to my particular interests/needs
Impact on teachers/students
Impact on teaching practice from OER use
6%
13%
14%
14%
16%
18%
19%
21%
22%
23%
3%
5%
1%
3%
4%
2%
2%
2%
2%
2%
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
I make use of a wider range of multimedia
I reflect more on the way that I teach
I have broadened my coverage of the curriculum
I now use OER study to develop my teaching
I have improved ICT skills
I more frequently compare my own teaching with others
I have a more up-to-date knowledge of my subject area
I use a broader range of teaching and learning methods
I collaborate more with colleagues
I make more use of culturally diverse resources
strongly agree– agree– neither agree nor disagree– disagree– strongly disagree–
OER: perceptions of impact on learners
8.5%
8.6%
8.7%
11.5%
11.8%
12.3%
14.3%
15.2%
15.2%
15.4%
15.5%
17.1%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
... increases interest in the subjects taught
... builds confidence
... allows me to better accommodate learners' needs
... increases collaboration and/or peer-support
... increases enthusiasm for future study
... increases participation in class discussions
... increases satisfaction with the learning experience
... leads to improved student grades
... increases engagement with lesson content
... develops independence and self-reliance
... leads to interest in a wider range of subjects
... Increases experimentation with ways of learning
Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree
Financial Savings
Has your institution saved money
through OER?
yes
44%
no
19%
don't know
37%
“OER resources are old-school, low-tech
modules that are not peer-reviewed or
nationally normed. There are some
interesting tentative attempts at creativity
but much of OER is cr*p.”
“Students return for
additional classes”
“They don't like losing the
revenue stream from the
bookstore”
“I know that some
instructors are only using
OER which provides
substantial savings for our
students.”
Have your students saved money
through OER?
yes
62%
no
13%
don't know
25%
“Saving money is a big
incentive for students and
institutions.”
“I still use publishers'
textbooks in my classes. I
use OER as supplements to
the textbook.”
“My students tell me and
enrollment in my classes has
continually increased over
those of my peers.”
“I developed an online
textbook for the personal
health class that I teach. This
saves each of my students
approximately $100.”
“I know that some
instructors are only using
OER which provides
substantial savings for our
students.”
Student Retention
strongly agree
12%
agree
26%
neither agree nor
disagree
50%
disagree
8%
strongly disagree
4%
“OER use helps at-risk students to continue
their studies”
“Driving down the cost coupled with the
ability to modify and adapt the material
to meet the needs of my learners are
two major factors in why I like using
OER materials.”
• More than 1/3 believed
that OER use promotes
student retention
• Around half feel it has no
effect
• The remainder (12%)
disagreed or strongly
disagreed with one noting
that “other things are more
important”.
Attitudes
“Some at-risk students benefit from
OER because of the obvious release
of financial obligation. Others are
challenged by the technology and
OER actually makes their success
rates drop.”
“My concern is that at-risk students
don't seem to do well in online
environments because it doesn't
always provide them the structure
they need.”
“Many at risk students don't have the
means to access high speed internet or
have limited technological availability. To
assume they do is simply wrong.
Additionally, they have more complicated
extrinsic factors impacting their
lives, which may require more intensive
contact from the instructor to keep them
involved in the course. OER is not going to
be a make or break issue of retention. It is
not a panacea for at-risk students.”
“The biggest factors in physics for student
attrition are time-constraints and
insufficient previous preparation, neither of
which is affected by the class resources.”
OER and retention of at-risk
students: comments against
11%
18% 21%
35% 36% 36%
47%
57% 60%
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Materials are
available in
different
languages
Availability of
culturally-
relevant
materials
Materials
can be used
for improving
non-native
language
skills
Materials
can be
adapted to
suit student
needs
Greater
range of
learning
methods
Use of
resources for
improving
study skills
Materials
can be used
flexibly
Materials
can be
accessed at
any time
Reduced
cost of study
materials
OER as promoter of student retention: factors
Importance of Open Licensing
How important is open licensing (e.g. CC)?
crucial
20%
very important
34%
somewhat important
19%
neither important nor
unimportant
22%
not at all important
5%
More than half feel that open
licensing is important, but fewer
actually practice it.
This could indicate either 1) that
educators are not confident about
licensing their work or 2) they feel
it is an avoidable addition to their
workload.
Summary
Summary of Results
• Most of the respondents have used some sort of OER, though only around a
quarter create OER
• Most report positive effects on their teaching practice as a result of OER
use, particularly around peer collaboration and improved subject knowledge
• A smaller proportion (but still in excess of 40%) feel that OER use directly leads
to improved reflection on pedagogical practice
• Positive effects were also identified for learners, especially around increased
self-reliance, subject interest and experimentation
• There were similar numbers who thought OER wasn‟t making much of a
difference and a core of what might be termed „anti-OER‟ responses
Summary of Results
• There were mixed views about whether OER was saving institutions money, but
approximately 2/3 felt that students had saved money
• Around 1/3 believe that OER is improving student attrition while around 1/2
believe it is not having an effect
• Only around half of OER creators have used open licensing
• There is a core of advocates who understand and actively promote OER; they
adopt open educational practices and believe it leads to benefits
Next Steps
Next Steps
• Further analysis of this cohort, including isolation of the OER advocates and
OER detractors to identify behavioural and attitudinal patterns
• Mapping the survey data
• Cross-referencing with other OERRH surveys, e.g. Saylor „informal learners‟
survey (n=3014) to build picture of different stakeholders/sectors
• Integration of institutional metrics and qualitative data gathered in field work
• Open dissemination of raw data; openly licensed research instruments
• Adding your data to OER Impact Map?
Thanks for listening!
oerresearchhub.org
chaos.open.ac.uk
oerconsortium.org
in service of The Open University

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OER Impact at Community Colleges

  • 1. OER Impact at Community Colleges Dr. Rob Farrow The Open University Una Daly CCCOER
  • 3. • Research project at The Open University (UK) • Funded by William & Flora Hewlett Foundation for two years • Two professors lead four researchers among a team of ten • Tasked with building the most comprehensive picture of OER impact • Organised by eleven research hypotheses • Collaboration model across different educational sectors • Global reach but with a USA focus OER Research Hub oerresearchhub.org
  • 4. Keyword Hypothesis Performance OER improve student performance/satisfaction Openness People use OER differently from other online materials Access OER widen participation in education Retention OER can help at-risk learners to finish their studies Reflection OER use leads educators to reflect on their practice Finance OER adoption brings financial benefits for students/institutions Indicators Informal learners use a variety of indicators when selecting OER Support Informal learners develop their own forms of study support Transition OER support informal learners in moving to formal study Policy OER use encourages institutions to change their policies Assessment Informal assessments motivate learners using OER
  • 7.
  • 8. CCCOER Mission & Goals Promote adoption of OER to enhance teaching and learning • Document impact of OER on teaching and learning • Promote integration of OER into curricula • Share best practices for OER through professional development opportunities. Funded by the William & Flora Hewlett Foundation
  • 9. General stuff about OERRH & CCCOER, collaboration 240+ Colleges in 16 states & provinces
  • 10. Research Collaboration Focus on impact of OER adoption on teaching practice, institutional policies and factors of cost and access Feb-May 2013 Faculty Survey Development IRB Process May-Dec 2013 Survey Deployment Ongoing Interviews and focus groups with faculty; policymakers; students Incorporation of institutional evidence into impact map Jan-Apr 2014 Analysis & Dissemination
  • 11. Survey Research in Community Colleges • Many community colleges require IRB approval for faculty surveys • IRBs may meet infrequently particularly during academic breaks • IRBs limit approvals to prevent duplication and survey fatigue • The process can take longer than expected - good planning is essential!
  • 15. Survey of College Educators
  • 17. 136 usable survey responses were recorded: • De Anza College, CA (5) • Foothill College, CA (33) • Houston Community College, TX (41) • Northern Virginia Community College (30) • Roane State Community College, TN (13) • South Florida Community College, FL (4) This is being supplemented with qualitative data gathered from college visits in Virginia, Maryland, Washington, and California.
  • 18. Masters Degree 61% PhD or Professional Doctorate 35% Bachelors Degree 4% Highest Educational Qualification
  • 19. 72% 11% 10% 6% 1% Years of Teaching Experience More than 10 7-10 4-6 1-3 Less than 1
  • 20. Work-based training Part-time blended (face to face and distance/online) teaching Part-time face-to- face teaching Full-time distance/online teaching Full-time blended (face to face and distance/online) teaching Part-time distance/online teaching Full-time face to face teaching Series1 20 23 26 31 39 46 49 15% 17% 19% 23% 29% 34% 36% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 No.ofresposes Types of Teaching Activity
  • 21. 52% 24% 18% 11% 9% 7% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 I have adapted open educational resources to fit my needs I have created open educational resources for study or teaching I have added a resource to a repository I have created resources myself and published them on a Creative Commons (CC) licence I have added comments to a repository regarding the quality of a resource I have added comments to a repository suggesting ways of using a resource Patterns of OER Use Of those that create OER (24%) less than half publish them on an open (CC) licence
  • 22. • Most respondents were experienced teachers with postgraduate degrees • A majority teach full-time and are involved in online instruction • Around half have adapted/used OER but only around half of these create or upload OER
  • 24. 7.9% 10.8% 12.2% 18 % 23% 25.2% 25.9% 29.5% 32.4% 34.5% 37.4% 38.1% 38.8% 64.7% 69.8% Data sets Whole course Interactive games Infographics Audio podcasts Learning tools, instruments and plugins Lesson plans E-books Tutorials Elements of a course (e.g. a module/unit) Open textbooks Quizzes Lectures Images Videos Types of OER Used Multimedia content is around twice as popular as other OER (including textbooks) Few reported using a whole course of OER, suggesting they cherry pick resources as needed Very few are using openly available data to teach
  • 25. OER Repositories Used 1% 2% 4% 5% 9% 11% 13% 17% 20% 26% 26% 32% 35% 43% 71% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%
  • 26. Factors relevant to choosing OER 7% 9% 21% 29% 33% 36% 42% 42% 43% 43% 48% 48% 48% 49% 51% 58% 69% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Being required to use a resource for a project/task The resource featuring a catchy title or attractive image(s) The resource having previously been used with students Evidence of interest in that resource (e.g. lots of downloads) The length/complexity of the resource The resource being recently created, uploaded or updated Personal recommendation Having previously used this resource successfully Use of interactive or multimedia content Positive user ratings or comments about the resource A description of learning objectives or outcomes being provided The resource having a Creative Commons license A detailed description of the resource content The resource being easy to download The resource having an open license allowing adaptation Created/uploaded by a reputable/trusted institution/person The resource being relevant to my particular interests/needs
  • 27. Factors relevant to choosing OER 7% 9% 21% 29% 33% 36% 42% 42% 43% 43% 48% 48% 48% 49% 51% 58% 69% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Being required to use a resource for a project/task The resource featuring a catchy title or attractive image(s) The resource having previously been used with students Evidence of interest in that resource (e.g. lots of downloads) The length/complexity of the resource The resource being recently created, uploaded or updated Personal recommendation Having previously used this resource successfully Use of interactive or multimedia content Positive user ratings or comments about the resource A description of learning objectives or outcomes being provided The resource having a Creative Commons license A detailed description of the resource content The resource being easy to download The resource having an open license allowing adaptation Created/uploaded by a reputable/trusted institution/person The resource being relevant to my particular interests/needs
  • 29. Impact on teaching practice from OER use 6% 13% 14% 14% 16% 18% 19% 21% 22% 23% 3% 5% 1% 3% 4% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% I make use of a wider range of multimedia I reflect more on the way that I teach I have broadened my coverage of the curriculum I now use OER study to develop my teaching I have improved ICT skills I more frequently compare my own teaching with others I have a more up-to-date knowledge of my subject area I use a broader range of teaching and learning methods I collaborate more with colleagues I make more use of culturally diverse resources strongly agree– agree– neither agree nor disagree– disagree– strongly disagree–
  • 30. OER: perceptions of impact on learners 8.5% 8.6% 8.7% 11.5% 11.8% 12.3% 14.3% 15.2% 15.2% 15.4% 15.5% 17.1% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% ... increases interest in the subjects taught ... builds confidence ... allows me to better accommodate learners' needs ... increases collaboration and/or peer-support ... increases enthusiasm for future study ... increases participation in class discussions ... increases satisfaction with the learning experience ... leads to improved student grades ... increases engagement with lesson content ... develops independence and self-reliance ... leads to interest in a wider range of subjects ... Increases experimentation with ways of learning Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree
  • 32. Has your institution saved money through OER? yes 44% no 19% don't know 37% “OER resources are old-school, low-tech modules that are not peer-reviewed or nationally normed. There are some interesting tentative attempts at creativity but much of OER is cr*p.” “Students return for additional classes” “They don't like losing the revenue stream from the bookstore” “I know that some instructors are only using OER which provides substantial savings for our students.”
  • 33. Have your students saved money through OER? yes 62% no 13% don't know 25% “Saving money is a big incentive for students and institutions.” “I still use publishers' textbooks in my classes. I use OER as supplements to the textbook.” “My students tell me and enrollment in my classes has continually increased over those of my peers.” “I developed an online textbook for the personal health class that I teach. This saves each of my students approximately $100.” “I know that some instructors are only using OER which provides substantial savings for our students.”
  • 35. strongly agree 12% agree 26% neither agree nor disagree 50% disagree 8% strongly disagree 4% “OER use helps at-risk students to continue their studies” “Driving down the cost coupled with the ability to modify and adapt the material to meet the needs of my learners are two major factors in why I like using OER materials.” • More than 1/3 believed that OER use promotes student retention • Around half feel it has no effect • The remainder (12%) disagreed or strongly disagreed with one noting that “other things are more important”.
  • 36. Attitudes “Some at-risk students benefit from OER because of the obvious release of financial obligation. Others are challenged by the technology and OER actually makes their success rates drop.” “My concern is that at-risk students don't seem to do well in online environments because it doesn't always provide them the structure they need.” “Many at risk students don't have the means to access high speed internet or have limited technological availability. To assume they do is simply wrong. Additionally, they have more complicated extrinsic factors impacting their lives, which may require more intensive contact from the instructor to keep them involved in the course. OER is not going to be a make or break issue of retention. It is not a panacea for at-risk students.” “The biggest factors in physics for student attrition are time-constraints and insufficient previous preparation, neither of which is affected by the class resources.” OER and retention of at-risk students: comments against
  • 37. 11% 18% 21% 35% 36% 36% 47% 57% 60% 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Materials are available in different languages Availability of culturally- relevant materials Materials can be used for improving non-native language skills Materials can be adapted to suit student needs Greater range of learning methods Use of resources for improving study skills Materials can be used flexibly Materials can be accessed at any time Reduced cost of study materials OER as promoter of student retention: factors
  • 38. Importance of Open Licensing
  • 39. How important is open licensing (e.g. CC)? crucial 20% very important 34% somewhat important 19% neither important nor unimportant 22% not at all important 5% More than half feel that open licensing is important, but fewer actually practice it. This could indicate either 1) that educators are not confident about licensing their work or 2) they feel it is an avoidable addition to their workload.
  • 41. Summary of Results • Most of the respondents have used some sort of OER, though only around a quarter create OER • Most report positive effects on their teaching practice as a result of OER use, particularly around peer collaboration and improved subject knowledge • A smaller proportion (but still in excess of 40%) feel that OER use directly leads to improved reflection on pedagogical practice • Positive effects were also identified for learners, especially around increased self-reliance, subject interest and experimentation • There were similar numbers who thought OER wasn‟t making much of a difference and a core of what might be termed „anti-OER‟ responses
  • 42. Summary of Results • There were mixed views about whether OER was saving institutions money, but approximately 2/3 felt that students had saved money • Around 1/3 believe that OER is improving student attrition while around 1/2 believe it is not having an effect • Only around half of OER creators have used open licensing • There is a core of advocates who understand and actively promote OER; they adopt open educational practices and believe it leads to benefits
  • 44. Next Steps • Further analysis of this cohort, including isolation of the OER advocates and OER detractors to identify behavioural and attitudinal patterns • Mapping the survey data • Cross-referencing with other OERRH surveys, e.g. Saylor „informal learners‟ survey (n=3014) to build picture of different stakeholders/sectors • Integration of institutional metrics and qualitative data gathered in field work • Open dissemination of raw data; openly licensed research instruments • Adding your data to OER Impact Map?
  • 46. in service of The Open University