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Presentation - Water management as a condition for the transition towards sustainable agriculture - Julio Berbel

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Water management as a condition
for the transition towards sustainable
agriculture
JULIO BERBEL (UNIVERSIDAD DE CÓRDOBA/ W...

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Policies
Trends
Irrigation water use trends (EU) and solutions
Abandonment of cultivated land (rainfed) ..while irrigated ...

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Abandonment of cultivated land (rainfed) ..while
irrigated land increase continuously
Cultivated land total (NED, FRA, GRE...

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Presentation - Water management as a condition for the transition towards sustainable agriculture - Julio Berbel

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Presentation - Water management as a condition for the transition towards sustainable agriculture - Julio Berbel, WEARE GROUP

Presentation - Water management as a condition for the transition towards sustainable agriculture - Julio Berbel, WEARE GROUP

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Presentation - Water management as a condition for the transition towards sustainable agriculture - Julio Berbel

  1. 1. Water management as a condition for the transition towards sustainable agriculture JULIO BERBEL (UNIVERSIDAD DE CÓRDOBA/ WEARE GROUP)
  2. 2. Policies Trends Irrigation water use trends (EU) and solutions Abandonment of cultivated land (rainfed) ..while irrigated land increase continuosly Abandonment of cultivated land (rainfed) Irrigated land increase Water efficiency increase Agroc. Water abstraction decrease Water cost increase (policy and technology) Improved governance Precision farming 𝑾𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒓 𝒔𝒂𝒗𝒊𝒏𝒈 ≠ 𝑹𝒆𝒃𝒐𝒖𝒏𝒅
  3. 3. Abandonment of cultivated land (rainfed) ..while irrigated land increase continuously Cultivated land total (NED, FRA, GRE, ESP, ITA) From (1962) 52.5 106 ha TO (2018) 39.,9 106 ha 𝜟 = −𝟏𝟐. 𝟔 · 𝟏𝟎𝟔 𝒉𝒂 (−𝟐𝟒%).. [- 0,4 p.a.] 0 500 1.000 1.500 2.000 2.500 3.000 3.500 4.000 4.500 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 Irrigated land (103 ha) ESP ITA FRA NED GRE 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 Arable land area (1962=100) NED FRA GRE ESP ITA Irrigated land total (NED, FRA, GRE, ESP, ITA) From (1992) 10.5 103 ha TO (2018) 12.8 103 ha 𝜟 = + 𝟐. 𝟐 · 𝟏𝟎𝟑 𝒉𝒂 (+𝟐𝟏%).. [+ 1% p.a.] “In the period 2015-2030 about 11% (more than 20 million ha) of agricultural land in the EU are under high potential risk of abandonment” JRC Policy Insights (2018) Agricultural land abandonment in the EU within 2015-2030 [+ 1% p.a.] [-0,4% p.a.] Source: AQUASTAT FAO. Own ellaboration Source: AQUASTAT FAO. Own ellaboration
  4. 4. Good news: water efficiency increase 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 1992 1997 2002 2007 2012 2017 5 M.S.(*) EU Irrigated land and water use (1992=100) Irrigated land Agr Water use Total water abstraction From (1992) 58,5 km3 To (2018) 48,7 km3 Δ = (−𝟏𝟕%) Higher share of precision irrigation Water cost increase Improved governance Water quotas (scarcity) Farmers know-how Others (agronomy,..) Drivers [-0,6% p.a.] Water use (per ha) decreases from From 557 mm (1992) to 382 mm (2018) [-4% p.a.] (*) NED, FRA, GRE, ESP, ITA =57% of EU27 Agr.Prod. Source: AQUASTAT FAO. Own ellaboration [+ 1% p.a.]
  5. 5. Higher share of precision irrigation 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 Share of localized irrigation ESP, ITA ESP ITA Water use: Fertilizer Labour Difusse pollution Water cost Water consumpion. Energy use -40% -25% -80% (irrigat.) - 80% + No change* + Source: AQUASTAT FAO. Own ellaboration
  6. 6. Water cost increase (policy and technology) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1950 1970 1990 2010 Evolution water use and energy intensity irrigation. Spain 1950=100 Per area water use (m3/ha) Energy use kWh/m3 0,17 kWh/m3 4018 m3/ha EU, increased implementation of two-tier water tariff (fixed+volumetric) Espinosa et al (2020). Energized water: Evolution of water-energy nexus in the Spanish irrigated agriculture, 1950–2017. Agricultural Water Management, 233 Control (1) Treated (2) Flat rate (2013-2015) 3,511 7,192 Volumetric tariff (2016-2018) 3,489 4,284 Change (%) -1% -40% Technological change and cost recovery Policy implementation Database: 12,500 observations (1) Consorzio Bentivoglio-Enza (volumetric part 0,025 €/m3 from 2009) (2) Rest of Consorzio where volumetric wa sintroduced in 2016 Pronti et a. (2020). Analysis of the Impact of a Volumetric Tariff for Irrigation in Northern Italy Through the" Inverse DiD". SEEDS Consorzio di Bonifica dell’Emilia Centrale The high response (-40%) maybe partly exlained for the ‘power of zero’ (see Shampanier, 2007 “Zero as a special price”
  7. 7. Improved governance Groundwater level indicator and volume authorised as a function of the level on 1st March Beauce Aquifer, Central France Verley, F. (2020). Lessons from twenty years of local volumetric groundwater management: the case of the Beauce Aquifer, . In Sustainable Groundwater Management . Springer, Cham. High Plains Aquifer (HPA) (Kansas) Zwickle et al (2021). Sustainable irrigation through local collaborative governance: Evidence for a structural fix in Kansas. Environmental Science & Policy, 124 Only Water saving investment Water saving and governance structure Collaborative governance program (SD-6 self- imposed rules)
  8. 8. Increased scarcity 2.000 3.000 4.000 5.000 6.000 7.000 8.000 9.000 1962 1972 1982 1992 2002 2012 Per capita fresh water resources FRA GRE ITA NED ESP Lower per capita resources Environmental flows binding Higher competition from other sectors New societal demands Hernández et al(2019). Análisis del cambio en las aportaciones hidrológicas en la cuenca del río Júcar. Ingeniería del agua, 23(2), 141-155. Annual water resources (hm3 p.a.) Jucar river (1940-2012) Trend (1940-2012) Source: AQUASTAT FAO. Own ellaboration
  9. 9. Farmers “know-how” improve
  10. 10. 𝑾𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒓 𝒔𝒂𝒗𝒊𝒏𝒈 ≠ 𝑹𝒆𝒃𝒐𝒖𝒏𝒅 𝐻𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 ⟹ ∇ 𝑊𝑖𝑡ℎ𝑑𝑟𝑎𝑤𝑎𝑙 & ∇ 𝑅𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛𝑠 Avoided Quota control (public or voluntary) Return flow not recovered (e.g., sea) Water rights reduced No area increase Rebound Area increase Withdrawal rights unchanged Farm intensification
  11. 11. Future (CC) Shorter growing period Higher ETP Annual Precipitation/ ETP (Timișoara, Romania 1898–2019) * Zhao et al (2017). Temperature increase reduces global yields of major crops in four independent estimates. PNAS, 114(35) Wider rainfed-irrigated yield gap Increased pressure for irrigated land Wheat (-6-22%) Rice (-3 to -10%) Maize (-8 to -27%) Yield changes at 2100*
  12. 12. But.. Some policy options for irrigation (for stressed regions) Promote the use of more efficient irrigation systems Implement rebound prevention measures Reduce / control water abstractions Be realistic with ‘real water savings’ (return flows must be accounted) Cost recovery water services (including GW policing) Include a volumetric part to induce savings Support precision agriculture adoption Prioritize environmental services (water, fertilizer, chemicals) Promote public-private governance schemes (urgently) Support of voluntary (or non-voluntary) agreements with public intervention Water rights trade and water banks to increase long- and short-term adaptation Supported by robust hydrological knowledge
  13. 13. Ellen Hanak and Jeffrey Mount (2019) Water Use in California PPIC

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