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OECD Environmental Performance Review: Hungary 2018 - Launch presentation


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Launch presentation for the 2018 Environmental Performance Review of Hungary.

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OECD Environmental Performance Review: Hungary 2018 - Launch presentation

  1. 1. Anthony Cox OECD Environment Acting Director Launch of the Environmental Performance Review of Hungary 28 June 2018, Budapest
  2. 2. • Hungary needs to speed up transition to a low-carbon economy • More needs to be done to address air and water pollution • Environmental authorities should be strengthened and encouraged to adopt best regulatory practices • Legal provisions for environmental democracy need better implementation • Green taxes could provide additional revenue for much- needed investment • Progress in municipal solid waste management, but resource efficiency and recycling need further improvement • The expansive network of protected areas requires better management and financing • Biodiversity concerns are well integrated in some sectors, but there is room for improvement in others 2 Key messages
  3. 3. 3 Hungary has reduced its reliance on fossil fuels in favour of low-carbon energy sources Notes: a) Index of relative change of total primary energy supply as percentage of GDP at 2010 prices and purchasing power parities. Source: IEA (2017), IEA World Energy Statistics and Balances (database); OECD (2017), OECD National Accounts Statistics (database). Two- thirds of current energy supply Energy supply by source, 2000-16
  4. 4. Fossil fuel subsidies aim to address energy affordability for social reasons 4 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Total consumer fossil fuel support as a share of the energy tax revenue, 2014 Note: Expenditures, which represent the majority of the support mechanisms, are not fully comparable across countries and need to be interpreted with caution, bearing in mind that tax regimes can differ substantially. Source: OECD (2017), "Green Growth Indicators", OECD Environment Statistics (database).
  5. 5. 5 0% 10% 20% 30% CHE LUX FIN FRA GBR ESP AUT TUR GRC NLD DEU IRL CHL BEL POL SLV CZE SVK HUN 0% 10% 20% 30% NLD CZE LUX CHE AUT FIN FRA ESP BEL DEU SLV SVK GRC GBR HUN TUR POL CHL IRL Source: Flues, F. and K. van Dender (2017), “The impact of energy taxes on the affordability of domestic energy”, OECD Taxation Working Papers, No. 30. But many of Hungary’s households face energy affordability problems 0% 10% 20% 30% CHE LUX FIN FRA AUT NLD ESP GBR TUR GRC DEU IRL BEL CHL SLV CZE POL SVK HUN 28% of Hungarian households spend 10% of disposable income on heating fuels and electricity 24% of households below poverty line after expenditure on energy 22% of households spend more than 10% of disposable income on heating fuels and electricity and below poverty line after expenditure on energy
  6. 6. GHG emissions are starting to rise again 6Note: GHG emissions exclude land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF). Dotted lines refer to national projections with existing measures. Source: EEA (2017), Approximated EU GHG Inventory: Proxy GHG Emission Estimates for 2016; MoA (2017), National Inventory Report 1990-2015. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 Mt CO2 eq GHG trends and projections towards long-term targets Kyoto Protocol target Total GHG (historic) Total GHG (projections WEM) EU-ETS (historic) EU-ETS (projections WEM) EU ESD (historic) 2020/2030 ESD targets Min./max. GHG track to 2050b EU ESD (projections WEM)
  7. 7. Air pollution exposure and its costs among the highest in the OECD 7Note: Data on mortality and value of statistical life are derived from Global Burden of Disease surveys. Source: OECD (2017), "Air quality and health: Mortality and welfare cost from exposure to air pollution", OECD Environment Statistics (database). Welfare cost of premature deaths from exposure to outdoor air pollution, top ten OECD countries, 2005 and 2015 Percentage of GDP equivalent
  8. 8. Massive investment in wastewater treatment 8 Public spending on environmental protection has increased Expenditure by domain, HUF billion, 2010 prices Note: General government expenditure according to the COFOG classification. Source: OECD (2017), OECD National Accounts (database).
  9. 9. 9 Growing wastewater treatment coverage Source: Country submission. Percentage of population connected to public wastewater treatment, by type of treatment
  10. 10. Progress in waste recovery, but still a long way to go… 10 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Landfill Incineration without energy recovery Incineration with energy recovery Material recovery (recycling+composting) n.a. Notes: Data refer to the indicated year or to the latest available year. They may include provisional figures and estimates. Household and similar waste collected by or for municipalities, originating mainly from households and small businesses. Includes bulky waste and separate collection. For the specific country notes see the source database. Source: OECD (2017), "Municipal waste", OECD Environment Statistics (database). Municipal waste management, by type of treatment, 2015
  11. 11. Lack of public financing for protected areas 11 National Park Directorates’ budget, 2008-16
  12. 12. 12 For more information
  13. 13. Anthony Cox OECD Environment Acting Director Launch of the Environmental Performance Review of Hungary 28 June 2018