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CCXG Forum, September 2022, Sin Liang Cheah

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OECD-IEA CCXG Global Forum
Session B2: Mitigation work programme (MWP) –
What could a sectoral perspective look like?
Cheah Sin Liang, Deputy Director (Global Partnerships)
National Climate Change Secretariat,
Prime Minister’s Office, Singapore
Email: cheah_sin_liang@pmo.gov.sg
Yet another ambition ratcheting mechanism?
(Hint: No)
• MWP should function like an inspiring and facilitative fitness
trainer to prepare us to collectively reach a fitness level to limit
warming to 1.5°C
• Lifestyle/dietary choices (e.g. sharing best practices on mitigation policy
and regulatory frameworks, technology solutions, carbon pricing, circular
economy,)
• Exercise routines (e.g. capacity building on NDC/LEDS development and
implementation, facilitating Art 6 pilot projects, preparing for just transition,
low-carbon technology collaborations)
• Supportive community (international/non-state actors partnerships/
coalitions, setting standards/taxonomies, leveraging green finance,
aggregating demand for green technologies.)
• Each Party to nationally determine which measures are most
appropriate for achieving its own net zero aspiration.
• MWP progress and key learning points to be reported to CMA and
as inputs to pre-2030 Ministerial Roundtable.
To mainstream a “tool-
box” of needle-moving
mitigation solutions
Possible elements of draft decision on the MWP
• Timeline – “in this critical decade” => up to 2030
• Scope – To build capacity, facilitate cooperation, develop solutions and catalyse key needle-
moving enabler solutions focusing on “sectoral/thematic areas”, e.g. sector/gas-specific mitigation
measures, low-carbon technologies (hydrogen, CCUS), regulation/carbon pricing, green financing,
just transition, strengthening synergies with non-state actors.
• Modalities/Governance:
o Who will preside over the MWP? E.g. COP Presidency/ies; appointed co-chairs (like on long-
term finance); the SB chairs? (Hint: Parties should not negotiate the topics and output
document)
o How will the topics be selected? E.g. COP Presidency/ies, submissions from Parties, guidance
from ministerial roundtable?
o What is the form of the output? E.g. a progress report with key learning points/
recommendations/ key messages?
o How will the output be picked up and be turned into a CMA decision?
o What is the linkage to the ministerial roundtable and what is its role?
o How should the MWP complement the GST? (Hint: Focus MWP on key needle-moving enabler
solutions and building capacity for ambitious mitigation action.)
Designing a “Sectoral (thematic) Toolbox”
(Hint: Focus on “needle-moving” solutions.)
• Elements from Glasgow Pact: i) technologies and policies to transition to low-emission energy
systems (clean power generation, EE, phase down of unabated coal power, phase-out of inefficient
FFS), ii) non-CO2 emissions, including methane), iii) protecting/restoring nature and ecosystems.
• Elements from IPCC AR6: Mitigation options costing USD100 tCO2e or less could reduce global GHG
emissions by at least half the 2019 level by 2030 (options costing less than USD20 tCO2e estimated
to make up more than half of this potential – e.g. solar, wind, EE, natural ecosystems, CH4 emissions
reductions (coal mining, oil and gas, waste).* Energy carriers (electrification, hydrogen), urban
infrastructure/energy systems, efficient transport modes, industry EE, AFOLU solutions, CO2
removal, carbon pricing.
• Useful to map out where are the opportunities to optimise global mitigation potential.
• Closer engagement with Non-Party Stakeholders (NPS): Partnering NPS to drive ambitious climate
action through coalitions, investments, ESG reporting, setting industry standards/ green taxonomies,
catalysing green financing, preparing for just transition, establishing a regional electricity
market/grid, hydrogen alliances, CCUS partnerships, etc.
• *Source: IPCC WG III SPM , page 49.
Example of systemic gap: Hydrogen deployment
• Key challenges: Global and diverse supply chain for low-carbon hydrogen yet to
be established, high cost of producing and importing low-carbon hydrogen,
extensive infrastructure (e.g. for hydrogen transportation, storage and
utilisation) and end-use applications needed to support a hydrogen economy.
Source: https://hydrogen-portal.com/hydrogen-vision/global-hydrogen-ecosystem/
Solution box:
Hydrogen coalitions
to aggregate demand,
bridge gaps in supply
chain, mainstream
end-use applications?
6
• One million more
trees
• 50% more land for
nature parks
• All households 10-
minute walk from a
park
• Reduction of waste
• Walk-Cycle-Ride
• Education in
environmental
sustainability
• Greening industry,
driving
new solutions
• Capture new growth
opportunities
• Equip workforce
• Building Singapore’s
coastal defences
• Keeping Singapore
cool
• Safeguarding food
security
• Solar, electricity
imports, and low-
carbon tech
• Greener infrastructure
• Sustainable towns and
districts
• Cleaner-energy
vehicles
City in Nature Sustainable Living Green Economy Resilient Future
Energy Reset
A national sustainability movement to rally bold and collective action
Support design of better NDCs and LEDS and concrete
implementation plans
Ad

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CCXG Forum, September 2022, Sin Liang Cheah

  • 1. OECD-IEA CCXG Global Forum Session B2: Mitigation work programme (MWP) – What could a sectoral perspective look like? Cheah Sin Liang, Deputy Director (Global Partnerships) National Climate Change Secretariat, Prime Minister’s Office, Singapore Email: cheah_sin_liang@pmo.gov.sg
  • 2. Yet another ambition ratcheting mechanism? (Hint: No) • MWP should function like an inspiring and facilitative fitness trainer to prepare us to collectively reach a fitness level to limit warming to 1.5°C • Lifestyle/dietary choices (e.g. sharing best practices on mitigation policy and regulatory frameworks, technology solutions, carbon pricing, circular economy,) • Exercise routines (e.g. capacity building on NDC/LEDS development and implementation, facilitating Art 6 pilot projects, preparing for just transition, low-carbon technology collaborations) • Supportive community (international/non-state actors partnerships/ coalitions, setting standards/taxonomies, leveraging green finance, aggregating demand for green technologies.) • Each Party to nationally determine which measures are most appropriate for achieving its own net zero aspiration. • MWP progress and key learning points to be reported to CMA and as inputs to pre-2030 Ministerial Roundtable. To mainstream a “tool- box” of needle-moving mitigation solutions
  • 3. Possible elements of draft decision on the MWP • Timeline – “in this critical decade” => up to 2030 • Scope – To build capacity, facilitate cooperation, develop solutions and catalyse key needle- moving enabler solutions focusing on “sectoral/thematic areas”, e.g. sector/gas-specific mitigation measures, low-carbon technologies (hydrogen, CCUS), regulation/carbon pricing, green financing, just transition, strengthening synergies with non-state actors. • Modalities/Governance: o Who will preside over the MWP? E.g. COP Presidency/ies; appointed co-chairs (like on long- term finance); the SB chairs? (Hint: Parties should not negotiate the topics and output document) o How will the topics be selected? E.g. COP Presidency/ies, submissions from Parties, guidance from ministerial roundtable? o What is the form of the output? E.g. a progress report with key learning points/ recommendations/ key messages? o How will the output be picked up and be turned into a CMA decision? o What is the linkage to the ministerial roundtable and what is its role? o How should the MWP complement the GST? (Hint: Focus MWP on key needle-moving enabler solutions and building capacity for ambitious mitigation action.)
  • 4. Designing a “Sectoral (thematic) Toolbox” (Hint: Focus on “needle-moving” solutions.) • Elements from Glasgow Pact: i) technologies and policies to transition to low-emission energy systems (clean power generation, EE, phase down of unabated coal power, phase-out of inefficient FFS), ii) non-CO2 emissions, including methane), iii) protecting/restoring nature and ecosystems. • Elements from IPCC AR6: Mitigation options costing USD100 tCO2e or less could reduce global GHG emissions by at least half the 2019 level by 2030 (options costing less than USD20 tCO2e estimated to make up more than half of this potential – e.g. solar, wind, EE, natural ecosystems, CH4 emissions reductions (coal mining, oil and gas, waste).* Energy carriers (electrification, hydrogen), urban infrastructure/energy systems, efficient transport modes, industry EE, AFOLU solutions, CO2 removal, carbon pricing. • Useful to map out where are the opportunities to optimise global mitigation potential. • Closer engagement with Non-Party Stakeholders (NPS): Partnering NPS to drive ambitious climate action through coalitions, investments, ESG reporting, setting industry standards/ green taxonomies, catalysing green financing, preparing for just transition, establishing a regional electricity market/grid, hydrogen alliances, CCUS partnerships, etc. • *Source: IPCC WG III SPM , page 49.
  • 5. Example of systemic gap: Hydrogen deployment • Key challenges: Global and diverse supply chain for low-carbon hydrogen yet to be established, high cost of producing and importing low-carbon hydrogen, extensive infrastructure (e.g. for hydrogen transportation, storage and utilisation) and end-use applications needed to support a hydrogen economy. Source: https://hydrogen-portal.com/hydrogen-vision/global-hydrogen-ecosystem/ Solution box: Hydrogen coalitions to aggregate demand, bridge gaps in supply chain, mainstream end-use applications?
  • 6. 6 • One million more trees • 50% more land for nature parks • All households 10- minute walk from a park • Reduction of waste • Walk-Cycle-Ride • Education in environmental sustainability • Greening industry, driving new solutions • Capture new growth opportunities • Equip workforce • Building Singapore’s coastal defences • Keeping Singapore cool • Safeguarding food security • Solar, electricity imports, and low- carbon tech • Greener infrastructure • Sustainable towns and districts • Cleaner-energy vehicles City in Nature Sustainable Living Green Economy Resilient Future Energy Reset A national sustainability movement to rally bold and collective action Support design of better NDCs and LEDS and concrete implementation plans
  • 7. 1. Widespread adoption of solar energy 7 NUS School of Design and Environment 4 • First building in SEA to be awarded the prestigious Zero Energy Certification by the International Living Future Institute • Features a large overhanging roof with more than 1,200 Solar PV panels Tengeh Reservoir • One of the world’s biggest inland floating solar farms • Features 122,000 solar panels spanning across an area of 45 football fields 7 Examples of measures to support Singapore’s NDC/LEDS
  • 8. 2. Zero vehicle growth policy and cleaner energy vehicles 8 Zero vehicle growth policy • Since 2018, vehicle growth has been capped at zero for private cars and motorcycles • 9 in 10 peak-period journeys to be made by Walk-Cycle-Ride modes of transport by 2040 Switch to cleaner energy vehicles • Phase out internal combustion engine vehicles by 2040 • *new in 2021* 60,000 charging points at public carparks and private premises by 2030 8 Examples of measures to support Singapore’s NDC/LEDS
  • 9. An appropriate carbon tax will shape responsibility of individuals and businesses: Individuals and households will have greater incentive to adopt more sustainable lifestyles e.g. conserving energy Businesses will be incentivised to adopt carbon/energy efficient investments, ensuring their long-term viability in a carbon- constrained world For the emissions-intensive trade-exposed sector, revenue from carbon tax provides transitory support for existing investments 9 Revised carbon tax trajectory announced at Budget/ COS 2022 Generates revenue to fund mitigation package Single price to reflect the externality of carbon Key objectives of carbon tax Examples of measures to support Singapore’s NDC/LEDS
  • 10. Key takeaways: • Design MWP to be inspiring and facilitative process, respecting national determination. • Establish sectoral/thematic dialogues to identify needle-moving best practices and roadmaps, address systemic ecosystem/policy gaps (e.g. hydrogen, CCUS), and mainstream climate policy best practices and standards (e.g. carbon pricing, green taxonomies, ESG reporting, just transition). • Identify and channel investments, funding and resources towards optimising global mitigation potential to make the biggest impact. (It’s not just how, but where we can enable the biggest mitigation outcomes, and who is willing/ready). • Governments alone cannot enable the green transition. We need robust partnerships with all stakeholders and international collaborations. • Encourage plurilateral sectoral initiatives, and strengthen accountability. • Build capacity for effective design and implementation of NDCs and LEDS. • If we do this well, we can spur a virtuous race to the top.
  • 11. Q&A