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The city as incubator: The role played by urban morphology at different scales - Francesca Froy

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Francesca Froy, Honorary Research Associate, UCL Institute for Innovation and Public Purpose, UK at the OECD Conference on SMEs and the Urban Fabric, 15-16 April 2019, OECD Trento Centre, Italy.

Full event info: https://oe.cd/SMEs-Cities

Published in: News & Politics
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The city as incubator: The role played by urban morphology at different scales - Francesca Froy

  1. 1. THE CITY AS INCUBATOR: THE ROLE PLAYED BY URBAN MORPHOLOGY BUILDING ON THE IDEAS OF JANE JACOBS FRANCESCA FROY, The Bartlett, UCL * Research in Greater Manchester supported by a PhD Scholarship from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC).
  2. 2. •Introduction: cities as incubators •Building conducive urban environments: 1. Buildings and frontages - adaptability 2. Neighbourhoods - ‘generative’ street systems which support diversity 3. City-scale – ensuring connectivity •Conclusions STRUCTURE
  3. 3. ‘Self--generating economic culture of cities’ (Soja,2000) Trade networks, feedback loops & import substitution Why in cities? Diverse supply chains Through problem solving and suggestions from materials and technologies New work develops from fragments of ‘parent’ work Division of labour as a dynamic process that involves branching from generalities Financing and space Diversity and difference as one of the highest forms of order From strategies and ‘visions’ to emergent growth Skills
  4. 4. Glass Soap & detergents Machining Paint Dyes Art Textile printing Engineering Computing & electronics Alkalis/’heavy chemicals’ Chemicals Chlorine/vitriol Organic chemistry Rubbers & plastics Drugs & pharmaceuticals Synthetic fibres, waterproofing TEXTILES Coal Petrochemicals Perfumes Industrial gases Clothes Wholesalers Merchants & financiers Banking Anti-corrosion Paper Common machines/technologies with textiles Economies branching over history..
  5. 5. Potentials for industry relatedness in Greater Manchester Analysis of potential skills-relatedness between Greater Manchester industries (based on model developed by Neffke, Otto and Weyh, 2017)
  6. 6. 1. BUILDINGS AND FRONTAGES Adaptability
  7. 7. Adaptable spaces in “Industrial streets”? Railway arches..
  8. 8. From manufacture to storage to distribution in “Industrial streets”? Strangeways, Manchester
  9. 9. 2. NEIGHBOURHOODS ‘Generative’ street systems which support diversity
  10. 10. Old Kent Road, London Source: CASS Cities OKR A-Z http://casscities.co.uk/
  11. 11. Mandela Way Source: CASS Cities OKR A-Z http://casscities.co.uk/ Source for photos: Google Maps
  12. 12. Comparing industrial morphologies Hatcham Road Source: CASS Cities OKR A-Z http://casscities.co.uk/ Source for photos: Google Maps
  13. 13. Manchester more integrated than its neighbouring local authorities Evidence of smaller town centres (e.g. Bolton, Oldham) SALFORD MANCHESTER Integration of street network
  14. 14. LOCALLY INTEGRATED AREAS At walking distance (800m) Northern Quarter – from manufacturing and wholesaling hub to creative quarter Areas of terraced housing Trafford Industrial Park
  15. 15. Generative grids Strangeways & Cheetham Hill (1950s)Northern Quarter (William Stevenson, 1780)
  16. 16. Urban morphology and encounter Southworth & Ben-Joseph, 2013
  17. 17. http://ajrae.staff.shef.ac.uk/buildings/ Alliance project textiles data Textiles diversity in Strangeways
  18. 18. 1943 South of River Irwell in Broughton Generative neighbourhoods and innovation www.H&M.com e.g. history of the McIntosh
  19. 19. Co-agglomeration between sectors at the neighbourhood level (MSOA) Based on analysis of statistically significant co-agglomeration of sectors in Greater Manchester MSOAs using IDBR data, 2016
  20. 20. Altringham, North Manchester Industries that are more like to be locally co-located with telecommunications
  21. 21. AltringhamPotential local interdependencies
  22. 22. Winkley Estate, Bethnal Green (1900) Gillett Square, Hackney Source: Froy, Davis and Dhanani (2017) Bringing commercial spaces into liveable communities
  23. 23. 3. CITY-SCALE Ensuring local-global connectivity
  24. 24. Where is manufacturing happening? Manufacturing across the Greater Manchester street system
  25. 25. Prioritising accessible centres Manufacturing across the Greater Manchester street system
  26. 26. TEXTILES MANUFACTURERS Grey boundary = greenbelt
  27. 27. http://ajrae.staff.shef.ac.uk/buildings/ Greater Manchester Alliance Textiles Project Textiles diversity in Strangeways
  28. 28. http://ajrae.staff.shef.ac.uk/buildings/ Openstreet map
  29. 29. Conclusions: preparing fertile ground for growth Adaptable buildings: Flexible and adaptable spaces which support creativity and growth (spaces that are “unfinished” –Rantisi & Leslie, 2010) Generative neighbourhoods: the importance of a local ‘hierarchy of spaces’ to generate economic diversity..the intermingling of buildings of different ages, types, sizes and conditions of upkeep (Jacobs, 1961), coupled with ‘generative’ street systems (Hillier, 1996) Connected cities: local diverse and adaptable spaces connected into global street networks (Read, 2015)
  30. 30. Publications
  31. 31. Froy F. and Davis, H (2017) Pragmatic urbanism: London’s railway arches and small-scale enterprise, European Planning Studies, 25:11 Hillier, B. (1996) Space is the Machine: a configurational theory of architecture, Cambridge University Press Jacobs, J. (1961) Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Modern Library, New York Read, S. (2015) Cities as infrastructures of diversification and homogenisation: constructing multiformal spaces in Paris and Shenzen, New Diversities, Vol.2, 7 Soja, E., W (2000) Postmetropolis: critical studies of cities and regions, Oxford, Blackwell. Further reading

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