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Health at a Glance:
Europe 2016
-
State of Health
in the EU Cycle
Joint publication of the
OECD and the European
Commissio...
Table of Contents
1. Labour market impacts of ill-health
2. Strengthening primary care systems
3. Health status
4. Determi...
• Mortality from non-communicable diseases
among working-age population
• Employment and productivity impacts of
chronic d...
Non-communicable diseases lead to the loss of 3.4 million
potential productive life years in EU countries
Source: OECD est...
The employment rate of people with chronic diseases
is much lower than for those who do not have any
Source: OECD estimate...
When they work, people with chronic diseases
have a greater number of sick days
Source: OECD estimates based on SHARE data...
Public and mandatory private spending on disability benefits and
paid sick leave accounted for 2% of GDP in 2013
Source: O...
• Access to primary care
• Consequence of access problems: more
visits to emergency departments and
avoidable hospital adm...
In all countries, poor people tend to report more unmet need
for medical examination than rich people
Source: Eurostat Dat...
Unmet needs for medical examination has increased in many
countries following the economic crisis
Source: Eurostat Databas...
Consequence of access problems: many people go to hospital
emergency departments because primary care is not available
Sou...
Problems with access to primary care also lead
to avoidable hospital admissions for chronic conditions
Source: OECD Health...
• Life expectancy, healthy life years and
health inequalities
• Prevalence of chronic diseases
3. HEALTH STATUS
Life expectancy across EU countries increased by over 6 years
between 1990 and 2014, but the gap between the highest and l...
Women live 5.5 years longer than men on average across EU countries,
but the gender gap is less than a year for healthy li...
Gap in life expectancy at age 65 by gender and educational level, 2013 (or nearest year)
Source: Eurostat Database complet...
Source: Eurostat Database
The main causes of deaths in EU countries are
circulatory diseases, cancer and respiratory disea...
Source: Eurostat Database, based on EHIS
Self-reported diabetes, population aged 15 years and over, 2014 (or nearest year)...
Source: OECD analysis of data from Prince et al. (2013) and the United Nations
Estimated number of people with dementia in...
• Smoking
• Alcohol consumption
• Overweight and obesity
4. DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH
Source: HBSC Survey (different waves)
Trends in regular smoking among 15-year-olds, EU countries
Tobacco smoking among 15-...
Source: EHIS survey for most EU countries for 2014 data; regular national surveys for Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,
Fi...
Drunkenness among 15-year-olds, 2013-14
Drunk at least twice in life
One out of four 15-year-old children across EU countr...
Regular binge drinking in EU countries, 2014
More than one-fifth of adults report regular heavy alcohol drinking
(about on...
Change in self-reported overweight among 15-year-olds, 2001-02 and 2013-14
Self-reported overweight problems among 15-year...
Trends in self-reported obesity among adults in EU countries, 2000, 2008 and 2014 (or latest years)
Obesity among adults h...
• Expenditure per capita and as share of GDP
• Public and private financing
5. HEALTH EXPENDITURE
1. Includes investments.
2. OECD estimate.
3. For Luxembourg, the population data refer only to the total insured resident...
Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016; Eurostat Database; WHO, Global Health Expenditure Database
Several European countries...
Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016; Eurostat Database; WHO, Global Health Expenditure Database
Health spending accounts f...
Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016; Eurostat Database; WHO, Global Health Expenditure Database
In many countries, the sha...
Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016; Eurostat Database; WHO, Global Health Expenditure Database
More than 75% of health sp...
Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016; Eurostat Database
Since 2009, direct out-of-pocket spending by households has grown
m...
• Avoidable mortality (preventable and
amenable)
• Acute care for life threatening conditions
(cancers and heart attacks)
...
Source: Eurostat Database
More than 1.2 million deaths could be avoided through better public
health and prevention polici...
Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016
Survival for breast cancer has increased in most countries, but remains
lower in Eston...
Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016
In-hospital mortality rates following heart attack have fallen
in nearly all EU countr...
Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016
Treatment for chronic diseases is not optimal.
Too many people are admitted to hospita...
Source: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (2016); OECD Health Statistics 2016
Too many antibiotics are st...
Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016; Eurostat Database
Vaccination against influenza among people aged 65+ has fallen
in m...
• Financial barriers
• Supply of doctors and nurses
• Timely access (waiting times)
7. ACCESS TO CARE
Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016;
European Observatory Health Systems
in Transition (HiT) Series
Most EU countries have...
Source: Eurostat Database, based on EU-SILC
Poor people are more likely to report unmet needs for medical care,
and even m...
Source: Eurostat Database, based on EU-SILC
Unmet medical and dental care needs for financial reasons have
increased follo...
Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016; Eurostat Database
The number of doctors per capita has increased
in nearly all EU cou...
Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016
The number of doctors has continued to increase following
the economic crisis in most ...
Source: Health at a Glance 2015: OECD Indicators
The number of doctors varies not only across countries
but also across re...
Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016; Eurostat Database
The number of nurses per capita has increased in all EU countries
s...
Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016
Waiting times for hip replacement have decreased in some countries
between 2006 and 20...
• Efficiency in hospital and pharmaceutical
spending
• Fiscal sustainability of health and long-term
care
8. RESILIENCE, E...
Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016; Eurostat Database
The average length of stay in hospital has fallen
in nearly all EU ...
Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016; Eurostat Database
The average length of stay for normal delivery has become shorter
i...
Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016; Eurostat Database
The share of cataract surgeries performed as day cases
has increase...
Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016; Eurostat Database
But the share of tonsillectomy performed as day cases
continues to ...
Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016
The development of generics has improved efficiency
in pharmaceutical spending, but se...
Source: EC and EPC (2015)
Public spending on health care as a share of GDP is projected
to grow in all countries over the ...
Source: EC and EPC (2015)
Public spending on long-term care as a share of GDP is also projected
to grow over the coming de...
More information
http://www.oecd.org/health/health-at-a-glance-europe-23056088.htm
http://ec.europa.eu/health/state/glance...
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This fourth edition of Health at a Glance: Europe presents key indicators of health and health systems in the 28 EU countries, 5 candidate countries to the EU and 3 EFTA countries. This 2016 edition contains two main new features: two thematic chapters analyse the links between population health and labour market outcomes, and the important challenge of strengthening primary care systems in European countries; and a new chapter on the resilience, efficiency and sustainability of health systems in Europe, in order to align the content of this publication more closely with the 2014 European Commission Communication on effective, accessible and resilient health systems. This publication is the result of a renewed collaboration between the OECD and the European Commission under the broader "State of Health in the EU" initiative, designed to support EU member states in their evidence-based policy making.

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Health at-a-glance-europe-2016-chartset

  1. 1. Health at a Glance: Europe 2016 - State of Health in the EU Cycle Joint publication of the OECD and the European Commission Released on November 23, 2016 http://www.oecd.org/health/health-at-a-glance-europe-23056088.htm
  2. 2. Table of Contents 1. Labour market impacts of ill-health 2. Strengthening primary care systems 3. Health status 4. Determinants of health 5. Health expenditure 6. Effectiveness and quality of care 7. Access to care 8. Resilience, efficiency and sustainability of health systems Note by Turkey: The information in this document with reference to “Cyprus” relates to the southern part of the Island. There is no single authority representing both Turkish and Greek Cypriot people on the Island. Turkey recognises the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC). Until a lasting and equitable solution is found within the context of the United Nations, Turkey shall preserve its position concerning the “Cyprus issue”. Note by all the European Union Member States of the OECD and the European Union: The Republic of Cyprus is recognised by all members of the United Nations with the exception of Turkey. The information in this document relates to the area under the effective control of the Government of the Republic of Cyprus.
  3. 3. • Mortality from non-communicable diseases among working-age population • Employment and productivity impacts of chronic diseases and risk factors 1. LABOUR MARKET IMPACTS OF ILL-HEALTH
  4. 4. Non-communicable diseases lead to the loss of 3.4 million potential productive life years in EU countries Source: OECD estimates based on Eurostat data Potential productive life years lost related to non-communicable diseases among people aged 25–64, EU countries, 2013
  5. 5. The employment rate of people with chronic diseases is much lower than for those who do not have any Source: OECD estimates based on SHARE data (wave 5) Number (median) of sick days in the last 12 months among employed people aged 50-59, by chronic diseases, 14 European countries, 2013
  6. 6. When they work, people with chronic diseases have a greater number of sick days Source: OECD estimates based on SHARE data (wave 5) Number (median) of sick days in the last 12 months among employed people aged 50-59, by chronic diseases, 14 European countries, 2013
  7. 7. Public and mandatory private spending on disability benefits and paid sick leave accounted for 2% of GDP in 2013 Source: OECD Social Expenditure Database (2016) This is more than spending on unemployment benefits (1.2% of GDP in 2013)
  8. 8. • Access to primary care • Consequence of access problems: more visits to emergency departments and avoidable hospital admissions 2. STRENGTHENING PRIMARY CARE SYSTEMS
  9. 9. In all countries, poor people tend to report more unmet need for medical examination than rich people Source: Eurostat Database, based on EU-SILC Unmet need for medical examination for financial, geographic or waiting times reasons, by income quintile, 2014
  10. 10. Unmet needs for medical examination has increased in many countries following the economic crisis Source: Eurostat Database, based on EU-SILC Change in unmet medical care needs for financial reasons among the lowest-income group, selected EU countries, 2008-14
  11. 11. Consequence of access problems: many people go to hospital emergency departments because primary care is not available Source: van den Berg et al. (2016) Proportion of patients who visited an emergency department because primary care was not available, 2011-13 Note: Data were collected within the QUALICOPC study (Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe) between 2011 and 2013. 1. The reference population is the proportion of people who visited an ED in the previous year.
  12. 12. Problems with access to primary care also lead to avoidable hospital admissions for chronic conditions Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016 2013 (or nearest year)
  13. 13. • Life expectancy, healthy life years and health inequalities • Prevalence of chronic diseases 3. HEALTH STATUS
  14. 14. Life expectancy across EU countries increased by over 6 years between 1990 and 2014, but the gap between the highest and lowest countries remains unchanged (more than 8 years) Source: Eurostat Database completed with data from OECD Health Statistics 2016
  15. 15. Women live 5.5 years longer than men on average across EU countries, but the gender gap is less than a year for healthy life years Source: Eurostat Database 2014 Note: Healthy life years are defined as the number of years spent free of disability.
  16. 16. Gap in life expectancy at age 65 by gender and educational level, 2013 (or nearest year) Source: Eurostat Database completed with OECD Health Statistics 2016 for Austria and Latvia There are large gaps in life expectancy by education level: in Central and Eastern Europe, 65-year-old men with low education level live about four years less than the most educated
  17. 17. Source: Eurostat Database The main causes of deaths in EU countries are circulatory diseases, cancer and respiratory diseases 2013
  18. 18. Source: Eurostat Database, based on EHIS Self-reported diabetes, population aged 15 years and over, 2014 (or nearest year) The prevalence of chronic diseases such as diabetes is rising, due to changes in lifestyles (particularly rising obesity)
  19. 19. Source: OECD analysis of data from Prince et al. (2013) and the United Nations Estimated number of people with dementia in EU countries, by age, 1995, 2015 and 2035 And the prevalence of dementia has also risen and is expected to continue to rise, due to population ageing
  20. 20. • Smoking • Alcohol consumption • Overweight and obesity 4. DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH
  21. 21. Source: HBSC Survey (different waves) Trends in regular smoking among 15-year-olds, EU countries Tobacco smoking among 15-year-old children has come down since 2000
  22. 22. Source: EHIS survey for most EU countries for 2014 data; regular national surveys for Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Sweden, United Kingdom and non-EU countries Adults smoking daily, 2000 and 2014 (or nearest year) Smoking among adults has also declined across EU countries, but still one-fifth of adults smoke daily
  23. 23. Drunkenness among 15-year-olds, 2013-14 Drunk at least twice in life One out of four 15-year-old children across EU countries report having been drunk at least twice in their life Source: HBSC Survey (2013-14)
  24. 24. Regular binge drinking in EU countries, 2014 More than one-fifth of adults report regular heavy alcohol drinking (about one-third of men and one out of seven women) Source: Eurostat, EHIS 2014
  25. 25. Change in self-reported overweight among 15-year-olds, 2001-02 and 2013-14 Self-reported overweight problems among 15-year-old children has gone up from 11% in 2001-02 to 17% in 2013-14 Source: HBSC Survey (2001-02 and 2013-14 waves)
  26. 26. Trends in self-reported obesity among adults in EU countries, 2000, 2008 and 2014 (or latest years) Obesity among adults has increased in nearly all countries, rising from 11% in 2000 to over 15% in 2014 Source: Eurostat, EHIS 2008, 2014; OECD Health Statistics 2016 for non-EU countries and 2000 data
  27. 27. • Expenditure per capita and as share of GDP • Public and private financing 5. HEALTH EXPENDITURE
  28. 28. 1. Includes investments. 2. OECD estimate. 3. For Luxembourg, the population data refer only to the total insured resident population, which is somewhat lower than the total population. Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016; Eurostat Database; WHO, Global Health Expenditure Database Health spending per capita is highest in Luxembourg, Germany and the Netherlands, and lowest in Romania, Latvia and Bulgaria Health expenditure per capita, 2015 (or nearest year)
  29. 29. Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016; Eurostat Database; WHO, Global Health Expenditure Database Several European countries hard hit by the economic crisis have cut their health spending since 2009 Annual average growth rate in per capita health expenditure, real terms, 2005 to 2015 (or nearest year)
  30. 30. Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016; Eurostat Database; WHO, Global Health Expenditure Database Health spending accounts for nearly 10% of GDP in the EU; Germany, Sweden and France allocate 11% or more of their GDP to health spending Health expenditure as a share of GDP, 2015 (or nearest year) 1. Includes investments. 2. OECD estimate.
  31. 31. Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016; Eurostat Database; WHO, Global Health Expenditure Database In many countries, the share of GDP allocated to health has stabilised or decreased since 2009, as health spending grew in line with GDP or fell Health expenditure as a share of GDP, selected European countries, 2005-15
  32. 32. Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016; Eurostat Database; WHO, Global Health Expenditure Database More than 75% of health spending is publicly financed on average across EU countries. Direct out-of-pocket payments account for 15% of the total, but represent a much greater share in some countries Current health expenditure by type of financing, 2014 Note: Countries are ranked by government schemes and compulsory health insurance as a share of current health expenditure. 1. Includes investments.
  33. 33. Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016; Eurostat Database Since 2009, direct out-of-pocket spending by households has grown more rapidly than public spending on average across EU countries Growth of health spending by financing per capita, EU average, 2005-14
  34. 34. • Avoidable mortality (preventable and amenable) • Acute care for life threatening conditions (cancers and heart attacks) • Management of chronic diseases • Prevention of communicable diseases 6. EFFECTIVENESS AND QUALITY OF CARE
  35. 35. Source: Eurostat Database More than 1.2 million deaths could be avoided through better public health and prevention policies or more effective and timely health care Preventable mortality rates, 2013 Amenable mortality rates, 2013
  36. 36. Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016 Survival for breast cancer has increased in most countries, but remains lower in Estonia, Poland, the Czech Republic, the UK and Ireland Breast cancer five-year relative survival, 1998-2003 and 2008-13 (or nearest periods) Note: 95% confidence intervals represented by H. EU average unweighted. 1. Period analysis. 2. Cohort analysis. 3. Different analysis methods used for different years. 4. Three-period average.
  37. 37. Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016 In-hospital mortality rates following heart attack have fallen in nearly all EU countries, reflecting improvements in acute care Thirty-day mortality after admission to hospital for AMI based on admission data, 2003 to 2013 (or nearest years) Note: 95% confidence intervals represented by H. Three-year average for Iceland and Luxembourg. EU average unweighted. 1. Admissions resulting in a transfer are included.
  38. 38. Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016 Treatment for chronic diseases is not optimal. Too many people are admitted to hospitals for asthma and COPD Asthma and COPD hospital admission in adults, 2013 (or nearest year) 1. Three-year average.
  39. 39. Source: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (2016); OECD Health Statistics 2016 Too many antibiotics are still prescribed, particularly in Greece, Romania, France, Belgium and Italy Overall volume of antibiotics prescribed, 2014 (or nearest year) 1. Data refer to all sectors (not only primary care). 2. Reimbursement data (not including consumption without a prescription and other non-reimbursed antibiotics).
  40. 40. Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016; Eurostat Database Vaccination against influenza among people aged 65+ has fallen in many countries, increasing the risks of complications, hospitalisations and death Influenza vaccination coverage, population aged 65 and over, 2004-14 (or nearest year)
  41. 41. • Financial barriers • Supply of doctors and nurses • Timely access (waiting times) 7. ACCESS TO CARE
  42. 42. Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016; European Observatory Health Systems in Transition (HiT) Series Most EU countries have universal (or near universal) health coverage, but Cyprus, Romania, Greece and Bulgaria have a large coverage gap Health insurance coverage for a core set of services, 2014 (or nearest year)
  43. 43. Source: Eurostat Database, based on EU-SILC Poor people are more likely to report unmet needs for medical care, and even more so for dental care Unmet need for medical examination for financial, geographic or waiting times reasons, by income quintile, 2014 Unmet need for dental examination for financial, geographic or waiting times reasons, by income quintile, 2014
  44. 44. Source: Eurostat Database, based on EU-SILC Unmet medical and dental care needs for financial reasons have increased following the economic crisis, particularly among poor people Change in unmet medical care need for financial reasons, by income quintile, all EU countries, 2005 to 2014 Change in unmet dental care need for financial reasons, by income quintile, all EU countries, 2005 to 2014
  45. 45. Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016; Eurostat Database The number of doctors per capita has increased in nearly all EU countries since 2000 Practising doctors per 1 000 population, 2000 and 2014 (or nearest year) 1. Data refer to all doctors licensed to practice, resulting in a large over-estimation of the number of practising doctors (around 30% in Portugal). 2. Data include not only doctors providing direct care to patients, but also those working in the health sector as managers, educators, researchers, etc. (adding another 5-10% of doctors).
  46. 46. Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016 The number of doctors has continued to increase following the economic crisis in most countries, but at a slower rate in some cases Evolution in the number of doctors, selected EU countries, 2000 to 2014 (or nearest year) 1. Data refer to doctors licensed to practice.
  47. 47. Source: Health at a Glance 2015: OECD Indicators The number of doctors varies not only across countries but also across regions in each country, creating geographic barriers Note: In Greece and Portugal, data refer to all doctors licensed to practice. Austria Belgium Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Italy Luxembourg Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Rep. Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Density per 1 000 population Vienna Brussels Prague Athens Region Lisbon Bratislava Helsinki Copenhagen Region
  48. 48. Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016; Eurostat Database The number of nurses per capita has increased in all EU countries since 2000, except in the Slovak Republic and Lithuania Practising nurses per 1 000 population, 2000 and 2014 (or nearest year) 1. Data include not only nurses providing care for patients, but also those working as managers, educators, researchers, etc. 2. Austria and Greece report only nurses working in hospital.
  49. 49. Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016 Waiting times for hip replacement have decreased in some countries between 2006 and 2010, but have stabilised since then Hip replacement, waiting times from specialist assessment to treatment, 2006 to 2014/15
  50. 50. • Efficiency in hospital and pharmaceutical spending • Fiscal sustainability of health and long-term care 8. RESILIENCE, EFFICIENCY AND SUSTAINABILITY OF HEALTH SYSTEMS
  51. 51. Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016; Eurostat Database The average length of stay in hospital has fallen in nearly all EU countries, reflecting efficiency gains Average length of stay in hospital, 2000 and 2014 (or nearest year) 1. Data refer to average length of stay for curative (acute) care (resulting in an under-estimation).
  52. 52. Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016; Eurostat Database The average length of stay for normal delivery has become shorter in all EU countries, but large variations remain Average length of stay for normal delivery, 2014 (or nearest year)
  53. 53. Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016; Eurostat Database The share of cataract surgeries performed as day cases has increased in all countries Share of cataract surgeries carried out as ambulatory cases, 2000 and 2014 (or nearest year)
  54. 54. Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016; Eurostat Database But the share of tonsillectomy performed as day cases continues to vary widely Share of tonsillectomy carried out as ambulatory cases, 2000 and 2014 (or nearest year)
  55. 55. Source: OECD Health Statistics 2016 The development of generics has improved efficiency in pharmaceutical spending, but several countries still lag behind Share of generics in the total pharmaceutical market, 2014 (or nearest year) 1. Reimbursed pharmaceutical market. 2. Community pharmacy market.
  56. 56. Source: EC and EPC (2015) Public spending on health care as a share of GDP is projected to grow in all countries over the coming decades Public spending on health care as a percentage of GDP, 2013 to 2060 Baseline scenario
  57. 57. Source: EC and EPC (2015) Public spending on long-term care as a share of GDP is also projected to grow over the coming decades due to population ageing Public spending on long-term care as a percentage of GDP, 2013 to 2060 Baseline scenario
  58. 58. More information http://www.oecd.org/health/health-at-a-glance-europe-23056088.htm http://ec.europa.eu/health/state/glance/index_en.htm

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