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Katia Karousakis - Marine protected areas and their role in ecosystem-services


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Presentation by Katia Karousakis, OECD expert, on Marine protected areas and their role in ecosystem-services at CBD COP13, in Cancun, Mexico.

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Katia Karousakis - Marine protected areas and their role in ecosystem-services

  1. 1. MARINE PROTECTED AREAS AND THEIR ROLE IN ECOSYSTEM SERVICE PROVISION, SUSTAINABLE FISHERIES AND TOURISM Katia Karousakis Biodiversity Team Leader OECD Environment Directorate CBD COP13 UNCTAD UNEP and CAF side-event on Oceans Economy and Ecosystem Services Monday 5 December 2016
  2. 2. Overview • Current and projected pressures • The role of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) • How MPAs contribute to sustainable fishing and tourism • The need for effective policy mixes
  3. 3. Pressures on marine ecosystem services and biodiversity  Over-fishing  Pollution  Habitat degradation  Climate change  Invasive alien species
  4. 4. The future of the Ocean Economy… Total ocean industry value-added expected to double by 2030 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 USD billion Overview of industry-specific value-added in 2010 and 2030 2010 2030 Source: OECD (2016) The Ocean Economy to 2030
  5. 5. Policy instruments for marine biodiversity conservation and sustainable use Regulatory (command-and- control) instruments Economic instruments Information and voluntary approaches Marine protected areas Taxes, charges, user fees (e.g. entrance fees to marine parks) Certification, eco-labelling (e.g. MSC) Marine spatial planning Individually Transferable Quotas (ITQ) for fishing Voluntary agreements, such as public-private partnerships (which can include e.g., voluntary biodiversity offset schemes) Spatial and temporal fishing closures; limits on number and size of vessels (input controls); other restrictions or prohibitions on use (e.g. CITES) Reform of harmful subsidies - and use of subsidies to promote marine conservation and sustainable use Catch limits or quotas (output controls) Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) Standards (e.g. MARPOL for ships); bans (e.g. dynamite fishing) Marine biodiversity offsets Licenses e.g. aquaculture and offshore windfarms Non-compliance penalties Planning requirements e.g. EIA and SEA Fines on damages
  6. 6. Trends in Marine Protected Areas Source: Adapted from UNEP-WCMC (2016)
  7. 7. MPAs and sustainable fishing • MPAs, especially no-take marine reserves, have helped to address overfishing • Stocks recover, catch and catch-per-unit- effort (CPUE) increases – Meta-analysis by Starr et al. (2015), Mesnildrey et al (2013), amongst others • Responses vary depending on taxonomic groups, size of reserve, protection level, enforcement, time.
  8. 8. MPAs and sustainable tourism • MPAs also being used as tools for sustainable tourism (e.g. Galapagos marine reserve, MPA network Pacific Coast Canada) • Natural and cultural resources in MPAs attract visitors. Sustainable tourism generates revenue and supports local communities • Examples from Sweden, Tanzania, United States, Vietnam…
  9. 9. The need for effective policy mixes Ecosystem Protection (MPA) Reduced Subsidies Effective fisheries management Potential for Illegal Fishing Potential for Recruitment overfishing Potential for growth overfishing
  10. 10. Key messages for more effective MPAs • Better understanding of costs and benefits • Effective siting of MPAs to address pressures • More robust monitoring and reporting • Enhanced compliance and enforcement
  11. 11. Thank you! OECD work on biodiversity and ecosystems: Biodiversity Indicators, Valuation and Assessment Economic Instruments, Incentives and Policies for Biodiversity Biodiversity Finance, Development and Distributional Issues Visit: Selected OECD reports: • Marine Protected Areas: Economics, Management and Effective Policy Mixes (OECD, forthcoming 2017) • Overcoming Barriers to Effective Biodiversity Policy Reform (OECD, forthcoming 2017) • The Ocean Economy in 2030 (OECD, 2016) • Green Growth in Fisheries and Aquaculture (OECD, 2015) • Biodiversity Policy Response Indicators (OECD ENV WP No. 90, 2015) • Scaling Up Finance Mechanisms for Biodiversity (OECD, 2013)