Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

2016 ENV Ministerial - Penny Johnes - UK - Nitrogen - Breakout session

1,556 views

Published on

2016 ENV Ministerial - Penny Johnes - UK - Nitrogen - Breakout session

Published in: Environment
  • I pasted a website that might be helpful to you: ⇒ www.HelpWriting.net ⇐ Good luck!
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Be the first to like this

2016 ENV Ministerial - Penny Johnes - UK - Nitrogen - Breakout session

  1. 1. Why Nitrogen Matters? Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  2. 2. The Nitrogen Cascade: the unintended consequences of increasing N use Modified from European Nitrogen Assessment (2011) Nitrogen export Nitrogen in inland and coastal waters
  3. 3. The five key threats of excess N Disturbance of the global N cycle is far great in magnitude than our modification of the C cycle
  4. 4. Visible impacts of terrestrial N pollution: biodiversity losses Loss of biodiverse understorey Loss of sensitive lichen species Biodiversity loss in farmed meadows Biodiverse woodland understorey Lichens sensitive to air pollution Wildflower biodiversity in meadows N-poor natural ecosystems N-enriched ecosystems NEnrichment
  5. 5. Visible impacts of nutrient enrichment on the ecology of inland waters Filamentous algal growth in lakes Closure of waterbodies Fish kills, Thames Toxic algal blooms Microcystis bloom, Michigan Blue-green algal bloom, Lake Erie: Satellite image Bradford-on-Avon Canal the amenity value of inland waters
  6. 6. Visible impacts of coastal nutrient pollution: implications for coastal communities Caulerpa, Florida Green tides, Brittany Fish kills, Gulf of Mexico Shell-fishery closure Under the microscope Microcystis bloom, Baltic Noctiluca tides, New Zld. Phaeocystis foam, NL
  7. 7. The scale of the N challenge in UK waters Total N lost to waters annually Typical riverine concentrations 1 – >20 mg N/l TN (kg/ha) 0 – 2 3 – 4 5 – 8 9 – 16 17 – 32 33 – 64 65 – 128 > 128 Target riverine concentrations 1 – 2 mg N/l Greene et al (2015) Environmental Modelling & Software 68, 219-232
  8. 8. European Nitrogen Assessment (2011) The scale of the N challenge in EU waters Potential eutrophication risk due to N enrichment
  9. 9. Population exposure to nitrate in European waters Increasing societal exposure to nitrate in drinking water, generating adverse human health effects and increasing water treatment costs European Nitrogen Assessment (2011); Our Nutrient World (2013) Airborne PM2.5: months of life expectancy lost Ammonia and NOx contribute to increasing societal exposure to total PM2.5 in air, generating respiratory illness and cancer and increasing healthcare costs.
  10. 10. National Geographic Magazine
  11. 11. UNECE Gothenburg Protocol Five Priorities for Ammonia 1. Low emission techniques for land spreading of cattle/pig/ poultry manures and mineral fertilizers 2. Animal feeding strategies, inc phase feeding 3. Covers on new slurry stores 4. Farm N balance on demonstration farms 5. Low emission new pig & poultry housing
  12. 12. EU Nitrates Directive (1991) Targeted Action for Nitrate 1. Identification of polluted waters or at risk of pollution 2. Designation of land draining into those waters as Nitrate Vulnerable Zones 3. Establishment of voluntary Codes of Good Agricultural Practice to reduce nitrate leaching 4. Establishment of compulsory Action Programmes within NVZs 5. Closing mineral cycles: managing farm nutrient use efficiency to reduce excess negative impacts • Aimed at reducing nitrate in drinking water to < 11.3 mg N/l • Environmental targets are < 2 mg N/l
  13. 13. Dr Clare Howard: TFRN Secretariat & Towards INMS Team Policy context: UN Sustainable Development Goals and Nitrogen • 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals, with 169 targets • 8 UN SDGs and 17 targets specifically linked to Nitrogen
  14. 14. The N challenge: towards integrated solutions • The scale of N pollution in soil, air and water is greater than previously thought – Action is urgently need to halt biodiversity loss and bring human health impacts under control – Effective approaches will combine mitigation policies both for hotspots and N use efficiency • Food production is the single greatest contributor to environmental degradation – This will rise as economies develop and population grows – We need to develop strategies to reduce this impact • Current policy instruments do not go far enough and fail to address – The potential for pollutant swapping between sectors, sources or N forms – The potential to maximise co-benefits and account for trade-offs between costs and benefits • Nitrogen is a cross-sectoral problem, with the potential for cross-sectoral win-wins – Climate Change – Biodiversity – Air Pollution from Transport – Water • Addressing the nitrogen challenge requires integrated, holistic cross-sectoral solutions

×