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The Community College Role in Access and Success for all Students by Thomas Bailey (Columbia University)

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This presentation was given by Thomas Bailey of the Community College Research Center, Teachers College, Columbia University at the international seminar “Equity and quality on higher education: from the right of access to the challenge of graduation” on 17-18 June 2016 in Santiago, Chile.

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The Community College Role in Access and Success for all Students by Thomas Bailey (Columbia University)

  1. 1. EQUITY AND QUALITY ON HIGHER EDUCATION / MARCH 18, 2016 1 COMMUNITY COLLEGE RESEARCH CENTER MARCH 18, 2016 Thomas Bailey Director, Community College Research Center Teachers College, Columbia University Equity and Quality on higher education: from the right of access to the challenge of graduation Santiago, Chile March, 18 2016 The Community College Role in Access and Success for all Students
  2. 2. EQUITY AND QUALITY ON HIGHER EDUCATION / MARCH 18, 2016 3 COMMUNITY COLLEGE RESEARCH CENTER • Types of programs – Short term skill building – “Terminal” 2 year occupational degrees – Transfer to bachelors degrees • Designed to promote access--successful – Low cost – Widely located – Flexible schedule—accommodate employment Community College Basics
  3. 3. EQUITY AND QUALITY ON HIGHER EDUCATION / MARCH 18, 2016 4 COMMUNITY COLLEGE RESEARCH CENTER 45% 55% Almost half of all undergraduates are enrolled at community colleges CCRC Summary of Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), 12-month unduplicated headcount: 2013-14 Undergraduates NOT at community colleges Undergraduates at community colleges
  4. 4. EQUITY AND QUALITY ON HIGHER EDUCATION / MARCH 18, 2016 5 COMMUNITY COLLEGE RESEARCH CENTER More than one-third of community college students are age 25 or above Community Colleges Public 4-year CCRC Summary of Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Fall Enrollment: Fall 2014 19 or Under, 32% 20-24, 32% 25-29, 13% 30 or Older, 24% 19 or Under, 33% 20-24, 50% 25-29, 8% 30 or Older, 9%
  5. 5. EQUITY AND QUALITY ON HIGHER EDUCATION / MARCH 18, 2016 6 COMMUNITY COLLEGE RESEARCH CENTER 37% 33% 24% 24% 18% 22% 21% 16% 15% 15% 15% 16% 13% 14% 16% 16% 18% 21% 21% 21% 9% 11% 25% 26% 30% Community Colleges Public Baccalaureate Private Baccalaureate Public Research & Doctoral Private Research & Doctoral Bottom SES Fourth SES Quintlie Third SES Quintlie Second SES Quintile Top SES Quintile Socioeconomic distribution at colleges by institutional type, 2011-12 CCRC Analysis using National Postsecondary Student Aid Study: 2012 Undergraduates (PowerStats); Income Quintile is based on 2012 household income as reported by the U.S. Census Bureau https://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/data/historical/household/ (Table H-1). Both dependent and independent students are combined.
  6. 6. EQUITY AND QUALITY ON HIGHER EDUCATION / MARCH 18, 2016 7 COMMUNITY COLLEGE RESEARCH CENTER 50%50% About a half of all Black and Hispanic undergraduates are enrolled at community colleges Black & Hispanic undergraduates NOT at community colleges Black & Hispanic undergraduates at community colleges CCRC Summary of Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), 12-month unduplicated headcount: 2013-14
  7. 7. EQUITY AND QUALITY ON HIGHER EDUCATION / MARCH 18, 2016 8 COMMUNITY COLLEGE RESEARCH CENTER • Value of an Associates Degree Compared to High School Degree – Average 13% for Males – Average 20% for Females – But differs by field (Associate of Arts or General Studies mainly valuable for transfer) • Benefits to Society Exceed Costs – Economic Growth – Health – Welfare Receipt – Reduced Crime A good investment for students and society
  8. 8. EQUITY AND QUALITY ON HIGHER EDUCATION / MARCH 18, 2016 9 COMMUNITY COLLEGE RESEARCH CENTER $3,435 $9,410 $32,405 $15,610 Public 2-year (In- State) Public 4-year (In- State) Private non-Profit Private for-Profit Average Published Tuition and Fees (Enrollment- Weighted) for Full-Time Undergraduates by Sector, 2015-16 Source: CollegeBoard, “Trends in College Pricing”, Table 1A
  9. 9. EQUITY AND QUALITY ON HIGHER EDUCATION / MARCH 18, 2016 10 COMMUNITY COLLEGE RESEARCH CENTER 58% 76% 51% 70% 38% 36% 38% 64% 22% 21% 12% 5% 21% 58% 13% 3% Public 4-year Private nonprofit 4- year Public 2-year Private for profit Any Grant Federal Grant State Grant Institutional Grant Percent of Undergraduates who Received Grant Aid by Institutional Type and Source, 2011-12 Source: National Postsecondary Student Aid Study, 2011-12 Note: “Any Grant” includes grants from Federal, State, Institution, and other private sources.
  10. 10. EQUITY AND QUALITY ON HIGHER EDUCATION / MARCH 18, 2016 11 COMMUNITY COLLEGE RESEARCH CENTER $5,000 $11,492 $2,775 $3,320 $4,163 $4,163 $2,775 $3,075 $2,406 $2,808 $1,200 $1,400 $2,500 $11,000 $687 $1,200 Public 4-year Private nonprofit 4- year Public 2-year Private for profit Any Grant Federal Grant State Grant Institutional Grant Median Grant Aid Amount Received by Undergraduates by Institutional Type and Source, 2011-12 Source: National Postsecondary Student Aid Study, 2011-12 Note: “Any Grant” includes grants from Federal, State, Institution, and other private sources.
  11. 11. EQUITY AND QUALITY ON HIGHER EDUCATION / MARCH 18, 2016 12 COMMUNITY COLLEGE RESEARCH CENTER 50% 62% 18% 73% 48% 60% 17% 71% 7% 12% 2% 12% Public 4-year Private nonprofit 4- year Public 2-year Private for profit Any Loan Federal Loan Private Loan Percent of Undergraduates with Loans by Institutional Type and Funding Source, 2011-12 Source: National Postsecondary Student Aid Study, 2011-12 Note: “Any Loan” equal to the sum of all federal loans to students, state loans, institutional loans, and other private commercial or alternative loans. Does not include Direct PLUS loans to parents.
  12. 12. EQUITY AND QUALITY ON HIGHER EDUCATION / MARCH 18, 2016 13 COMMUNITY COLLEGE RESEARCH CENTER $6,500 $7,500 $4,125 $7,656 $6,468 $6,500 $4,113 $7,000 $4,000 $5,500 $2,000 $4,502 Public 4-year Private nonprofit 4- year Public 2-year Private for profit Total loans Total federal loans Private (alternative) loans Median Loan Amount Received by Undergraduates by Institutional Type and Source, 2011-12 Source: National Postsecondary Student Aid Study, 2011-12 Note: “Total Loan” is equal to the sum of all federal loans to students, state loans, institutional loans, and other private commercial or alternative loans. Does not include Direct PLUS loans to parents. $0 excluded from median calculation.
  13. 13. EQUITY AND QUALITY ON HIGHER EDUCATION / MARCH 18, 2016 14 COMMUNITY COLLEGE RESEARCH CENTER Per-pupil total operating and education & related expenditures (i.e., excluding sponsored research & auxiliary enterprise), AY 2011 Desrochers, D. M., & Hurlburt, S. (2011). Trends in College Spending 2001–2011 (Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research), figure S2, 19–21. $67,359 $37,408 $21,130 $19,377 $12,918 $35,059 $21,677 $16,009 $13,081 $9,550 Private Research Sector Private Bachelor's Sector Public Research Sector Public Bachelor's Sector Public Community College Sector Total Operating Education & Related
  14. 14. EQUITY AND QUALITY ON HIGHER EDUCATION / MARCH 18, 2016 15 COMMUNITY COLLEGE RESEARCH CENTER Changes in total operating spending per student over time, AY 2001–2011 Desrochers, D. M., & Hurlburt, S. (2011). Trends in College Spending 2001–2011 (Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research), figure S2, 19–21. Data Shown in 2011 Dollars. $11,538 $2,780 $(118) $(322) $(904) $9,304 $991 $349 ($1,097) ($1,427) Private Research Sector Public Research Sector Private Bachelor's Sector Public Bachelor's Sector Public Community College Sector Total Operating Education & Related
  15. 15. EQUITY AND QUALITY ON HIGHER EDUCATION / MARCH 18, 2016 16 COMMUNITY COLLEGE RESEARCH CENTER Slightly more than one third of community college students earn a degree in 6 years 36% 20% 44% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Earned a degree at any institution Still enrolled at an institution Not enrolled Shapiro et al. (2014). Completing College: A National View of Student Attainment Rates. National Student Clearinghouse Research Center.
  16. 16. EQUITY AND QUALITY ON HIGHER EDUCATION / MARCH 18, 2016 17 COMMUNITY COLLEGE RESEARCH CENTER •More than 60 % assigned to remediation –Only about 40% of those complete remediation •80% state that they want to transfer and get a bachelor’s degree (four year degree) –Only 30 % transfer –15 % complete a BA Overall Weak Student Outcomes
  17. 17. EQUITY AND QUALITY ON HIGHER EDUCATION / MARCH 18, 2016 18 COMMUNITY COLLEGE RESEARCH CENTER EQUITY AND QUALITY ON HIGHER EDUCATION / MARCH 18, 2016COMMUNITY COLLEGE RESEARCH CENTER Redesigning America’s Community Colleges A Clearer Path to Student Success Thomas Bailey, Director, CCRC Shanna Jaggars, Asst. Director, CCRC Davis Jenkins, Sr. Research Associate, CCRC
  18. 18. EQUITY AND QUALITY ON HIGHER EDUCATION / MARCH 18, 2016 19 COMMUNITY COLLEGE RESEARCH CENTER MARCH 18, 2016 Please visit us on the web at http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu where you can download presentations, reports, and briefs, and sign-up for news announcements. We’re also on Facebook and Twitter. Community College Research Center Teachers College, Columbia University 525 West 120th Street, Box 174, New York, NY 10027 E-mail: ccrc@columbia.edu Telephone: 212.678.3091 For more information @CommunityCCRC #RedesigningCCs

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