The determinants of qualityhigher education systems: the        U21 Rankings                  Ross Williams             Ga...
Purpose of a Higher Education                System• Economic development depends on an  educated and skilled workforce, a...
Conceptual Building Blocks  R+EC+O   R: Resources   E: Environment   C: Connectivity   O: Output
Environment• Governance (management, autonomy,  accountability)• Diversity (public/private, missions)• Meets needs of comp...
Governance: U21 QuestionnaireAccountability• Is there a national regulatory body (bodies)for higher  education (public and...
Ranking on EnvironmentTop 4               Bottom 4•   Netherlands     •   India•   New Zealand     •   South Africa•   Uni...
Connectivity• Domestic: private funding of research, joint  publications with industry, input into public  policy• Interna...
The state variables: Resources• R1: Government expenditure on tertiary     education as a percentage of GDP• R2: Total exp...
Output• Research  – Articles: total and per head of population  – Average impact of articles• Universities  – Depth of wor...
Rankings for resources and output   Resources     Output   Canada        USA   Denmark       UK   Sweden        Canada   U...
State variables determine outputO = -34.36 + 0.536 R + 0.465 E (R2 = 0.610)    (15.14) (0.083) (0.187)O = -13.28 + 0.715 R...
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The determinants of quality higher education systems: the U21 Rankings - Ross Williams, Gaetan de Rassenfosse, Paul Jensen, Simon Marginson

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The determinants of quality higher education systems: the U21 Rankings - Ross Williams, Gaetan de Rassenfosse, Paul Jensen, Simon Marginson

  1. 1. The determinants of qualityhigher education systems: the U21 Rankings Ross Williams Gaetan de Rassenfosse Paul Jensen Simon Marginson University of Melbourne for Universitas 21
  2. 2. Purpose of a Higher Education System• Economic development depends on an educated and skilled workforce, and technological improvements that raise productivity• Higher education system meets these needs through education, training and research• International links important for transfer of new discoveries, trade and cultural ties
  3. 3. Conceptual Building Blocks R+EC+O R: Resources E: Environment C: Connectivity O: Output
  4. 4. Environment• Governance (management, autonomy, accountability)• Diversity (public/private, missions)• Meets needs of competitive economy (WEF)• Equal opportunity (gender, socio-economic)• Quality data for monitoring
  5. 5. Governance: U21 QuestionnaireAccountability• Is there a national regulatory body (bodies)for higher education (public and private)?• Are the results made public?Autonomy• Are academics in public institutions government employees?• Degree of freedom for academics to move across institutions• Ease with which foreign academics can be employed.Management• Degree of independence in appointing the CEO
  6. 6. Ranking on EnvironmentTop 4 Bottom 4• Netherlands • India• New Zealand • South Africa• United States • Turkey• Hong Kong SAR • Greece
  7. 7. Connectivity• Domestic: private funding of research, joint publications with industry, input into public policy• International: students and joint authorship
  8. 8. The state variables: Resources• R1: Government expenditure on tertiary education as a percentage of GDP• R2: Total expenditure on tertiary education as a percentage of GDP• R3: Total expenditure per student• R4: Expenditure in tertiary institutions for R&D as a percentage of GDP• R5: Expenditure in tertiary institutions for R&D per head of population
  9. 9. Output• Research – Articles: total and per head of population – Average impact of articles• Universities – Depth of world class institutions – Excellence of 3 best universities• Participation – Enrolment rates – Percent population with tertiary qualification• Meeting national needs – Researchers per head of population – Unemployment rate of tertiary educated
  10. 10. Rankings for resources and output Resources Output Canada USA Denmark UK Sweden Canada USA Finland Norway Sweden Finland Denmark Switzerland Australia Singapore Switzerland
  11. 11. State variables determine outputO = -34.36 + 0.536 R + 0.465 E (R2 = 0.610) (15.14) (0.083) (0.187)O = -13.28 + 0.715 R3 + 0.282 E (R2 = 0.824) (11.28) (0.063) (0.143) O = Output; R = Resources; E = Environment R3 = Funding per student

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