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OECD Green Growth Policy Review of Indonesia 2019 - Launch presentation

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On 10 July 2019, the OECD released the first Green Growth Policy Review of Indonesia. It examines progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with a special emphasis on the nexus of land use, ecosystems and climate change.

Published in: Environment
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OECD Green Growth Policy Review of Indonesia 2019 - Launch presentation

  1. 1. Main objectives of the GGPR • Provide a diagnosis of the state of environment • Help the Indonesian government evaluate progress on green growth goals • Identify and share good practices and innovative solutions in Indonesia • Identify most pressing challenges holding back green growth • Provide targeted policy recommendations to overcome these 2
  2. 2. Economic growth has been impressive 50 100 150 200 250 300 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2005=100 Real GDP in selected ASEAN countries, China and OECD, 2005-17 China (P.R.) Indonesia Malaysia Philippines Thailand OECD Source: OECD (2018), OECD National Accounts Statistics (database); World Bank (2018), World Development Indicators (database).
  3. 3. Decoupling of energy use and GHG emissions from economic growth 40 80 120 160 200 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2005=100 Source: OECD (2016), “Greenhouse gas emissions by source”, OECD Environment Statistics (database); MfE (2016) Inventory Submission to the UNFCCC; OECD (2016), OECD National Accounts statistics (database). GDP GHG emissions (excl. land use) Total GHG emissions (incl. land use) Energy supply
  4. 4. Indonesia is prone to natural disasters 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 China United States India Indonesia Philippines Viet Nam Japan Pakistan Haiti Mexico Top 10 countries with the highest number of reported natural disaster events Climatological Geophysical Hydrological Meteorological Source: CRED (2017), Annual Disaster Statistical Review 2016.
  5. 5. AIR POLLUTION 6
  6. 6. Air pollution is above WHO guidlines 7 9 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 16 16 16 16 16 16 17 18 21 21 21 22 25 25 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Mean population exposure to PM2.5 OECD and BRIICS countries (2016), µg/m3 53 WHO guideline value 90 Source: IEA (2018), IEA World Energy Statistics and Balances (database).
  7. 7. Selected recommendations • Continue to develop air quality monitoring systems • Make information on air emissions publicly available & develop a national emissions inventory • Update standards for industries 8
  8. 8. WASTE MANAGEMENT 9PHOTO: Melissa Hobson, manta with plastic in Indonesia
  9. 9. Waste management remains a challenge Landfilled 66% Not managed 20% Composted 7% Waste bank 2% Other 5% Waste management in urban areas, 2016 Source: MEF (2017), Peran Pemerintah Daerah Dalam Pelaksanaan Mitigasi Emisi Gas Rumah Kaca Sektor Limbah [The role of the regional government in the implementation of GHG reduction targets in the waste sector], presentation, Jakarta 24 August 2017. 47% 53% 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Status of landfills, 2017 Controlled landfills Open-dump landfills
  10. 10. Selected recommendations • Close open dumps and expand public waste services to 100% of the population • Strengthen enforcement to ensure that the environmental standards are met in the landfills • Implement extended producer responsibility 11
  11. 11. WATER MANAGEMENT 12
  12. 12. Access to water and sanitation is improving 13 0 20 40 60 80 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 %ofhouseholds Access to improved water sources and sanitation, 2006-17 Improved sources of drinking, bathing and cooking water Improved sanitation services Source: BPS (2018), Environmental Pillar: Indicators of Sustainable Development 2018.
  13. 13. Selected recommendations • Develop long-term strategies to ensure water security • Enhance monitoring of groundwater levels and enforcement of permits. • Enhance water pollution prevention and mitigation by improving sanitation facilities and expanding centralised sewerage networks in metropolitan areas 14
  14. 14. 15 CLIMATE CHANGE
  15. 15. Indonesia plays an important role in addressing climate change Note: GHG emissions include emissions and removals from land use, land-use change and forestry. Source: CAIT Climate Data Explorer, Country Greenhouse Gas Emissions, World Resources Institute. MoEF (2018), Laporan Inventarisasi Gas Rumah Kaca dan MRV Nasional 2017 [GHG Inventory Report and National MRV 2017]. [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE][CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] -100% -50% 0% 50% 100% 150% 200% 250% GHG emissions, top 20 world's emitters, 2014 and change in 2000-14
  16. 16. GHG emissions are on the rise 0 500 1 000 1 500 2 000 2 500 3 000 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 Mt CO2 eq GHG emissions by sector (2000-16) and targets Energy Industrial processes Agriculture Waste Forestry and other land use Peat fires BAU 2020 BAU 2030 -26% - 41% - 29% - 41% BAU -29% -41% Source: Ministry of Environment and Forestry (2018), Laporan Inventarisasi Gas Rumah Kaca dan MRV Nasional 2017 [GHG Inventory Report and National MRV 2017].
  17. 17. 18 The electricity mix relies on coal, increasing GHG emissions 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Korea Indonesia Australia Estonia Mexico SaudiArabia Netherlands China Israel SouthAfrica OECD Japan CzechRepublic Germany UnitedStates Poland Finland Russia Italy SlovakRepublic Ireland Greece Chile Belgium Spain Turkey Hungary Argentina Slovenia Luxembourg France Austria Switzerland Denmark UnitedKingdom Brazil NewZealand Latvia Canada India Sweden Portugal Norway Iceland gofCO2/kWh Carbon intensity of electricity production, OECD and G20 countries, 2017 Source: IEA (2018), IEA World Energy Statistics and Balances (database).
  18. 18. 19 Investment in renewables needs to accelerate 0 5 10 15 20 25 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 2019 2021 2023 2025 % Share of renewables in primary energy supply (2007-25) Biofuel Geothermal Hydropower Total renewables Note: Excludes energy supply of biomass (mainly firewood and charcoal) and negligible quantities of solar and wind energy. Source: Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (2018), Handbook of Energy & Economic Statistics of Indonesia 2017. Projected increase based on past growth rates Increase needed to reach target Target: 23%
  19. 19. MAKING THE TRANSITION MORE COST-EFFECTIVE
  20. 20. 21 There is room for better use of environmental taxes 1.6% 0.8% 0% 1% 2% 3% 4% % of GDP Revenue from environmentally related taxes, selected emerging economies, 2016 Source: OECD (2018), OECD calculations based on OECD Environment Statistics (database).
  21. 21. Most GHG emissions from energy use face no carbon price 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% CHE LUX NOR FRA GBR IRL ISL SVN NLD KOR GRC ITA AUT ESP DNK DEU FIN PRT SVK SWE BEL CAN ISR HUN LVA POL MEX JPN CZE EST TUR USA NZL ARG AUS CHL IND ZAF CHN BRA IDN RUS Carbon pricing gap at EUR 30 in 2015, OECD and G20 countries Note: The carbon pricing gap measures how much countries fall short fall short of pricing CO2 emissions in line with a benchmark value for carbon prices of EUR 30 (a low-end estimate of the climate damage from 1 tonne of CO2 emissions). Data refer to CO2 emissions from energy use only. Source: OECD (2018), Effective Carbon Rates; IEA (2018), IEA CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Statistics (database). 86% of CO2 emissions from energy use face are not priced
  22. 22. Great progress in reducing subsidies for fossil fuel consumption… 3.6% 0.8% 0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019* IDR trillion Government expenditure on energy consumption subsidies Electricity LPG Kerosene Diesel Petrol * Planned budget. Source: Government of Indonesia (2017), Country submission to the G20 Fossil Fuel Subsidies Reform Initiative. % of GDP
  23. 23. The land-use, ecosystems and climate nexus
  24. 24. • 10-15% of global flora and fauna • One of the world’s largest tropical forests • 20% of mangroves • 20% of coral reefs One of the world’s most biodiverse countries 25
  25. 25. Deforestation is high, but declining -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 million ha Ten countries with the largest average annual reduction in forest cover 2010-15 2005-10 Source: FAO (2018), FAOSTAT (database).
  26. 26. Deforestation has decreased since 2015 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Million ha Net deforestation in Indonesia, 2012-17 -56% Source: OECD (2018), OECD calculations based on OECD Environment Statistics (database).
  27. 27. Protected areas need to expand to reach the Aichi target Source: OECD (2018), "Biodiversity: Protected areas", OECD Environment Statistics (database). 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 % of territory Terrestrial protected areas in selected G20 countries, 2018 Aichi target 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 % of the EEZ Marine protected areas in selected G20 countries, 2018 Aichi target
  28. 28. Terima kasih Thank you

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