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Sarah Gammage's presentation - OECD - PGD Expert Meeting


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Sarah Gammage's presentation - OECD - PGD Expert Meeting

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Sarah Gammage's presentation - OECD - PGD Expert Meeting

  1. 1. Migration and Demography: The Gender Implications Sarah Gammage UN Women
  2. 2. Outline of Presentation • Key stylized facts • Gender on the move • Implications for scenario development • Discourse/Narrative
  3. 3. Key Stylized Facts • Aging late industrial/OECD economies combined with falling fertility rates. • Key concern about dependency ratios, particularly as they affect pensions • Rising care deficits for young, old and infirm • Similar transitions in middle income countries . Many of these the focus of S-S migration. • Similar concerns in middle income countries about parametric and non parametric “reforms” to pensions systems.
  4. 4. Replacement Rate
  5. 5. Policy Responses and Migration Governance • Get women into the labor market, increase fertility rates above replacement rates  migration can help solve the direct and indirect problems associated with closing gender gaps in labor market participation and in making work- life balance more sustainable.
  6. 6. Scenarios • Gendered migration where women specialize in care work is likely to rise. • Opportunities that span the gamut from domestic work, child-minding, teaching, elder care, nursing, social work to medical employment. • Gender gaps in (native) women´s labor force participation decline
  7. 7. Key Objectives • Promote movement with choice • Protect and preserve migrants´ rights • Protect the terms and conditions of employment for natives and non natives • Ensure no differentiability with native labor force
  8. 8. Implications Relevant for the Scenario Development • Formalization in host developing countries (and all the attendant LMIs reforms that this implies: minimum wages, collective bargaining, inspection, access to justice, etc.); preventing informalization in developed countries • Delinking contracts and visas • Ensuring portability of skills and pensions • Guaranteeing access to health care and social protection • Signing on to key conventions (C189, rights of migrants and their families, CEDAW)
  9. 9. Advocacy/Discourse/Narrative • Argue from a rights based perspective • Stress the instrumental gains: well governed and fair migration maximizes the benefits from migration and minimizes the costs (trafficking, violence, lack of social cohesion) and is more likely to crowd-in development in home countries