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The science of teaching science - an exploration of science teaching practices in PISA 2015

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Jobs in science and maths are expected to grow at an unprecedented rate of 28% between 2014 and 2024, compared to 6.5% growth in all other professions. This rise will be accompanied by the progressive automation of routine and low-skilled jobs. This paper investigates the association between teaching practices and science performance and science-related attitudes amd also examines the influence of school and students’ context on the effectiveness of different teaching practices.

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The science of teaching science - an exploration of science teaching practices in PISA 2015

  1. 1. The science of teaching science: An exploration of science teaching practices in PISA 2015 Andreas Schleicher
  2. 2. Context • Jobs in science and maths are expected to grow at an unprecedented rate of 28% between 2014 and 2024, compared to 6.5% growth in all other professions. This rise will be accompanied by the progressive automation of routine and low-skilled jobs • This paper:  Investigates the association between teaching practices and science performance and science-related attitudes.  Examines the influence of school and students’ context on the effectiveness of different teaching practices.
  3. 3. Teaching practices in science classes • Enquiry-based science teaching • Teacher-directed instruction • Adaptive instruction • Teacher feedback
  4. 4. Outcomes of interest • Students’ performance in science • Students’ attitudes and dispositions towards science  Enjoyment of science  Interest in science  Epistemic beliefs  Science self-efficacy  Expectations of science-related careers at age 30
  5. 5. Enquiry-based science teaching Through scientific enquiry, students should develop a critical way of engaging with science. They should be able to acquire a deep understanding about a topic, develop a coherent scientific method, and ultimately provide a robust answer to the question under investigation
  6. 6. How prevalent is enquiry-based science teaching? -0.80 -0.60 -0.40 -0.20 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 Kazakhstan DominicanRepublic Peru Jordan Lebanon Algeria Tunisia Georgia Moldova Mexico Russia UnitedArabEmirates Qatar Albania Denmark Kosovo UnitedStates Portugal Turkey Sweden Canada Indonesia Colombia VietNam TrinidadandTobago Slovenia Romania Bulgaria FYROM Australia Lithuania NewZealand France Switzerland Thailand Latvia Malta Luxembourg Chile HongKong(China) Germany Israel Brazil Uruguay Ireland Singapore OECDaverage UnitedKingdom Norway CzechRepublic Estonia Greece Poland CABA(Argentina) CostaRica Montenegro Iceland Macao(China) Croatia Italy Belgium Hungary SlovakRepublic Spain Netherlands B-S-J-G(China) Austria Finland ChineseTaipei Korea Japan Meanindex Index of enquiry-based science teaching
  7. 7. Which enquiry activities are more common? 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Students are given opportunities to explain their ideas The teacher explains how <school science> ideas can be applied The teacher clearly explains the relevance of <broad science> concepts to our lives Students are asked to draw conclusions from an experiment they have conducted Students are required to argue about science questions There is a class debate about investigations Students are asked to do an investigation to test ideas Students spend time in the laboratory doing practical experiments Students are allowed to design their own experiments % Percentage of students who reported that the following activities occur “In most lessons” or “In all lessons”: OECD average
  8. 8. Enquiry-based teaching is negatively associated with students’ performance -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 Moldova Singapore VietNam Thailand Algeria B-S-J-G(China) HongKong(China) Luxembourg Israel Denmark Belgium Germany Austria CABA(Argentina) Macao(China) Finland Ireland Romania France ChineseTaipei Hungary Turkey Switzerland TrinidadandTobago Spain Colombia Australia Iceland Italy Netherlands UnitedKingdom Portugal CostaRica Croatia Mexico UnitedArabEmirates Peru DominicanRepublic OECDaverage FYROM Lithuania Indonesia Slovenia Lebanon Tunisia Sweden Qatar Japan UnitedStates Brazil Montenegro Jordan Uruguay Malta CzechRepublic Chile Korea SlovakRepublic Canada Kosovo Latvia Bulgaria Georgia Poland Norway Russia Greece NewZealand Estonia Score-pointdifference Change in science performance associated with a one-unit increase in the index of enquiry-based science teaching After accounting for student characteristics and observed and unobserved school features Before accounting for student characteristics and observed and unobserved school features
  9. 9. The association between enquiry-based science teaching and performance depends on school context -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 Moldova* CABA(Argentina) Luxembourg* Thailand* Algeria Belgium* Finland* Romania* Hungary* Germany Macao(China)* TrinidadandTobago* Australia* ChineseTaipei* B-S-J-G(China)* HongKong(China) FYROM* Lithuania* Kosovo* UnitedArabEmirates* Spain Jordan* Portugal* VietNam Israel Singapore France Netherlands* Ireland DominicanRepublic* Turkey Indonesia* Lebanon* Austria Mexico* Croatia* Sweden* SlovakRepublic* Malta* Tunisia* Montenegro* Italy* Denmark Peru* Slovenia Bulgaria* Switzerland Colombia OECDaverage* Qatar* Brazil* CostaRica Uruguay* Iceland Georgia* Japan Chile Korea Latvia UnitedStates Estonia* CzechRepublic Canada Poland UnitedKingdom Greece Norway Russia NewZealand Score-pointdifference Change in science performance associated with a one-unit increase in the index of enquiry-based science teaching Students in the top quarter of the index of disciplinary climate Students in the bottom quarter of the index of disciplinary climate The interaction between enquiry- based science teaching and school climate is significant
  10. 10. Some explanations • When it comes to unguided discovery, criticism has focused on the lack of structure in the construction of knowledge. Novice learners may not have the extensive knowledge or training of professional scientists. – When scientists formulate a hypothesis they draw on a body of knowledge built over a long period of time. In contrast, students lack this knowledge, and can only rely on a patchy understanding of scientific principals and on a short-term memory that could become overloaded with new information • Enquiry-based instruction needs a different set of skills and attitudes than a teacher-driven lecture. – A lecture is more akin to a scripted performance; enquiry-based instruction is more about improvisation and adaptation • Enquiry-based learning requires time, training and more resources (e.g. laboratory equipment and personnel). The classroom environment should be favourable (e.g. better disciplinary climate). Activities need to be adequately designed to cover the appropriate content.
  11. 11. Enquiry-based science teaching and the environment • Success of Enquiry-based science teaching hinges on:  School climate: Discipline in science classes and absence of teacher and students-related behaviour hindering instruction.  Availability of resources to conduct enquiry-based activities (e.g. laboratory materials, computer simulation software).  Teacher pedagogical training in relation to enquiry-based activities.  Positive predisposition towards enquiry-based activities among teachers, school-principals and educational authorities.  Availability of pedagogical guidelines for teachers to follow when setting up enquiry-based activities.  Provision of teacher guidance (to students) when initiating enquiry-based activities. Enquiry-based science teaching’s success depends on surrounding environment
  12. 12. Students exposed to enquiry-based activities enjoy science more 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 NewZealand UnitedKingdom Australia Ireland Sweden Norway Denmark Israel Singapore Italy Austria CABA(Argentina) Belgium HongKong(China) Finland Chile CostaRica Canada Germany OECDaverage Malta Spain Romania Poland Japan Iceland B-S-J-G(China) Croatia Korea Luxembourg Hungary Macao(China) Slovenia CzechRepublic Portugal France Latvia Moldova UnitedStates Uruguay Switzerland TrinidadandTobago Netherlands UnitedArabEmirates Russia Lebanon ChineseTaipei Georgia Greece Brazil Colombia Indonesia Tunisia Mexico Algeria Qatar Lithuania Montenegro Thailand Peru Estonia Kosovo Turkey Jordan SlovakRepublic Bulgaria DominicanRepublic VietNam FYROM Changeintheindexofenjoymentofscience Change in the index of enjoyment of science associated with a one-unit change in the index of enquiry-based science teaching After accounting for student characteristics and observed and unobserved school features Before accounting for student characteristics and observed and unobserved school features
  13. 13. Students exposed to enquiry-based activities show higher levels of self-efficacy when dealing with science-related tasks 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 Kosovo Denmark TrinidadandTobago DominicanRepublic Jordan UnitedKingdom Malta Lebanon Moldova FYROM Sweden Georgia Canada Norway CABA(Argentina) Russia Iceland Latvia Luxembourg Lithuania Singapore Australia Colombia Uruguay Indonesia Qatar Romania Ireland NewZealand UnitedStates Portugal Belgium Thailand CostaRica Finland Mexico Japan OECDaverage Macao(China) Austria Netherlands France Germany UnitedArabEmirates HongKong(China) Greece B-S-J-G(China) Chile Peru Spain Slovenia Turkey SlovakRepublic Tunisia Croatia Italy Israel Switzerland Montenegro Brazil VietNam Hungary Algeria Bulgaria Korea Estonia Poland ChineseTaipei CzechRepublic Changeintheindexofself-efficacyinscience Change in the index of self-efficacy in science associated with a one-unit increase in the index of enquiry-based science teaching After accounting for student characteristics and observed and unobserved school features Before accounting for student characteristics and observed and unobserved school features
  14. 14. Exposure to enquiry-based science activities relates to students’ expectations of a career in science 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 Italy Israel Ireland Malta Portugal Hungary Belgium Slovenia Luxembourg FYROM Lebanon Australia Uruguay UnitedKingdom Netherlands HongKong(China) Russia Singapore Spain Austria Kosovo ChineseTaipei Greece SlovakRepublic OECDaverage Canada Croatia CzechRepublic Algeria Norway NewZealand Germany Jordan Sweden Bulgaria Chile UnitedStates VietNam Lithuania Denmark Romania Mexico Turkey France Georgia Montenegro Qatar Macao(China) Japan Finland Brazil TrinidadandTobago Tunisia Switzerland B-S-J-G(China) Moldova UnitedArabEmirates DominicanRepublic CABA(Argentina) Peru Colombia Indonesia Korea Estonia CostaRica Poland Thailand Iceland Latvia Oddsratios Likelihood of students expecting to work in a science-related career at age 30 associated with a one- unit increase in the index of enquiry-based science teaching After accounting for student and school characteristics Before accounting for student and school characteristics
  15. 15. Teacher-directed science instruction Teacher-directed practices are defined as approaches in which the teacher is largely in control of the content and course of the lesson. They involve expository instruction – in which information is delivered by the teacher in the form that students are expected to learn it – in addition to class discussions and demonstration of ideas moderated by the teacher
  16. 16. In which country is teacher-directed science instruction more common? -0.60 -0.40 -0.20 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 Kazakhstan Thailand Canada Jordan Portugal UnitedStates Tunisia Russia UnitedArabEmirates NewZealand Australia Singapore Lebanon Poland Finland Greece Iceland Qatar Algeria ChineseTaipei Switzerland DominicanRepublic Malta HongKong(China) UnitedKingdom Mexico Israel TrinidadandTobago Moldova Spain Lithuania B-S-J-G(China) Hungary Croatia OECDaverage Norway Austria Ireland Peru Colombia Albania Macao(China) Georgia Latvia Turkey Chile VietNam Sweden CABA(Argentina) Estonia FYROM Luxembourg France Bulgaria Brazil Denmark Italy Indonesia Japan CostaRica Belgium Germany Montenegro Netherlands Uruguay Kosovo Romania CzechRepublic SlovakRepublic Korea Meanindex Index of teacher-directed science instruction
  17. 17. How do enquiry-based teaching and teacher directed instruction combine? [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE][CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE][CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] R² = 0.18 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 Indexofenquiry-basedscienceteaching Index of teacher-directed science instruction Science performance higher than OECD average Science performance around OECD average Science performance below OECD average Both enquiry-based teaching and teacher-directed instruction are commonly used in science lessons Both enquiry-based teaching and teacher-directed instruction are less common in science lessons
  18. 18. Teacher-directed instruction is associated with student science achievement -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 Moldova Finland Israel Georgia Australia Poland Italy Lebanon Kosovo Jordan UnitedKingdom Malta Canada Greece UnitedArabEmirates Romania Qatar VietNam CABA(Argentina) HongKong(China) Singapore Spain UnitedStates Iceland Luxembourg Colombia NewZealand Uruguay FYROM Netherlands Russia OECDaverage Macao(China) Latvia Ireland ChineseTaipei France Germany Portugal B-S-J-G(China) DominicanRepublic Mexico Croatia Switzerland Sweden Norway Belgium Chile Austria Thailand Brazil CzechRepublic Bulgaria Denmark Japan Algeria Hungary TrinidadandTobago Turkey Montenegro Lithuania Estonia CostaRica SlovakRepublic Tunisia Peru Korea Indonesia Score-pointdifference Change in science performance associated with a one-unit increase in the index of teacher-directed science instruction After accounting for student characteristics and observed and unobserved school features Before accounting for student characteristics and observed and unobserved school features
  19. 19. Teacher-directed science instruction relates to students enjoyment of science 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 Netherlands Australia Israel NewZealand UnitedKingdom HongKong(China) Ireland Italy Luxembourg Spain Finland Belgium Hungary UnitedArabEmirates DominicanRepublic Poland Qatar Canada Germany Norway Denmark OECDaverage Japan Estonia Singapore Turkey Austria Peru Portugal Colombia UnitedStates Sweden Croatia Switzerland Iceland Korea Bulgaria Tunisia France Montenegro Latvia Macao(China) Russia B-S-J-G(China) Uruguay Chile CostaRica Brazil Mexico Lithuania Thailand Greece ChineseTaipei CzechRepublic SlovakRepublic Changeintheindexofenjoymentofscience Change in the index of enjoyment of science associated with a one-unit increase in the index of teacher-directed science instruction After accounting for student characteristics and observed and unobserved school features Before accounting for student characteristics and observed and unobserved school features
  20. 20. Teacher-directed science instruction relates to students expectations of a career in science 0.85 0.95 1.05 1.15 1.25 1.35 1.45 Hungary Italy Israel Portugal Spain Germany Australia Poland Austria Qatar NewZealand Belgium Switzerland Canada Romania Japan Estonia Malta UnitedKingdom Lebanon DominicanRepublic B-S-J-G(China) OECDaverage TrinidadandTobago Singapore Denmark FYROM Korea HongKong(China) Luxembourg Peru Finland VietNam Macao(China) Netherlands Ireland Iceland France CABA(Argentina) Turkey SlovakRepublic Algeria UnitedArabEmirates Bulgaria Croatia Jordan Georgia Lithuania Greece Norway Latvia Sweden Kosovo Brazil ChineseTaipei Uruguay Moldova Chile UnitedStates Tunisia Russia Mexico Montenegro Colombia CostaRica CzechRepublic Thailand Indonesia Oddsratios Likelihood of students expecting to work in a science-related career at age 30 associated with a one- unit increase in the index of enquiry-based science teaching After accounting for student and school characteristics Before accounting for student and school characteristics
  21. 21. Is enquiry-based teaching more effective when combined with direct teacher instruction? -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 Moldova Israel Finland CABA(Argentina) Romania VietNam Singapore HongKong(China) Luxembourg Belgium Thailand Italy Kosovo Macao(China) B-S-J-G(China) Austria UnitedArabEmirates Algeria Australia Iceland Georgia Lebanon Switzerland France Croatia Spain Colombia Uruguay Germany Hungary ChineseTaipei Jordan CzechRepublic Qatar Malta TrinidadandTobago Ireland UnitedKingdom Turkey OECDaverage Montenegro FYROM Mexico DominicanRepublic Denmark Poland Netherlands UnitedStates Latvia Portugal Canada CostaRica Sweden SlovakRepublic Lithuania Brazil Peru Chile Japan Greece Tunisia Bulgaria Russia Norway NewZealand Indonesia Estonia Korea Score-pointdifference Change in science performance associated with a one-unit increase in: Both teaching practices together Index of enquiry-based science teaching Index of teacher-directed science instruction
  22. 22. Adaptive science instruction
  23. 23. How common is adaptive science instruction? -0.60 -0.40 -0.20 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 Portugal Singapore Mexico Denmark Canada NewZealand UnitedStates Russia Bulgaria CostaRica UnitedArabEmirates Chile Australia Latvia UnitedKingdom Thailand Spain Tunisia Qatar Sweden Turkey Brazil Norway HongKong(China) DominicanRepublic Iceland B-S-J-G(China) Greece Colombia Peru ChineseTaipei OECDaverage Uruguay Finland Ireland Montenegro Korea Israel Macao(China) Italy Netherlands Poland Switzerland Lithuania Hungary Croatia CzechRepublic Estonia Germany Japan SlovakRepublic Austria France Luxembourg Belgium Meanindex Index of adaptive teaching in science lessons
  24. 24. Adapting science lessons to students’ needs relates to their performance? -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 Norway Denmark Finland UnitedKingdom Sweden Australia Israel Singapore Iceland Netherlands UnitedArabEmirates Latvia Canada Portugal HongKong(China) Estonia NewZealand Germany B-S-J-G(China) CzechRepublic OECDaverage Qatar Bulgaria Russia Ireland Lithuania Poland Chile Thailand Switzerland Brazil Turkey Italy Colombia Greece Uruguay DominicanRepublic Macao(China) Korea Montenegro Spain SlovakRepublic UnitedStates Croatia Hungary France Belgium Mexico Japan Luxembourg CostaRica Austria Tunisia ChineseTaipei Peru Score-pointdifference Change in science performance associated with a one-unit increase in the index of adaptive teaching in science lessons After accounting for student characteristics and observed and unobserved school features Before accounting for student characteristics and observed and unobserved school features
  25. 25. Adapting science lessons relates to students enjoyment of science? 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 Australia Israel NewZealand Turkey Qatar Sweden Canada UnitedArabEmirates Bulgaria DominicanRepublic UnitedKingdom Hungary Ireland Luxembourg Korea HongKong(China) Tunisia Estonia Norway Iceland Finland CostaRica Switzerland OECDaverage Austria Brazil Montenegro Italy UnitedStates Japan Singapore Peru Portugal France Netherlands Belgium Lithuania Germany Chile Uruguay Denmark Poland Latvia Croatia B-S-J-G(China) Russia Colombia Greece Spain Thailand Mexico CzechRepublic ChineseTaipei SlovakRepublic Macao(China) Changeintheindexofenjoymentofscience Change in the index of enjoyment of science associated with a one-unit increase in the index of adaptive teaching in science lessons After accounting for student characteristics and observed and unobserved school features Before accounting for student characteristics and observed and unobserved school features
  26. 26. Adapting science lessons relates to higher expectations of a career in science 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40 Israel Denmark Canada UnitedKingdom Italy Belgium Hungary Portugal Peru Estonia Singapore B-S-J-G(China) CzechRepublic Spain Luxembourg NewZealand Germany Latvia OECDaverage Finland Switzerland Ireland Bulgaria Australia Sweden Qatar Mexico Macao(China) HongKong(China) Tunisia UnitedArabEmirates Lithuania Korea Netherlands ChineseTaipei Japan Austria SlovakRepublic France Iceland Greece Russia Norway Montenegro DominicanRepublic Chile Croatia Brazil UnitedStates Poland Turkey Uruguay Thailand Colombia CostaRica Oddsratios Likelihood of students expecting to work in a science-related career at age 30 associated with a one- unit increase in the index of adaptive teaching in science lessons After accounting for student and school characteristics Before accounting for student and school characteristics
  27. 27. Feedback in science lessons
  28. 28. In which countries do teachers provide more feedback? -0.60 -0.40 -0.20 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 Kazakhstan Albania DominicanRepublic Georgia Lebanon FYROM Tunisia Moldova VietNam UnitedArabEmirates Jordan Qatar Russia Bulgaria Mexico Peru Colombia UnitedKingdom Kosovo TrinidadandTobago Turkey Indonesia Montenegro UnitedStates Singapore Algeria NewZealand Thailand Latvia B-S-J-G(China) ChineseTaipei Romania Poland Canada Malta Lithuania Brazil Chile HongKong(China) Spain Portugal CostaRica Italy Greece Australia Uruguay Croatia Hungary Ireland OECDaverage Norway Sweden SlovakRepublic Israel Netherlands Estonia CzechRepublic Macao(China) France CABA(Argentina) Belgium Luxembourg Austria Switzerland Denmark Finland Germany Japan Korea Iceland Meanindex Index of teacher feedback in science lessons
  29. 29. Feedback and science performance -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 Kosovo Georgia Moldova Romania Lebanon Jordan Montenegro FYROM DominicanRepublic Malta Turkey HongKong(China) Bulgaria UnitedKingdom Thailand Brazil UnitedArabEmirates Russia France Qatar TrinidadandTobago B-S-J-G(China) Portugal Algeria Lithuania ChineseTaipei CzechRepublic Mexico Israel Colombia Peru VietNam Latvia Hungary Singapore Tunisia Germany Japan Belgium Poland Chile Macao(China) Australia CostaRica Norway Spain Netherlands Indonesia OECDaverage SlovakRepublic Croatia Canada Italy Greece Uruguay Austria Denmark Ireland Sweden CABA(Argentina) Estonia Switzerland Luxembourg UnitedStates Korea Finland NewZealand Iceland Score-pointdifference Change in science performance associated with a one-unit increase in the index of teacher feedback in science lessons After accounting for student characteristics and observed and unobserved school features Before accounting for student characteristics and observed and unobserved school features
  30. 30. Teacher feedback relates to students epistemic beliefs -0.10 -0.05 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 FYROM Jordan DominicanRepublic Georgia Turkey Montenegro Qatar HongKong(China) Luxembourg UnitedArabEmirates Israel Peru Kosovo Bulgaria Tunisia Malta UnitedKingdom Japan Lebanon Moldova NewZealand UnitedStates Brazil B-S-J-G(China) Russia VietNam Korea Colombia Singapore Switzerland Canada ChineseTaipei Algeria Romania Croatia Norway France TrinidadandTobago Portugal Indonesia Thailand OECDaverage Uruguay Ireland CABA(Argentina) Australia Mexico Iceland Chile Sweden CostaRica Macao(China) Lithuania Hungary CzechRepublic Latvia SlovakRepublic Italy Spain Estonia Netherlands Belgium Germany Poland Austria Greece Finland Denmark Changeintheindexofepistemicbeliefsin science Change in the index of epistemic beliefs in science associated with a one-unit increase in the index of teacher feedback in science lessons After accounting for student characteristics and observed and unobserved school features Before accounting for student characteristics and observed and unobserved school features
  31. 31. Smaller classes make certain teaching practices more prevalent -0.15 -0.10 -0.05 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 Up to 20 students From 21 to 25 students From 26 to 30 students More than 30 students Schools’ average size of language-of-instruction classes Index of… Teacher feedback Teacher support Adaptive teaching Enquiry-based teaching Teacher-directed practices
  32. 32. Which teaching practices can help close the gender gap in science career expectations? 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 Teacher-directed practices Teacher feedback Adaptive teaching Enquiry-based teaching Teacher support Oddsratios Girls Boys Students are more likely to expect to work in a science-related career
  33. 33. Some explanations • Exposing more girls to enquiry-based teaching practices could not only draw more of them into a science career but may also close the gender gap in traditionally male-dominated science occupations. – On average across OECD countries, the association between exposure to enquiry-based teaching and expecting a career in science is more positive for girls, but only for male-dominated occupations, including engineers and science-related technicians. – The probability that students see themselves as health professionals – typically female-dominated occupations – increases equally for boys and girls when they are more exposed to enquiry- based teaching.
  34. 34. Which teaching practices are better in fostering students’ dispositions towards science? -0.05 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 Girl Boy Girl Boy Girl Boy Girl Boy Girl Boy Teacher-directed practices Teacher feedback Adaptive teaching Enquiry-based teaching Teacher support Indexchangeperone-unitincreaseintheindices ofteachingpractices Interest in broad science topics Enjoyment of science Science self-efficacy Participation in science-related activities
  35. 35. Some conclusions • Although enquiry-based science teaching is negatively associated with science performance, some of this association is due to the school context (lack of disciplinary climate) => enquiry-based science teaching is sensitive to the school context. • Enquiry-based science teaching is more effective than other practices in improving students dispositions towards science and in closing the gender gap in science career expectations. • Teacher-directed instruction is a robust teaching practice that is likely to deliver on its promise regardless of the surrounding environment. • No evidence that the joint use of enquiry-based teaching and teacher- directed instruction is positively associated with science performance.
  36. 36. Some conclusions • Adaptive teaching in science lessons is positively correlated with science performance. This relationship is particularly strong in the Nordic countries which are known for their comprehensive education systems. • The negative association between teacher feedback and students’ science performance can be attributed to the fact that students who require the most feedback tend to be low performers. When the frequency of feedback is taken into account, the findings show that it is the most frequent feedback that is negatively associated with performance. • All teaching practices are effective in improving students’ dispositions towards science (with varying degrees).
  37. 37. Find out more about our work at www.oecd.org/pisa – All publications – The complete micro-level database Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org Twitter: SchleicherOECD Wechat: AndreasSchleicher Thank you

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