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The well-being of students - new insights from PISA

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Children spend a considerable amount of time in the classroom: following lessons, socialising with classmates, and interacting with teachers and other staff members. What happens in school – as well as at home – is therefore key to understanding whether students enjoy good physical and mental health, how happy and satisfied they are with different aspects of their life, how connected to others they feel, and the aspirations they have for their future.

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The well-being of students - new insights from PISA

  1. 1. The Well-Being of Students New insights from PISA Andreas Schleicher
  2. 2. Student Well-Being Psychological SocialPhysical Cognitive
  3. 3. How satisfied are students with their life? The majority of 15-year-olds are happy, but in most countries there is a significant minority of students reporting low levels of life satisfaction
  4. 4. Life satisfaction among 15-year-old students 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Netherlands7.8 Mexico8.3 DominicanRepublic8.5 Finland7.9 CostaRica8.2 Croatia7.9 Switzerland7.7 Lithuania7.9 Iceland7.8 France7.6 Colombia7.9 lgium(excl.Flemish)7.5 Uruguay7.7 Austria7.5 Russia7.8 Estonia7.5 Spain7.4 Montenegro7.8 Thailand7.7 Latvia7.4 Germany7.4 Brazil7.6 Portugal7.4 Ireland7.3 Luxembourg7.4 SlovakRepublic7.5 OECDaverage7.3 Peru7.5 UnitedStates7.4 Chile7.4 Hungary7.2 Bulgaria7.4 Qatar7.4 Slovenia7.2 Poland7.2 UnitedArabEmirates7.3 CzechRepublic7.1 UnitedKingdom7.0 Italy6.9 Greece6.9 Japan6.8 Tunisia6.9 B-S-J-G(China)6.8 Macao(China)6.6 ChineseTaipei6.6 HongKong(China)6.5 Korea6.4 Turkey6.1 % Very satisfied Satisfied Moderately satisfied Not satisfied Figure III.3.1 Factors that predict poor life satisfaction: • Anxiety with school work • High internet use Factors that predict high life satisfaction: • Students who talk or meet with friends after school • More physical activity • Good teacher support • Good parental support
  5. 5. Dominican Rep. Mexico Costa Rica Croatia FinlandColombia Lithuania NetherlandsIceland Russia Montenegro Switzerland Thailand Uruguay France Brazil Austria EstoniaPeru Slovak Rep.Bulgaria Qatar Luxembourg Chile Germany Ireland United Arab Emirates Poland Slovenia Hungary Czech Rep. United Kingdom Greece Tunisia Italy B-S-J-G (China) Japan Chinese TaipeiMacao (China) Hong Kong (China) Korea Turkey 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 Averagelifesatisfaction(on10-pointscale) Mean science score Life satisfaction and student performance can go together OECD average OECDaverage LifeSatisfaction Student performance Figure III.3.3 ` `
  6. 6. Gender differences in life satisfaction -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 Tunisia Japan B-S-J-G(China) Peru Mexico Macao(China) Malaysia Thailand Qatar DominicanRepublic Russia Turkey Brazil Chile UnitedArabEmirates Latvia ChineseTaipei CostaRica Spain Ireland Colombia Estonia HongKong(China) Bulgaria Uruguay Korea Montenegro Portugal Italy UnitedKingdom France OECDaverage Belgium(excl.Flemish) CzechRepublic Greece Poland UnitedStates SlovakRepublic Croatia Lithuania Hungary Switzerland Germany Slovenia Netherlands Austria Luxembourg Finland Iceland Percentage-point difference (boys-girls) Not satisfied (boys - girls) Very satisfied (boys - girls) Figure III.3.2 More boys than girls satisfied with their life More girls than boys satisfied with their life
  7. 7. Students’ use of ICT outside of school
  8. 8. Social exclusion, by time spent on the Internet (OECD) Figure III.13.8 Differences between extreme and moderate Internet users: 5,4 percentage points 4,4 10,9 12,1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 I feel lonely at school Other students leave me out of things on purpose I arrived late for school in the 2 weeks prior to the PISA test I expect to leave school after secondary education % Low Internet users Moderate Internet users High Internet users Extreme Internet users > 6 hours
  9. 9. Change between 2012 and 2015 in time spent on line outside school on a typical school day 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Chile39 Sweden56 Uruguay33 CostaRica31 Spain44 Italy40 Australia52 Estonia50 NewZealand51 Hungary43 Russia42 Netherlands48 Denmark55 SlovakRepublic40 CzechRepublic43 Austria42 Latvia46 Singapore45 Belgium44 Poland46 Iceland51 OECDaverage-2743 Ireland48 Croatia40 Portugal42 Finland48 Israel34 Macao(China)45 Switzerland40 Greece41 HongKong(China)39 Mexico30 Slovenia37 Japan31 Korea20 Minutes per day 2015 2012 Figure III.13.3 Percentage of High Internet Users (spending 2 to 6 hours on line per day), during weekdays
  10. 10. Use of ICT for leisure online activities, by gender -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Sweden CzechRepublic Denmark Poland Estonia Latvia Netherlands Iceland UnitedKingdom Germany Finland Lithuania Portugal Austria Luxembourg SlovakRepublic Switzerland Russia Croatia Slovenia OECDaverage Belgium Hungary NewZealand Bulgaria France Ireland HongKong(China) Macao(China) Australia Uruguay CostaRica Greece Spain Japan ChineseTaipei Italy Chile Singapore Israel Korea Brazil Mexico Colombia Thailand Peru B-S-J-G(China) DominicanRepublic Percentage-pointdifference Playing online games (one-player or collaborative online games) Chat on line (e.g. <MSN>) Participate in social networks (e.g. <Facebook>, <Myspace>) Figure III.13.4 Boys do the activity more than girls Girls do the activity more than boys
  11. 11. 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 ChineseTaipei-2 Sweden-9 France-5 Portugal Greece Singapore-2 Thailand Macao(China)-7 Brazil-2 Spain UnitedKingdom Bulgaria HongKong(China) Korea-7 Belgium-4 Denmark-4 Croatia-5 Israel-10 NewZealand-4 Netherlands-3 Uruguay Hungary4 Australia OECDaverage-3 DominicanRepublic Ireland-7 Poland-3 CostaRica3 Lithuania Japan-5 Mexico Russia-8 CzechRepublic Italy Peru Colombia4 Finland-6 Chile Latvia SlovakRepublic B-S-J-G(China)11 Switzerland Austria-3 Luxembourg Iceland Germany Estonia Slovenia % Boys Girls Feeling bad if not connected to the Internet, by gender Figure III.13.6
  12. 12. What can teachers and schools do? Reducing anxiety with schoolwork
  13. 13. 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 I often worry that it will be difficult for me taking a test I worry that I will get poor <grades> at school Even if I am well prepared for a test I feel very anxious I get very tense when I study I get nervous when I don't know how to solve a task at school Percentage of students OECD average Prevalence of schoolwork-related anxiety Figure III.4.1(1)
  14. 14. 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 DominicanRepublic* CostaRica Brazil Colombia Uruguay* Singapore UnitedKingdom NewZealand Qatar* Italy Peru Australia ChineseTaipei HongKong(China) Montenegro UnitedStates Portugal UnitedArabEmirates Japan Macao(China) Thailand Spain Sweden Denmark Korea* Canada Slovenia Norway B-S-J-G(China) Ireland Lithuania Greece Turkey Bulgaria OECDaverage Mexico Hungary Estonia Chile Tunisia Finland Netherlands* Croatia Russia SlovakRepublic France Iceland Austria Israel Luxembourg Latvia Poland Belgium CzechRepublic Germany Switzerland % Top quarter of science performance Bottom quarter of science performance Schoolwork-related anxiety among students in the top and bottom quarters of science performance Greateranxiety Figure III.4.2 Percentage of students who reported that they "agree" or "strongly agree" with the statement "Even if I am well prepared for a test, I feel very anxious" * = no stastistically significant difference
  15. 15. Teacher support is higher in "happy" schools -0.60 -0.40 -0.20 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 Austria Netherlands Slovenia0.2 Croatia SlovakRepublic Germany CzechRepublic0.2 Hungary Switzerland Poland0.3 HongKong(China) France Italy0.3 Korea0.3 Estonia0.3 OECDaverage0.2 Lithuania Japan0.4 Spain0.3 Bulgaria ChineseTaipei0.3 Latvia0.2 Tunisia Uruguay Greece0.3 Qatar0.1 Turkey Chile Montenegro0.6 Colombia UnitedKingdom Russia0.5 B-S-J-G(China)0.5 Thailand0.2 Brazil UnitedStates UnitedArabEmirates0.3 CostaRica0.3 Mexico0.4 Peru0.3 Portugal0.6 Mean index Relatively happy schools Relatively unhappy schools Figure III.3.7 Relatively happy schools are schools where students' life satisfaction is significantly above the average
  16. 16. More teacher support and less anxiety Figure III.4.5 5% less likely 4% less likely 16% more likely 29% more likely 9% less likely 17% less likely 44% more likely 60% more likely The teacher adapts the lesson to my class’s needs and knowledge The teacher provides individual help when a student has difficulties understanding a topic or task Teachers graded me harder than they graded other students Teachers gave me the impression that they think I am less smart than I really am Oddsratios(logarithmicscale) Even if I am well prepared for a test I feel very anxious I get very tense when I study More likely Less likely As likely
  17. 17. What can teachers and schools do? Raising student motivation to achieve
  18. 18. 50 60 70 80 90 100 I want top grades in most or all of my courses I want to be able to select from among the best opportunities available when I graduate I want to be the best, whatever I do I see myself as an ambitious person I want to be one of the best students in my class Percentage of students OECD average Students' motivation to achieve Figure III.5.1(1)
  19. 19. Resilient students show higher achievement motivation -0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Lithuania Malaysia Iceland ChineseTaipei Turkey Japan Denmark SlovakRepublic Ireland Korea Peru Norway Qatar Tunisia Montenegro Croatia Thailand HongKong(China) Greece Sweden Australia UnitedArabEmirates Canada Latvia Estonia Finland CostaRica Chile Slovenia Brazil OECDaverage Israel Portugal Mexico Poland Colombia Switzerland B-S-J-G(China) UnitedKingdom Spain CzechRepublic Russia UnitedStates Macao(China) Uruguay Netherlands Hungary Germany Austria France Bulgaria NewZealand Singapore Italy Luxembourg Belgium Differenceintheindexofachievementmotivation Differences between resilient and non-resilient students Figure III.5.3 Resilient students are students who are in the bottom quarter of ESCS in their country, and perform in the top quarter of students across all countries and economies, after accounting for socio-economic status. Greatertestanxiety Higher competitive motivation
  20. 20. Resilient students show higher achievement motivation -0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Lithuania Malaysia Iceland ChineseTaipei Turkey Japan Denmark SlovakRepublic Ireland Korea Peru Norway Qatar Tunisia Montenegro Croatia Thailand HongKong(China) Greece Sweden Australia UnitedArabEmirates Canada Latvia Estonia Finland CostaRica Chile Slovenia Brazil OECDaverage Israel Portugal Mexico Poland Colombia Switzerland B-S-J-G(China) UnitedKingdom Spain CzechRepublic Russia UnitedStates Macao(China) Uruguay Netherlands Hungary Germany Austria France Bulgaria NewZealand Singapore Italy Luxembourg Belgium Differenceintheindexofachievementmotivation Differences between resilient and non-resilient students Figure III.5.3 Resilient students are students who are in the bottom quarter of ESCS in their country, and perform in the top quarter of students across all countries and economies, after accounting for socio-economic status. Extrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation
  21. 21. What can teachers and schools do? Students' sense of belonging at school and their relations with teachers
  22. 22. Student sense of belonging at school -0.50 -0.40 -0.30 -0.20 -0.10 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 Spain Austria Albania CABA(Argentina) Switzerland FYROM Kazakhstan Germany Kosovo Norway Georgia Iceland Jordan Netherlands Korea Denmark Luxembourg Indonesia Portugal Greece Finland Hungary Italy TrinidadandTobago Croatia Sweden Moldova ChineseTaipei Lebanon OECDaverage Belgium Romania Ireland Malta Japan Chile France VietNam Estonia UnitedStates Uruguay UnitedKingdom Slovenia UnitedArabEmirates Montenegro Qatar Canada Australia Mexico Brazil CostaRica NewZealand Tunisia Latvia Singapore Algeria Peru CzechRepublic Poland Lithuania SlovakRepublic Colombia B-S-J-G(China) Bulgaria HongKong(China) Thailand Russia DominicanRepublic Macao(China) Turkey Mean index of sense of belonging Figure III.7.2Meanindexofsenseofbelonging
  23. 23. Decline in students' sense of belonging at school (OECD) 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Ifeellikeanoutsider (orleftoutofthings) atschool(disagree) Imakefriends easilyatschool (agree) Ifeellike Ibelongatschool (agree) Ifeelawkwardand outofplaceinmy school (disagree) Otherstudentsseem tolikeme(agree) Ifeellonely atschool(disagree) Percentageofstudentswhoreported“agree”or“strongly agree”orwhoreported"disagree"or"stronglydisagree” 2003 2012 2015 Figure III.7.1 Meanindexofsenseofbelonging
  24. 24. Index of sense of belonging, by immigrant status -0.20 -0.10 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 SlovakRepublic FYROM DominicanRepublic Iceland TrinidadandTobago Mexico Spain Tunisia Brazil Lebanon Luxembourg Italy Kosovo Thailand CABA(Argentina) Uruguay Chile Ireland Estonia Algeria Japan Peru Malta Colombia UnitedStates Latvia Portugal Greece Georgia Sweden Switzerland OECDaverage Moldova Montenegro Austria Norway Slovenia Jordan Turkey Bulgaria Russia Denmark France Germany Lithuania CostaRica CzechRepublic Croatia UnitedKingdom HongKong(China) B-S-J-G(China) Belgium Finland Canada Hungary Macao(China) Singapore NewZealand Kazakhstan UnitedArabEmirates Netherlands Australia Qatar Difference on the index of sense of belonging between non-immigrant and immigrant students Figure III.7.2Morenon-immigrantsMoreimmigrants
  25. 25. 1 2 3 4 5 Kosovo Jordan Albania CABA(Argentina) Moldova Kazakhstan VietNam Georgia B-S-J-G(China) UnitedKingdom Romania ChineseTaipei Algeria Qatar Malta TrinidadandTobago Denmark HongKong(China) Finland UnitedArabEmirates Macao(China) FYROM Singapore UnitedStates NewZealand Russia Ireland Canada Estonia Chile Norway Iceland Slovenia Sweden Greece Thailand CzechRepublic Portugal Italy Japan Australia Hungary OECDaverage Lebanon Croatia Montenegro Tunisia Bulgaria Germany Korea Mexico Peru Poland Austria Spain Brazil CostaRica SlovakRepublic Netherlands Latvia Belgium Turkey Colombia Indonesia Switzerland Uruguay France Luxembourg DominicanRepublic Lithuania Odds ratio After accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile Students' sense of belonging relates to teacher support Figure III.7.8Increasedsenseofbelonging
  26. 26. Sense of belonging relates to disciplinary climate -0.10 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 Kazakhstan Romania FYROM Jordan Lebanon Malaysia Switzerland UnitedArabEmirates Croatia Sweden Georgia DominicanRepublic Moldova Brazil B-S-J-G(China) Turkey Albania Lithuania Japan Spain Austria Bulgaria Tunisia Peru Luxembourg Italy Thailand Germany Russia Kosovo Finland France Ireland Australia CABA(Argentina) Netherlands Estonia Mexico VietNam Chile UnitedKingdom Qatar TrinidadandTobago Colombia OECDaverage Poland Greece Uruguay Montenegro SlovakRepublic CzechRepublic Norway Slovenia Indonesia ChineseTaipei Denmark Korea Belgium Algeria Iceland Portugal Hungary HongKong(China) Macao(China) Canada NewZealand Singapore Latvia CostaRica UnitedStates Malta Mean index difference After accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile Before accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile Figure III.7.6 Students report higher sense of belonging in schools with a more positive disciplinary climate
  27. 27. 1 2 Russia Montenegro Croatia UnitedArabEmirates Tunisia Ireland Greece Estonia Norway France SlovakRepublic Japan Uruguay Poland Singapore Hungary Germany Thailand Brazil Mexico Switzerland UnitedKingdom Belgium Australia UnitedStates Latvia NewZealand Slovenia OECDaverage Netherlands CzechRepublic Macao(China) ChineseTaipei B-S-J-G(China) Qatar Bulgaria HongKong(China) Spain Luxembourg Portugal Austria Iceland Peru Chile CostaRica Denmark Korea Sweden Finland DominicanRepublic Colombia Turkey Lithuania Odds ratio After accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile Before accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile Students' who perceive teachers' unfairness are feeling more likely as outsiders Greateralineation Figure III.7.9 Students who perceive unfair behaviour report that: "Teachers disciplined me more harshly than other students", "Teachers ridiculed me in front of others" or "Teachers said something insulting to me in front of others“ a few times a month or once a week or more
  28. 28. What can parents do?
  29. 29. Spend time just talking to my child Eat <the main meal> with my child around a table Discuss how well my child is doing at school Attended a scheduled meeting or conferences for parents Talked about how to support learning at home and homework with my child’s teachers Discussed my child’s progress with a teacher on my own initiative Exchanged ideas on parenting, family support, or the child’s development with my child’s teacher Discussed my child's behaviour with a teacher on my own initiative Students' likelihood of being very satisfied with their life when their parents reported having participated in these school-related activities in the previous academic year Students' likelihood of being very satisfied with their life when parents reported engaging in these activities "at least once a week" Parents’ activities and students’ life satisfaction, Average-18 Figure III.9.4 20% more likely 60% more likely... As likely 40%30%10% 50% … To report high levels of life satisfaction 22 (12) PISA points advantage 19 (10) PISA points advantage
  30. 30. Parents’ interest in their child's activities at school and well-being (OECD) Figure III.9.7 2.5 times more likely 1.9 times more likely Twice less likely 3.4 times less likely Wanting top grades at school Being very satisfied with life Feeling lonely at school Being not satisfied with life More likely Less likely As likely Students who say their parents are interested in their school activities are…
  31. 31. Physical activities
  32. 32. Physical education at school 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Hungary Poland Russia Canada Japan UnitedStates Bulgaria NewZealand Australia Montenegro DominicanRepublic B-S-J-G(China) Iceland Qatar Slovenia Turkey OECDaverage UnitedKingdom Tunisia Korea UnitedArabEmirates Greece Sweden Israel Finland Uruguay SlovakRepublic Peru Switzerland Mexico Brazil Latvia Colombia Norway Chile Luxembourg Lithuania Denmark CzechRepublic Singapore Portugal France Austria Thailand Macao(China) Belgium Netherlands Germany ChineseTaipei Estonia Ireland Spain Croatia HongKong(China) CostaRica % 3 days or more 2 days 1 day 0 days Figure III.11.1
  33. 33. Physical activity and life satisfaction -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 Iceland Ireland Finland Korea Uruguay B-S-J-G(China) UnitedStates UnitedKingdom Macao(China) Estonia Latvia Belgium(excl.Flemish) Thailand Turkey Luxembourg Malaysia Greece OECDaverage Austria Peru ChineseTaipei Bulgaria CostaRica Chile Brazil Tunisia Croatia Slovenia Montenegro Germany SlovakRepublic Mexico Hungary HongKong(China) Qatar Japan Spain DominicanRepublic Portugal Lithuania Switzerland France Netherlands Poland CzechRepublic UnitedArabEmirates Russia Colombia Moderate physical activities Vigorous physical activities Figure III.11.9 In most countries/economies, life satisfaction is higher for students who engage in physical activities Differenceinlifesatisfactionindex
  34. 34. 470 475 480 485 490 495 500 505 510 515 520 Scorepoints Average number of days of physical activity outside of school Moderate physical activities Vigorous physical activities Physical activity outside of school and science performance (OECD)Scienceperformance Days of physical activity outside of school Figure III.11.8 7 days
  35. 35. Bullying
  36. 36. 0 5 10 15 20 Any type of bullying Other students left me out of things on purpose Other students made fun of me I was threatened by other students Other students took away or destroyed things that belong to me I got hit or pushed around by other students Other students spread nasty rumours about me Percentage of students OECD average Students' exposure to bullying Figure III.8.2(2) Percentage of students who reported being bullied at least "a few times a month":
  37. 37. Students' exposure to bullying -1.50 -1.00 -0.50 0.00 0.50 Latvia NewZealand Singapore Macao(China) Australia UnitedKingdom Canada Qatar Tunisia UnitedArabEmirates Poland Estonia Switzerland Finland Denmark HongKong(China) Belgium Germany UnitedStates Colombia CzechRepublic Chile Bulgaria Mexico Thailand SlovakRepublic CostaRica Ireland B-S-J-G(China) Austria Slovenia OECDaverage Norway Russia Uruguay Hungary France Spain Lithuania Sweden Croatia Luxembourg Japan Brazil Peru DominicanRepublic Netherlands Iceland Portugal Greece ChineseTaipei Montenegro Turkey Korea Mean index of exposure to bullying Figure III.8.2(1)Morefrequentexposuretobullying
  38. 38. Students' exposure to each type of bullying, by gender, OECD average 0 5 10 15 20 25 Anytypeofbullyingact Otherstudentsleftmeout ofthingsonpurpose Otherstudentsmadefun ofme Iwasthreatenedbyother students Otherstudentstookaway ordestroyedthingsthat belongtome Igothitorpushedaround byotherstudents Otherstudentsspread nastyrumoursaboutme % Boys Girls Figure III.8.3Morefrequentexposuretobullying
  39. 39. Percentage of frequently bullied students, by science performance 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 1stdecile 2nddecile 3rddecile 4thdecile 5thdecile 6thdecile 7thdecile 8thdecile 9thdecile 10thdecile % Deciles of science performance Other students made fun of me I got hit or pushed around by other students Other students spread nasty rumours about me Student performance Figure III.8.5 Percentage of students who reported being bullied at least a few times a month Morefrequentexposuretobullying
  40. 40. Exposure to bullying and school's disciplinary climate -18 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Macao(China) UnitedArabEmirates SlovakRepublic HongKong(China) Australia CzechRepublic Malaysia Qatar Greece NewZealand Singapore Lithuania Latvia Thailand Hungary Mexico B-S-J-G(China) UnitedKingdom Russia Finland France Germany Brazil Turkey Bulgaria Switzerland Colombia OECDaverage Croatia Chile Ireland Sweden Poland DominicanRepublic Canada UnitedStates Belgium Montenegro Portugal Peru Spain Tunisia Slovenia ChineseTaipei Uruguay Austria Norway Japan Korea Luxembourg CostaRica Netherlands Iceland Estonia Denmark After accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile Figure III.8.8 Difference in the percentage of frequently bullied students between schools with positive and negative disciplinary climate
  41. 41. Students' exposure to bullying and perceptions of teachers' unfairness -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Slovenia15 DominicanRepublic18 Tunisia25 Greece17 NewZealand26 Chile18 SlovakRepublic19 CzechRepublic19 Brazil18 Thailand25 Hungary27 Singapore20 UnitedArabEmirates29 Bulgaria24 Qatar28 Denmark19 B-S-J-G(China)22 Switzerland22 Colombia18 Australia24 Poland20 UnitedStates18 OECDaverage20 CostaRica17 Croatia15 Sweden18 Japan13 Macao(China)23 Malaysia36 Norway20 Lithuania27 Austria25 UnitedKingdom29 Mexico11 France20 Russia21 Ireland21 ChineseTaipei11 Peru26 Estonia21 Turkey24 HongKong(China)22 Netherlands15 Portugal24 Belgium22 After accounting for student and school characteristics Before accounting for student and school characteristics Figure III.8.9 Difference in the percentage of frequently bullied students between schools with pervasive/not pervasive student perceptions of teachers' unfair behaviour Percentage of students who perceive that their teachers behave unfairly Exposuretobullying
  42. 42. Relationship between being frequently bullied and other student outcomes (OECD) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 …expecttoendtheir educationatthe secondarylevel …feellikeanoutsider(or leftoutofthings)atschool …arenotsatisfiedwithlife …skippedschoolatleast 3-4daysinprevioustwo weeks ...feelanxiousforatest evenifwellprepared % Not frequently bullied Frequently bullied Figure III.8.7 Students who… A student is frequently bullied if he or she is in the top 10% of the index of exposure to bullying among all countries/economies Morefrequentexposuretobullying
  43. 43. Exposure to bullying and parental support (OECD) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Otherstudentsleftmeoutof thingsonpurpose Otherstudentsmadefunof me Iwasthreatenedbyother students Otherstudentstookawayor destroyedthingsthatbelong tome Igothitorpushedaroundby otherstudents Otherstudentsspreadnasty rumoursaboutme % Parents help with difficulties in school Parents do not help with difficulties in school Figure III.8.10 Morefrequentexposuretobullying
  44. 44. Find out more about our work at www.oecd.org/pisa – All publications – The complete micro-level database Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org Twitter: SchleicherOECD Wechat: AndreasSchleicher Thank you

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