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The Schools + Network: Connecting and Empowering Schools

This presentation by Andreas Schleicher, OECD Director of Education and Skills, was presented during the launch of the OECD School + Network. This network brings schools together & provide a space to share & learn from one another.

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The Schools+ Network
Connecting and empowering schools
Andreas Schleicher, Director of Education and Skills
22 May 2023
Some disconnects
Financial economy
Infinite growth imperative
Gross domestic product
The wealthy
Technology
Governance
Real economy
Finite resources of planet
Well-being of people
The poor
Social needs
Voicelessness of many
The future will always surprise us
Impact
Uncertainty
Climate change
Ageing
Data breaches
General Artificial Intelligence
Energy cuts
Internet disrupted
Economic shocks
Natural disasters
(cyber)
war
Pandemics
New sources of growth
Growth
The Rise of Big Tech
Figure 1.4
Source: OECD(2019), An Introduction to Online Platforms and Their Role in the Digital Transformation, https://doi.org/10.1787/53e5f593-en;
`companies’ annual reports; and https://macrotrends.net
0
100
200
300
400
500
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
Annual
revenue
(USD
billion)
Apple Facebook
Amazon Google
0
100
200
300
400
500
2005 2008 2011 2014 2017 2020
General Motors Exxon Mobil Ford Motor General Electric
Annual revenue of top four companies from the Fortune 500 in 1960 vs “Big Four” tech companies, 2005-2020
Intangible innovation
Trademark applications for the top five offices, 1940-2019
Figure 1.3
Source: WIPO (2020), World Intellectual Property Indicators 2020, https://www.wipo.int/
0
500
1 000
1 500
2 000
2 500
1940
1943
1946
1949
1952
1955
1958
1961
1964
1967
1970
1973
1976
1979
1982
1985
1988
1991
1994
1997
2000
2003
2006
2009
2012
2015
2018
Number
of
applications
(Thousands)
United States India Brazil Korea China
2019

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The Schools + Network: Connecting and Empowering Schools

  • 1. The Schools+ Network Connecting and empowering schools Andreas Schleicher, Director of Education and Skills 22 May 2023
  • 2. Some disconnects Financial economy Infinite growth imperative Gross domestic product The wealthy Technology Governance Real economy Finite resources of planet Well-being of people The poor Social needs Voicelessness of many
  • 3. The future will always surprise us Impact Uncertainty Climate change Ageing Data breaches General Artificial Intelligence Energy cuts Internet disrupted Economic shocks Natural disasters (cyber) war Pandemics
  • 4. New sources of growth Growth
  • 5. The Rise of Big Tech Figure 1.4 Source: OECD(2019), An Introduction to Online Platforms and Their Role in the Digital Transformation, https://doi.org/10.1787/53e5f593-en; `companies’ annual reports; and https://macrotrends.net 0 100 200 300 400 500 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Annual revenue (USD billion) Apple Facebook Amazon Google 0 100 200 300 400 500 2005 2008 2011 2014 2017 2020 General Motors Exxon Mobil Ford Motor General Electric Annual revenue of top four companies from the Fortune 500 in 1960 vs “Big Four” tech companies, 2005-2020
  • 6. Intangible innovation Trademark applications for the top five offices, 1940-2019 Figure 1.3 Source: WIPO (2020), World Intellectual Property Indicators 2020, https://www.wipo.int/ 0 500 1 000 1 500 2 000 2 500 1940 1943 1946 1949 1952 1955 1958 1961 1964 1967 1970 1973 1976 1979 1982 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 2009 2012 2015 2018 Number of applications (Thousands) United States India Brazil Korea China 2019
  • 7. Work to live or live to work? Looking forward
  • 8. In pursuit of a work-life balance Average annual hours actually worked per worker, 1971-2019 Germany Greece Norway Türkiye United Kingdom United States OECD average 1 300 1 400 1 500 1 600 1 700 1 800 1 900 2 000 2 100 1971 1977 1983 1989 1995 2001 2007 2013 2019 Hours per Year Germany Greece Norway Turkey United Kingdom United States OECD average Figure 2.1 Source: OECD (2021), OECD Labour Force Statistics (database), https://stats.oecd.org/
  • 10. I post, therefore I am Number of monthly active users on social media platforms, 2004-2021 Source: OECD calculations from companies’ annual reports; Ortiz-Espina (18 September 2019), https://ourworldindata.org//; Iqbal (13 May 2021), https://www.businessofapps.com/; Sherman (24 August 2020), https://www.cnbc.com/; Statista (2021), https://www.statista.com/. Figure 4.9 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Monthly active users (Billions) Facebook Youtube Whatsapp Instagram Weixin/Wechat Tiktok Pinterest Reddit Twitter
  • 11. The wisdom of crowds Number of pages in all wikis, 2001-2021 Figure 3.2 Source: Wikimedia (2021), Pages to Date, All Wikis, https://stats.wikimedia.org/ 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Number of wikis (Millions)
  • 12. Navigating ambiguity – fact and opinion (PISA) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Singapore 38 Korea 39 B-S-J-Z (China) 39 Hong Kong (China) 34 Chinese Taipei 46 Macao (China) 39 United Kingdom 22 Japan 34 United States 30 Canada 26 New Zealand 30 Netherlands 22 Australia 26 Finland 20 Ireland 20 Israel 17 UAE 25 Slovenia 20 Poland 29 Brunei Darussalam 26 Malta 18 Croatia 19 Estonia 24 Austria 22 Malaysia 27 Belarus 27 OECD average 24 Germany 22 Belgium 27 Lithuania 22 Czech Republic 27 Overall average 22 France 28 Latvia 18 Türkiye 36 Thailand 24 Qatar 23 Hungary 25 Portugal 26 Italy 25 Switzerland 23 Albania 11 Denmark 16 Luxembourg 28 Norway 16 Bulgaria 14 Indonesia 14 Spain¹ 23 Chile 25 Sweden 18 Slovak Republic 19 Philippines 19 Costa Rica 21 Greece 18 Iceland 31 Serbia 18 Mexico 15 Brazil 15 Kazakhstan 20 Montenegro 14 Georgia 15 BiH 12 Panama 17 Uruguay 8 Peru 18 Colombia 22 Dominican Republic 9 Baku (Azerbaijan) 15 Kosovo 7 Morocco 6 Strictly focused navigation Actively explorative navigation No navigation Limited navigation % Percentage of students who self activated the multiple-source by clicking hyperlink Highly effective navigation Actively explorative navigation Limited navigation No navigation Figure 3.7
  • 13. GPT Performance on PISA test: March 2022 to March 2023 28% 78% 65% 46% 90% 85% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Math Reading Science Percentage correct GPT3.5 to GPT4 Performance on PISA GPT3.5 (Mar'22) GPT4 (Mar'23)
  • 14. AI still has many limitations, but will improve
  • 15. AI still has many limitations, but will improve
  • 16. AI still has many limitations, but will improve
  • 17. 15-year-olds report lower creativity than 10-year-olds Age gaps in creativity -75 -50 -25 0 25 Bogota Daegu Helsinki Houston Istanbul Manizales Moscow Ottawa Suzhou mean scale difference (students and parents) mean scale difference (teachers) Figure 4.3
  • 18. Education won the race with technology throughout history, but there is no automaticity it will do so in the future Inspired by “The race between te chnology and education” Pr. Goldin & Katz (Harvard) Industrial revolution Digital revolution Social pain Universal public schooling Technology Education Prosperity Social pain Prosperity
  • 20. Schools are just waking up to the digital world that is radically transforming learning
  • 21. Big Leaps in Assessments and Exams VS.
  • 23. School activities done on digital devices tend to be negatively associated with learning outcomes (PISA reading, OECD) -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 Score point difference Playing simulations at school Posting my work on the school’s website Doing homework on a school computer Downloading, uploading or browsing material Using learning apps or learning websites Using school computers for group work Practicing and drilling, such as for foreign language Using email at school <Chatting online> at school Browsing the internet for schoolwork
  • 24. Where teachers are not at the heart of design, they cannot help with implementation
  • 26. An international ecosystem of those working closely with schools to support innovation, learning and exchange School leader, teacher and student networks Academics Ministries of Education (OECD & non-OECD) School operators Foundations Regional and local education authorities Evidence brokerage organisations Schools Consultancy Services Education entrepreneurs
  • 27. The goals of the Schools+ Network 1 2 3 Foster inter-network exchange Scale up learning and innovation Inform policy, research and practice and the global education debate Build evidence towards achieving quality education, equity and well- being on a global scale. Improvements in student learning & holistic development IMPACT OBJECTIVES
  • 28. Innovation and change are increasingly driven from the ground up Percentage of teachers who “agree” or “strongly agree” with the following statements 0 20 40 60 80 100 Most teachers in the school strive to develop new ideas for teaching and learning Most teachers in the school provide practical support to each other for the application of new ideas Most teachers in the school search for new ways to solve problems Most teachers in the school are open to change Table I.2.35 %
  • 29. Forging a culture of collaboration and sharing 0 20 40 60 80 100 Work with other teachers in this school to ensure common standards in evaluations for assessing student progress Attend team conferences Exchange teaching materials with colleagues Engage in discussions about the learning development of specific students Observe other teachers' classes and provide feedback Engage in joint activities across different classes and age groups Participate in collaborative professional learning Teach jointly as a team in the same class At least once a month Less than once a month Never Professional collaboration Exchange and co-ordination for teaching Source: OECD, TALIS 2018 Database, Table II.4.1. Percentage of lower secondary teachers who report engaging in the following collaborative activities in their school with the following frequency (OECD average-31) %
  • 30. Teachers feel effective when they have opportunities to collaborate with peers 11.40 11.60 11.80 12.00 12.20 12.40 12.60 12.80 13.00 13.20 13.40 Never Once a year or less 2-4 times a year 5-10 times a year 1-3 times a month Once a week or more Teacher self-efficacy (level) Teach jointly as a team in the same class Observe other teachers’ classes and provide feedback Engage in joint activities across different classes Take part in collaborative professional learning More frequently Less frequently Source: OECD TALIS 2018 Database, Figure II.1.8
  • 31. Many disconnects between research, practice and policy Using education research evidence in policy and practice 8% 11% 13% 16% 21% 34% 34% 39% 47% 47% 47% 58% 66% 18% 34% 50% 21% 11% 42% 29% 42% 55% 61% 29% 61% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% Lack of willingness to use research Lack of learning opportunities Low levels of skills and capacity to use research Lack of openness to new ideas from research Low quality of research in key areas Lack of broader political will to use research Lack of relationships between different actors Lack of financial resources Lack of relevant research Low accessibility of research in appropriate formats Lack of mechanisms that facilitate the use of research Conflicting timeframes with research Lack of time to access and engage with research IN POLICY MAKING IN SCHOOL PRACTICE Source: OECD/CERI Strengthening the Impact of Education Research project policy survey Who cares about using education research in policy and practice?
  • 32. The potential of strengthening the bridges between evidence and practice 0 20 40 60 80 100 % Individual Whole Group Small Group Pairs Note: Mean proportion of the lesson segments Source: OECD, Global Teaching InSights Database, Tables 3.A.6 Classroom videos showcasing alternative structures Findings from Video Study on classroom structures
  • 33. .. and crowdsourcing insights on emerging challenges such as on empowering students on climate matters www.globalteachinginsights.org
  • 34. Schools+ timeline overview 2025 2023 Convening & collecting Identifying & recruiting members Convening Schools+ Community & Schools Learning Circle Case Study sourcing Disseminating & influencing policy Global Schools’ Council 2025 Schools Outlook Report 2024 Building evidence Toolbox of Effective Classroom Practices Knowledge Hub development
  • 35. NEW GOALS MODERNISING INNOVATION GLOBAL POTENTIAL VIRTUAL LEARNING OLD STRUCTURES DISRUPTING RISK AVOIDANCE LOCAL REALITY FACE-TO-FACE EDUCATION Assessing risks, leveraging opportunities Tensions and paradoxes require smart responses
  • 36. We look forward to building this ecosystem connect and empower all these islands of strong practice and innovation to drive education forward

Editor's Notes

  1. Education has fueled amazing progress, but it also leaves us with some fundamental disconnects. Think of the growing disconnect between the infinite growth imperative and the finite resources of our planet; between the financial economy and the real economy; between the wealthy and the poor; between the concept of our gross domestic product and the well-being of people; and between technology and social needs; And, at the same time, we know that strategic investments in education can help reduce economic inequality in the long run. In fact, one of the most powerful features of education is that it can help tackle the sources of economic inequality, and not just tinker with its consequences.
  2. At this moment, our eyes are still focused on the pandemic, which has massively disrupted education Some believe that nothing in education will be like in the days before
  3. Looking to the future, there are new sources of growth
  4. Intangibles are key in today’s economy. An example of their power is the growth of a few tech companies compared to the declining revenue of the traditional companies that dominated the Fortune 500 decades ago The great thing is that unlike tangible assets, knowledge can be used repeatedly and in multiple places at the same time, and that’s what explains the rapid growth of Big Tech companies in just a few years.
  5. Trademark applications are another way to make that push towards intengibles visible. In education, we should ask ourselves more what competences are needed for participating in an increasingly intangible economy? What knowledge, skills, attitudes and values do we need for generating new ideas and products? Or for organising and governing new ways of working and producing? And what is the role of new technologies in facilitating learning? And big tech firms are becoming important players in education, especially through the provision of digital education platforms and services. What are the implications for education governance? What kinds of (public-private) cooperation and leadership are needed to deliver public value?
  6. The way we live and work also shapes the future of education
  7. Over time, we have also seen a shift in the way we use our time towards leisure, family and political life, we ork less, even if it sometimes doesn’t quite look so. Can education help individuals, young and old, to develop the competences needed to engage meaningfully across all aspects of life? Despite an average fall in working hours, many parents across the OECD flag inconvenient timing and conflicting work hours as the main impediments for participating in school-related activities. What can schools and education systems more generally do to facilitate their participation?
  8. The way we live and work also shapes the future of education
  9. Look at the rise in monthly active users on social media platforms. Digital and physical identities are increasingly intertwining as technology permeates our daily lives. How can education support the development of identity and belonging? Public policies and social practices (think of bans, time limits) in relation to children’s use of digital technologies do not always align with evidence. How can schools and teachers disseminate evidence-informed best practice? How can they support learners and families to build digital skills and resilience?
  10. Whereas only an elite few produced traditional encyclopaedias or the mass media of the 20th century (newspapers, radio and TV), today’s social media and internet sites like Wikipedia are fed by the masses who generate the content. As you can see here, the number of pages in all wikis grew from about 10 000 to over 250 million in just 20 years.
  11. But being a digital native doesn’t mean you are digitally skilled. Here you see the share of 15-year-olds who are highly effective navigators on the internet or at least capable to actively explore information. As you see there is no country in the Western world with at least half of the student population good at navigating the digital world. Some students have limited navigation skills but often a majority did not even demonstrate basic navigation strategies. So technology seems way ahead of student capacities.
  12. And yes, AI has still many limitations, but it’s advancing fast. One of the complaints we all have today that ChatGPT doesn’t tell you where its answers come from, but that can be easily addressed with existing models, and so can accuracy.
  13. In the mid-term, AI will also get better in interpreting our questions
  14. And as the underlying models evolve in the long term, it is quite possible that AI will be able to reduce the risk that bias in training data is inherited and that interpretations are limited by the training data.
  15. Now I had already mentioned that students’ creativity and curiosity were lower among 15-year-olds than among 10-year-olds. That’s not just reflected in student self-reports, also the ratings from parents and from teachers gave a similar picture, at least in most jurisdictions, although you can see in Suzhou that the drop reported by students is much larger than what parents say. And teachers don’t seem to observe a drop. That drop in creativity could be a reflection of the fact that education systems often expect compliance from students, with the potential consequence of driving out curiosity and creativity as students grow older and stay longer in the education system.
  16. Goldin and Katz call this the race between technology and educaiton.,
  17. Schools+ is a network for those who are bringing about change in education, who are strongly committed to evidence and who are passionate about sharing and learning across borders. This can include governments, teachers, teacher and school leader representative organisations, existing school networks, evidence brokerage organisations, and organisations supporting education development such as philanthropic foundations and international organisations. It places schools – those at the forefront- at the centre of the network and aims to provide for an enabling environment where practice, research and policy can meet across borders.
  18. As a ‘network of networks’, Schools+ will serve as an enabling environment to respond to common challenges in a rapidly changing world and to build evidence and inspire change in classrooms, schools and policies towards achieving quality education, equity and well-being. The main objectives are to: 1. Foster exchange among education networks: learning with and from each other on responses to emerging challenges and on approaches to promote innovation, evaluation and scaling of effective practices. 2. Scale up schools’ learning and innovation: identifying well-tested and promising innovations that have the potential to be impactful in a larger number of schools and generating new evidence on what works in their adoption. 3. Inform policy, research and practice: leveraging schools’ innovations, learning and ideas to better inform global education debates.
  19. We have an increasingly clear picture of how important professional collaboration is and that networks of professionals can be impactful. Collaboration with colleagues allows teachers to learn from each other’s expertise, share knowledge within their professional community and, ultimately, improve the instruction and support they can give to their students.  Central to many professions is a core network of practitioners who collaborate regularly. In teaching, such professional collaboration takes the form of team teaching, providing feedback after classroom observations, engaging in joint activities across different classes, and participating in collaboration-based professional development. Teachers in OECD countries and economies in TALIS are quite likely to employ basic collaborative practices like discussing the development of specific students with colleagues (61% of teachers on average do this) and, to a lesser extent, exchanging teaching materials with colleagues (47%). However, far fewer teachers engage in the deeper forms of professional collaboration, which involve more interdependence between teachers, with only 9% of teachers saying they provide observation-based feedback to colleagues, and 21% engaging in collaborative professional learning at least once a month.
  20. Indeed, the limited nature of collaboration is particularly striking when we know that more professional collaboration is associated with greater self-efficacy. The more frequent levels of engagement on the right hand side are associated with higher levels of teacher self-efficacy.  It is why professional collaboration will be at the heart of the Schools+ Network, as the effects of professional collaboration can be wide reaching and significant for our very educational outcomes.
  21. The Schools+ Network will strive to bring the key actors and stakeholders in education closer together, to fuel growth and improvement at scale whilst drawing upon evidence of what works.    This chart shows the percentage of systems that reported the given factor as a barrier to using education research in policy and practice. The OECD/CERI Strengthening the Impact of Education Research project collected data from 37 systems representing 29 countries. The survey mapped the various mechanisms, actors and relationships that facilitate research use, as well as the barriers to using research.  It captures that there is room to grow in better connecting stakeholders around evidence to fuel evidence-informed practice at scale. For instance, 61% of respondents reported a lack of mechanisms that facilitate the use of research in practice as a barrier. There are also important questions of access to research evidence and the skills and capacity for actioning this.
  22. By strengthening the links between research and practice in schools, educators gain access to evidence-based strategies and interventions that can significantly enhance teaching methodologies and student learning outcomes. At the same time, researchers can provide valuable insights of what lies behind those successful practices. An example is the Global Teaching InSights. The OECD Video Study analysed classroom videos, teaching materials, teacher and students surveys, and student tests to better understand what practices are most related to student learning. One of the findings was that whole group instruction, or frontal teaching, was the prevailing classroom structure in 9 out of 10 classrooms. While prevailing, there were also examples from teachers teaching the the same topic through alternative classroom structures such as small groups or pairs. So, we paired researchers with educators to look into those examples and provide insight on the critical teaching decisions behind. Most research provides us with a still picture – something work or doesn’t work. But, we don’t know much about the mechanisms behind. In the work of the Schools+ Network in building a Toolbox of Effective Classroom practices, we want to engage schools to better understand those mechanisms that make a difference in the implementation and scaling of evidence-based practices.
  23. As innovation is increasingly coming from the ground, we need to be better at identifying, capturing and scaling those promising responses to common and emerging challenges. We have learnt in the Global Teaching that schools also have a lot to say. Climate education is a good example. Transforming how our next generation thinks and acts about the environment and the world requires profound changes in teaching and learning. And that is why the OECD, UNESCO and Education International ran a joint initiative to gather teacher expertise on what makes a difference in student agency to act and lead on climate matters.  Overall, about 850 teachers actively contributed to their initiatives or insights to this initiative which you can see in the screenshots.
  24. In the next two years, the Schools+ Network will be working on: Provide opportunities to discuss on emerging challenges, starting this afternoon on generative AI in the classroom. Engage schools in the discussion of research evidence and what can work at scale to develop a Toolbox of Effective Classroom Practices.
  25. You can help governments navigate the risks and leveraging the opportunities. What is the right balance between modernising and disruption. How do we reconcile new goals with old structures How do we support globally minded and locally rooted students and teachers How do we foster innovation while recognising the socially highly conservative nature of education How do we leverage potential with existing capacity How do we reconfigure the spaces, the people, the time and the technologies to create powerful learning environments. Again, this is not a government project, this is a whole of society project and I believe the philantrophic sector can make such a difference.
  26. So we arrive at this key point, of how can we connect and empower all these islands of strong practice and innovation to drive the education transformation? I am so grateful to have so many leading networks and thinkers in this room, to connect and learn together, as we collectively pursue the challenges that are put forward to our education systems by our complex and unpredictable world. Thank you for joining us, thank you for sharing your ideas and supporting our work, and I look forward to seeing you soon and exploring this new era of education together.