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TALIS 2018 - Teachers and school leaders as lifelong learners (Washington, DC)

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Do teachers spend more time on actual teaching and learning in a typical lesson compared to previous years? Do they feel prepared to teach when they start teaching? What sort of continuous professional development programmes do they participate in and how does it impact their practice? This report looks first at how teachers apply their knowledge and skills in the classroom in the form of teaching practices, with an accompanying assessment of the demographic makeup of those classrooms and the school climate to provide context on learning environments. The volume then assesses the ways in which teachers acquired their knowledge and skills during their early education and training, as well as the steps they take to develop them through continuous professional development over the course of their career. Based on the voice of teachers and school leaders, the report offers a series of policy orientations to help strengthen the knowledge and skills of the teaching workforce to support its professionalism.The OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) is the largest international survey asking teachers and school leaders about their working conditions and learning environments, and provides a barometer of the profession every five years. Results from the 2018 cycle explore and examine the various dimensions of teacher and school leader professionalism across education systems.

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TALIS 2018 - Teachers and school leaders as lifelong learners (Washington, DC)

  1. 1. TALIS 2018 TEACHERS AND SCHOOL LEADERS AS LIFELONG LEARNERS Andreas Schleicher, Washington DC, 19 June 2019
  2. 2. What is TALIS? The largest international survey examining teaching and learning environments in schools. Asks teachers and school leaders about their work, their schools and their classrooms with 48 education systems covered TALIS options: Some countries also surveyed their primary and upper secondary teachers and some conducted TALIS in PISA schools 3 surveys to date: 2008: 24 education systems 2013: 38 education systems 2018: 48 education systems from all continents
  3. 3. TALIS-participating countries and economies *Note: TALIS is administered for a sub-national entity only in the following countries: Argentina (Buenos Aires), Canada (Alberta), China (Shanghai) and the United Kingdom (England). This map is for illustrative purposes and is without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory covered by this map. TALIS 2008 and 2013-14 TALIS 2018 new systems TALIS 2008 70,000 teachers in 4,500 schools TALIS 2013 150,000 teachers in 9,500 schools TALIS 2018 260,000 teachers in 15,000 schools representing more than 8 millions teachers across 48 countries
  4. 4. The context The quality of a school system cannot exceed the quality of its teachers and principals… …and the quality of teachers and principals cannot exceed the quality of their education, their opportunities to collaborate and develop and the quality of their working conditions.
  5. 5. Teacher professionalism Five pillars in TALIS Professionalism Knowledge and skills Career opportunities Collaborative culture Responsibility and autonomy Prestige
  6. 6. Teacher professionalism Five pillars in TALIS Professionalism Knowledge and skills Career opportunities Collaborative culture Responsibility and autonomy Prestige
  7. 7. WHO ARE THE TEACHERS AND PRINCIPALS ?
  8. 8. Making a difference…
  9. 9. Teachers joined the profession because… 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Teaching allowed me to influence the development of children and young people Teaching allowed me to provide a contribution to society Teaching allowed me to benefit the socially disadvantaged Teaching was a secure job Teaching provided a reliable income The teaching schedule fit with responsibilities in my personal life Teaching offered a steady career path OECD average-31 United States Percentage of teachers who report that the following elements were of "moderate" or "high" importance in becoming a teacher % Fig I.4.1
  10. 10. Teachers joined the profession to… 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Teaching allowed me to influence the development of children and young people Teaching allowed me to provide a contribution to society Teaching allowed me to benefit the socially disadvantaged Teaching was a secure job Teaching provided a reliable income The teaching schedule fit with responsibilities in my personal life Teaching offered a steady career path OECD average-31 United States Percentage of teachers who report that the following elements were of "moderate" or "high" importance in becoming a teacher % Fig I.4.1 In nearly all countries teachers with higher values on the social utility index report greater commitment and tend to participate more in professional development activities after controlling for teachers’ characteristics.
  11. 11. A first choice ?
  12. 12. 0 20 40 60 80 100 VietNam Georgia Shanghai(China) Portugal SaudiArabia Slovenia Japan Korea Lithuania Hungary UnitedArabEmirates Kazakhstan Romania Latvia Flemish(Belgium) Russia Bulgaria Singapore Malta France Belgium CzechRepublic Alberta(Canada) Colombia Croatia OECDaverage-31 Chile Austria Brazil Italy Turkey Estonia SlovakRepublic Iceland Denmark Spain Israel Norway Mexico Finland Sweden UnitedStates England(UK) Australia NewZealand Netherlands CABA(Argentina) SouthAfrica Female teachers Male teachers Percentage of teachers for whom teaching was their first choice as a career % Table I.4.4 A first choice ?
  13. 13. Highest educational attainment of teachers 0 20 40 60 80 100 SlovakRepublic Portugal CzechRepublic Finland Croatia Italy Georgia Russia Bulgaria Estonia France Slovenia Sweden Latvia UnitedStates Colombia Israel OECDaverage-31 Austria Romania Netherlands Korea Lithuania Hungary Norway UnitedArabEmirates Iceland England(UK) Malta Mexico Singapore CABA(Argentina) Alberta(Canada) Chile NewZealand Belgium Shanghai(China) Japan Flemish(Belgium) Denmark Turkey Brazil SaudiArabia Kazakhstan SouthAfrica VietNam Australia Below ISCED level 5 ISCED level 5 ISCED level 6 ISCED level 7 ISCED level 8% Fig I.4.3 Percentage of teachers, by highest level of formal education completed Masters-level
  14. 14. WHAT DO THEY DO?
  15. 15. Teachers' self-efficacy 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Make my expectations about student behaviour clear Get students to follow classroom rules Control disruptive behaviour in the classroom Calm a student who is disruptive or noisy Provide an alternative explanation Craft good questions for students Vary instructional strategies in my classroom Use a variety of assessment strategies Get students to believe they can do well in school work Help students value learning Help students think critically Motivate students who show low interest in school work Support student learning through the use of ICT Instruction Student engagement Enhanced activities United States Percentage of teachers who feel they can do the following "quite a bit" or "a lot“ Classroom management % Fig I.2.7
  16. 16. Teachers’ assessment practices 0 20 40 60 80 100 Observe students when working on particular tasks and provide immediate feedback Administer own assessment Provide written feedback on student work in addition to a mark Let students evaluate their own progress OECD average-31 United States Percentage of teachers who “frequently” or “always” use the following assessment methods in their class % Fig I.2.3
  17. 17. Teachers’ views on colleagues’ attitudes towards innovation 0 20 40 60 80 100 Georgia VietNam Shanghai(China) Bulgaria UnitedArabEmirates Lithuania Latvia Romania SaudiArabia Kazakhstan Russia Estonia Norway SlovakRepublic Hungary Brazil Slovenia Turkey Alberta(Canada) SouthAfrica Iceland Denmark Colombia Mexico England(UK) CABA(Argentina) Sweden Singapore Australia OECDaverage-31 NewZealand Chile Austria Croatia UnitedStates Japan Israel Italy Korea France Spain Finland CzechRepublic Netherlands Malta Flemish(Belgium) Belgium Portugal Fig I.2.12 Percentage of teachers who “agree” or “strongly agree” that most teachers in the school are open to change%
  18. 18. Teachers’ working hours spent on teaching and use of class time during a typical lesson Average number of working hours (i.e. 60 minutes) teachers report having spent on teaching during the most recent complete calendar week 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Chile UnitedStates Alberta(Canada) Colombia SouthAfrica Turkey Russia UnitedArabEmirates Mexico Brazil Israel Hungary Latvia Estonia Finland SaudiArabia OECDaverage-31 NewZealand England(UK) Portugal SlovakRepublic Australia Bulgaria Iceland Croatia Spain Slovenia Denmark Austria CzechRepublic Lithuania Malta Sweden Belgium Flemish(Belgium) France Georgia Korea VietNam Japan Singapore Cyprus Netherlands ChineseTaipei Romania CABA(Argentina) Italy Norway Kazakhstan Other tasks Administrative tasks Keeping order in the classroom Actual teaching and learning Hours per week Table I.2.27 and I.2.10
  19. 19. 80 85 90 95 100 Most teachers believe that the students’ well-being is important Teachers and students usually get on well with each other Most teachers are interested in what students have to say If a student needs extra assistance, the school provides it Teachers can rely on each other OECD average-31 United States Percentage of teachers who "agree" or "strongly agree" with the following statements about what happens in their school % Table I.3.46 Teachers and students usually get on well with each other…
  20. 20. Fig I.3.12 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Intimidation or bullying among students A student or parent/guardian reports unwanted electronic contact among students Intimidation or verbal abuse of teachers or staff Vandalism and theft A student or parent/guardian reports postings of hurtful information on the Internet about students Physical injury caused by violence among students Use/possession of drugs and/or alcohol OECD average-30 United States Percentage of principals reporting that the following incidents occurred at least weekly in their school % Disruptive incidents
  21. 21. Bullying 0 5 10 15 England(UK) UnitedStates Flemish(Belgium) Belgium Malta Netherlands Sweden NewZealand France Alberta(Canada) Singapore Austria CABA(Argentina) Mexico OECDaverage-30 Brazil Hungary SouthAfrica Colombia Israel Estonia Romania Spain Iceland Norway Italy Croatia UnitedArabEmirates Slovenia Japan SaudiArabia Latvia Georgia CzechRepublic Bulgaria Turkey Denmark Finland Portugal Russia Lithuania Chile Korea Kazakhstan SlovakRepublic VietNam Shanghai(China) Percentage of principals reporting that “a student or parent/guardian reports postings of hurtful information on the Internet about students” occurred at least weekly in their school% Fig I.3.8
  22. 22. 50 60 70 80 90 Russia Estonia VietNam Shanghai(China) Lithuania Georgia Latvia Bulgaria CzechRepublic Croatia Norway Sweden Denmark Romania Alberta(Canada) Slovenia Hungary SlovakRepublic England(UK) Finland Kazakhstan UnitedStates Japan OECDaverage-31 Italy Australia NewZealand CABA(Argentina) Austria Korea Mexico UnitedArabEmirates Spain Colombia Malta Israel France Iceland Flemish(Belgium) Singapore Portugal Turkey Belgium Netherlands Chile Brazil SouthAfrica SaudiArabia Share of classroom time spent on teaching Average proportion of time teachers spend on actual teaching and learning in a typical lesson % Fig I.2.5 13% spent on keeping order and 8% on admin
  23. 23. Novice teachers feel less prepared to control disruptive behaviour 50 60 70 80 90 100 Portugal Colombia Denmark VietNam Netherlands Flemish(Belgium) Hungary Italy UnitedArabEmirates Shanghai(China) Brazil SaudiArabia Turkey CABA(Argentina) Romania Lithuania SouthAfrica Iceland Austria Mexico Alberta(Canada) England(UK) Chile Georgia Latvia OECDaverage-31 Belgium Bulgaria NewZealand Slovenia Israel UnitedStates CzechRepublic Malta Finland Australia Korea Croatia Sweden Estonia Singapore Norway Spain SlovakRepublic Kazakhstan France Japan Novice teachers Experienced teachers Percentage of teachers who feel "quite a bit" or "a lot" that they can control disruptive behaviour in the classroom % Fig I.2.8
  24. 24. 0 20 40 60 80 100 VietNam Georgia Kazakhstan UnitedArabEmirates Shanghai(China) SouthAfrica Russia Korea SaudiArabia Colombia Lithuania Latvia Italy Brazil Mexico Romania Turkey Estonia Hungary Netherlands Bulgaria Israel UnitedStates Croatia Singapore Chile Norway OECDaverage-31 Japan Spain England(UK) NewZealand Malta Slovenia Flemish(Belgium) CzechRepublic Alberta(Canada) Australia Portugal Sweden CABA(Argentina) Belgium Iceland Austria SlovakRepublic Denmark Finland France Novice teachers Experienced teachers Percentage of teachers for whom student behaviour and classroom management were included in their professional development activities, by teachers' teaching experience % Fig I.5.9 Training in student behaviour and classroom management
  25. 25. Teachers with some classroom management training feel more confident 0.0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 SouthAfrica Colombia Romania Shanghai(China) UnitedArabEmirates Brazil Mexico England(UK) Belgium Hungary Lithuania Italy Japan Kazakhstan SaudiArabia Spain Iceland NewZealand Chile SlovakRepublic CABA(Argentina) Australia OECDaverage-31 Finland Portugal Israel Sweden VietNam Croatia Georgia Korea CzechRepublic Bulgaria Turkey Slovenia Estonia Singapore France Flemish(Belgium) Norway Alberta(Canada) Latvia Austria Denmark Netherlands UnitedStates Malta Change in the index of self-efficacy in classroom management associated with being trained in classroom management Regression coefficient (β) Fig I.4.6
  26. 26. 50 60 70 80 90 More than 30% Fewer than or equal to 30% Under age 30 Age 50 and above Novice Experienced United States By concentration of students from socio- economically disadvantaged homes By age By teaching experience Time on teaching, by school environment Average proportion of time teachers spend on actual teaching and learning in a typical classroom, by teacher and school characteristics % Fig I.2.5
  27. 27. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Fewer than or equal to 30% More than 30% OECD average-31 United States By concentration of students from socio- economically disadvantaged homes Percentage of novice teachers, by socio-economic composition of schools % Fig I.4.9 Alignment of resources with needs
  28. 28. HOW ARE THEY PREPARED ?
  29. 29. Sense of preparedness: United States 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Content of some or all subject(s) taught General pedagogy Pedagogy of some or all subject(s) taught Classroom practice in some or all subject(s) taught Student behaviour and classroom management Monitoring students’ development and learning Teaching cross-curricular skills Teaching in a mixed ability setting Use of ICT for teaching Teaching in a multicultural or multilingual setting Element was included in formal education or training Well or "very well" prepared for the element % Percentage of teachers for whom the following elements were included in their formal education or training and for which they feel “well” or “very well” prepared Fig I.4.4
  30. 30. 0 20 40 60 80 100 Georgia CABA(Argentina) Estonia Hungary Lithuania Latvia Brazil Portugal Norway Chile Iceland Belgium Spain Denmark Mexico Sweden Slovenia Finland Bulgaria Netherlands Austria Kazakhstan Flemish(Belgium) Russia VietNam Croatia OECDaverage-31 CzechRepublic SlovakRepublic Italy Israel Malta Korea Colombia Romania SaudiArabia France SouthAfrica Alberta(Canada) UnitedArabEmirates UnitedStates Australia Turkey Singapore NewZealand England(UK) Japan Shanghai(China) Many teachers enter the profession with no induction Percentage of teachers who did not take part in any induction activities during their first employment % Table I.4.38
  31. 31. -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 SaudiArabia UnitedArabEmirates CABA(Argentina) Spain Chile Romania France England(UK) Shanghai(China) Latvia Estonia Belgium Kazakhstan Croatia CzechRepublic Finland VietNam Netherlands Hungary Israel Turkey Mexico Malta Italy Brazil Slovenia OECDaverage-31 SlovakRepublic Sweden Lithuania Australia Portugal Korea Colombia Denmark Flemish(Belgium) NewZealand Georgia Alberta(Canada) SouthAfrica Iceland Norway Bulgaria Austria Japan Singapore UnitedStates Change in the index of self-efficacy associated with having participated in induction activities at current school Regression coefficient (β) Fig I.4.11 Induction and self-efficacy
  32. 32. Mentoring 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 UnitedArabEmirates SouthAfrica Kazakhstan Singapore Brazil NewZealand Shanghai(China) Japan Israel Australia UnitedStates SaudiArabia VietNam England(UK) Netherlands Colombia Russia Alberta(Canada) Flemish(Belgium) Mexico Georgia Korea Malta OECDaverage-31 CzechRepublic Portugal Belgium Iceland Bulgaria Romania Turkey SlovakRepublic Sweden Hungary Chile Norway Denmark CABA(Argentina) Latvia France Estonia Finland Austria Croatia Spain Italy Lithuania Slovenia Novice teachers Experienced teachers Percentage of teachers who have an assigned mentor as part of a formal arrangement at the school, by teachers' teaching experience % Fig I.4.14
  33. 33. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 To support less experienced teachers in their teaching To improve teachers' pedagogical competence To improve teachers' collaboration with colleagues To strengthen teachers' professional identity To improve students' general performance To expand teachers' main subject(s) knowledge OECD average-30 United States Intended outcomes of mentoring Percentage of principals reporting that the following outcomes of mentoring are of "high" importance (OECD average-30) % Fig I.4.13
  34. 34. Barriers to participation in professional development Percentage of teachers reporting the following barriers to their participation in professional development % 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Professional development conflicts with the teacher's work schedule There are no incentives for participating in professional development Professional development is too expensive There is no relevant professional development offered Do not have time because of family responsibilities There is a lack of employer support Do not have the pre-requisites OECD average-31 United States Fig I.5.14
  35. 35. HOW DO THEY KEEP UP TO DATE?
  36. 36. 80 85 90 95 100 Lithuania Shanghai(China) Australia Austria Alberta(Canada) Latvia NewZealand Singapore Slovenia Kazakhstan Netherlands Russia Croatia UnitedStates Korea Estonia UnitedArabEmirates CzechRepublic Flemish(Belgium) England(UK) VietNam Israel Bulgaria Iceland Sweden Hungary OECDaverage-31 Belgium Norway Turkey Georgia Italy Finland CABA(Argentina) Denmark SlovakRepublic Spain Malta Colombia SouthAfrica Mexico Japan Romania Portugal Brazil Chile SaudiArabia France Fig I.5.1 Participation in professional development activities Percentage of teachers who participated in professional development activities in the 12 months prior to the survey%
  37. 37. SOME CHALLENGES
  38. 38. Fig I.3.6 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 More than 10% of students have special needs At least 1% of students are refugees More than 10% of students have a first language different from the language(s) of instruction More than 30% of students come from socio-economically disadvantaged homes OECD average-30 United States Percentage of teachers teaching in schools with the following composition % Diversity in schools
  39. 39. Concentration of language learners 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Singapore SouthAfrica Sweden Austria Alberta(Canada) UnitedArabEmirates Flemish(Belgium) Bulgaria England(UK) Belgium Iceland Italy NewZealand Denmark Netherlands Israel UnitedStates Latvia VietNam Norway Spain Turkey OECDaverage-30 Malta Finland Kazakhstan France Slovenia Estonia Russia SlovakRepublic Croatia Georgia Romania CABA(Argentina) Portugal Lithuania SaudiArabia Colombia Mexico Chile CzechRepublic Japan Korea Hungary Brazil Shanghai(China) Percentage of teachers teaching in schools with more than 10% of students whose first language is different from the language(s) of instruction% Fig I.3.8
  40. 40. Teachers' self-efficacy in multicultural classes 0 20 40 60 80 100 Reduce ethnic stereotyping amongst students Ensure that students with and without a migrant background work together Raise awareness of cultural differences amongst students Cope with the challenges of a multicultural classroom OECD average-31 United States Percentage of teachers who feel they can do the following "quite a bit" or "a lot" in teaching a culturally diverse class% Fig I.3.11
  41. 41. What principals see as hindering quality instruction 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Shortage of support personnel Shortage of teachers with competence in special needs students Shortage or inadequacy of time for instructional leadership Shortage or inadequacy of physical infrastructure Shortage or inadequacy of time with students Shortage or inadequacy of instructional space Shortage or inadequacy of digital technology for instruction Shortage of qualified teachers Shortage of teachers with competence in a multicultural setting Insufficient Internet access Shortage or inadequacy of necessary materials to train vocational skills Shortage of teachers with competence in disadvantaged students Shortage or inadequacy of library materials Shortage of vocational teachers Shortage or inadequacy of instructional materials OECD average-30 United States Percentage of principals reporting that the following shortages of resources hinder the school's capacity to provide quality instruction "quite a bit" or "a lot" % Figure I.3.15
  42. 42. WHAT TEACHERS THINK GOVERNMENT SHOULD DO
  43. 43. Teachers’ views on spending priorities 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Reducing class sizes by recruiting more staff Improving teacher salaries Offering high quality professional development for teachers Reducing teachers’ administration load by recruiting more support staff Improving school buildings and facilities Supporting students with special needs Investing in ICT Supporting students from disadvantaged or migrant backgrounds Investing in instructional materials OECD average-31 United States Percentage of teachers who reported the following spending priorities to be of “high importance” % Fig I.3.16
  44. 44. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Percentageofteachersreporting improvingteacherssalariesasa spendingpriority Teachers’ statutory salaries relative to earnings of tertiary –educated workers United States Italy Korea Improving teacher salaries Improving teacher salaries as a highly-important spending priority for lower secondary teachers and lower secondary teachers' statutory salaries of teachers with 15 years of experience Below the OECD average Above the OECD average Denmark Mexico Austria Finland England (UK) Chile Czech Republic Flemish (Belgium) Lithuania Portugal
  45. 45. POLICY IMPLICATIONS OF TALIS 2018 RESULTS
  46. 46. • Review Initial Teacher Preparation • Review allocation of new and experienced teachers to difficult schools • Foster support mechanisms for new teachers – induction and mentoring especially • Encourage collaboration and team-teaching for new teachers and pair them with more experienced teachers to learn from in classroom management especially • Review professional development offer to respond to teachers needs and emerging trends • Review the administrative burden and how to alleviate it • Encourage and empower teachers to innovate • Support and empower teachers and school leaders to make the most of diversity in schools • Incentivise participation in professional development Implications for policy
  47. 47. 73 Empower teachers and school leaders as agents of change Attract quality teachers and school leaders Provide high-quality initial education Support the professional growth of teachers and school leaders Develop teachers and school leaders’ professionalism Promote quality teaching for every student
  48. 48. 74 Empower teachers and school leaders to innovate Attract quality teachers and school leaders Provide high-quality initial education Support the professional growth of teachers and school leaders Develop teachers and school leaders’ professionalism Promote quality teaching for every student
  49. 49. 75 Empower teachers and school leaders to innovate Attract quality teachers and school leaders Provide high-quality initial education Develop teachers and school leaders’ professionalism Video on innovation https://youtu.be/2rH191iZKiE
  50. 50. 76 Empower teachers and school leaders to innovate Attract quality teachers and school leaders Provide high-quality initial education Support the professional growth of teachers and school leaders Develop teachers and school leaders’ professionalism Promote quality teaching for every student
  51. 51. 77 Empower teachers and school leaders to make the most of diversity Provide high-quality initial education Promote quality teaching for every student Video on student diversity https://youtu.be/vnz6lO71Q8s
  52. 52. 78 Empower teachers and school leaders to innovate Attract quality teachers and school leaders Provide high-quality initial education Support the professional growth of teachers and school leaders Develop teachers and school leaders’ professionalism Promote quality teaching for every student
  53. 53. 79 Empower teachers and school leaders to professionally grow Provide high-quality initial education Support the professional growth of teachers and school leaders Video on professional development impact https://youtu.be/c4oYHLFMfGA
  54. 54. Find out more about our work at www.oecd.org/education/TALIS – All publications – Country notes – Videos – The complete micro-level database Emails: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org and TALIS@oecd.org Twitter: SchleicherOECD and #OECDTALIS Wechat: AndreasSchleicher Thank you

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