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TALIS 2018 - Teacher professionalism in the face of COVID-19 (Paris, 23 March 2020)

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The world is currently facing a health pandemic and sanitary crisis without precedent in our recent history.

This has affected the normal functioning of education systems worldwide. Nearly all of the 48 countries and economies participating in TALIS are now facing mass and prolonged school closures on all or significant parts of their territory, and UNESCO estimates that 1.25 billion learners are impacted worldwide – i.e. nearly 73% of total enrolments.

This is a major external shock on the operations of our schools and the work of our teachers, who have had to move to distance and digital education offerings within a few days. It is also a major shock and challenge for parents who have been turned into home-schoolers overnight, with no training for this!

This is an odd timing to present the findings of a report depicting the functioning of schools and the work of teachers “before Covid-19”. And although there are lots of interesting things in this report, this is not a priority for today.

Today, I would like to reflect instead on how school and teachers can adapt to these dire circumstances and carry forward their teaching.

Today, I would like to focus on TALIS findings that can help educational systems as they deal with the crisis, and think forward in working out possible strategies to cope with these circumstances.

Today, I would like to convey hope that we can count on teachers to rise to the challenges.

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TALIS 2018 - Teacher professionalism in the face of COVID-19 (Paris, 23 March 2020)

  1. 1. TALIS 2018 TEACHER PROFESSIONALISM IN THE FACE OF COVID-19 Andreas Schleicher, Paris, 23 March 2020
  2. 2. What is TALIS? The largest international survey examining teaching and learning environments in schools. Asks teachers and school leaders about their work, their schools and their classrooms with 48 education systems covered TALIS options: Some countries also surveyed their primary and upper secondary teachers and some conducted TALIS in PISA schools 3 surveys to date: 2008: 24 education systems 2013: 38 education systems 2018: 48 education systems from all continents
  3. 3. Participants *Note: TALIS is administered for a sub-national entity only in the following countries: Argentina (Buenos Aires), Canada (Alberta), China (Shanghai) and the United Kingdom (England). This map is for illustrative purposes and is without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory covered by this map. TALIS 2008 and 2013-14 TALIS 2018 new systems TALIS 2008 70,000 teachers in 4,500 schools TALIS 2013 150,000 teachers in 9,500 schools TALIS 2018 260,000 teachers in 15,000 schools representing more than 8 millions teachers across 48 countries
  4. 4. Enhancing professionalism throughout the teacher career pathway
  5. 5. Are schools prepared?
  6. 6. UNESCO monitoring of school closures in response to the Covid-19 crisis, as of 21 March
  7. 7. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 VietNam SouthAfrica Colombia SaudiArabia Brazil Portugal Romania Kazakhstan Mexico Latvia Israel CABA(Argentina) Hungary Japan Russia UnitedArabEmirates Italy France Lithuania Georgia Belgium Bulgaria Croatia SlovakRepublic OECDaverage-30 Korea CzechRepublic Turkey Spain Finland UnitedStates NewZealand Austria Netherlands Flemish(Belgium) England(UK) Chile Denmark Alberta(Canada) Estonia Norway Sweden Shanghai(China) Malta Iceland Slovenia Singapore Shortage or inadequacy of digital technology for instruction Insufficient Internet access Table I.3.64 Shortage of school resources related to the use of ICT Percentage of principals reporting that the shortage or inadequacy of the following items hinder the school's capacity to provide quality instruction "quite a bit" or "a lot"%
  8. 8. TECHNOLOGY IS ONLY AS GOOD AS ITS USE
  9. 9. Use of ICT for class work is widespread overall, but not universal…
  10. 10. Even before the crisis, the use of ICT for class work was already on the rise… 0 20 40 60 80 100 Denmark NewZealand Australia Mexico Alberta(Canada) Chile Sweden Portugal Romania Iceland Georgia Israel Spain Netherlands Finland Latvia SlovakRepublic Italy Croatia Estonia Bulgaria Singapore Brazil England(UK) Flemish(Belgium) France CzechRepublic Korea Shanghai(China) Japan 2018 2013 Table I.2.4 Percentage of teachers who “frequently” or “always” let students use ICT for projects or class work %
  11. 11. Innovative projects and the use of ICT can be useful strategies to address the current challenges to school 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Tell students to follow classroom rules Tell students to listen to what I say Calm students who are disruptive When the lesson begins, tell students to quieten down quickly Explain to students what I expect them to learn Explain how new and old topics are related Set goals at the beginning of instruction Refer to a problem from everyday life or work Present a summary of recently learned content Let students practise similar tasks Give tasks that require students to think critically Have students work in small groups to come up with a solution Let students to solve complex tasks Present tasks for which there is no obvious solution Let students use ICT for projects or class work Give students projects that require at least one week to complete OECD average-31 Teaching practices Percentage of teachers who frequently or always use the following practices in their class Classroom management Clarity of instruction Cognitive activation Enhanced activities %
  12. 12. Participation in professional development for teachers and the need for it 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Knowledge and understanding of my subject field(s) Pedagogical competencies in teaching my subject field(s) Student assessment practices Knowledge of the curriculum ICT skills for teaching Student behaviour and classroom management Teaching cross-curricular skills Analysis and use of student assessments Approaches to individualised learning Teaching students with special needs Teacher-parent/guardian co-operation School management and administration Teaching in a multicultural or multilingual setting Communicating with people from different cultures or countries Topic was included in professional development activities High level of need for professional development in the topic % Percentage of teachers for whom the following topics were included in their professional development activities in the 12 months prior the survey and report a high level of need for them Fig I.5.6/B OECD average-31
  13. 13. 0 20 40 60 80 100 VietNam UnitedArabEmirates Shanghai(China) Mexico Chile Kazakhstan Colombia England(UK) Turkey SaudiArabia Alberta(Canada) Malta Romania Russia Australia Brazil SouthAfrica SlovakRepublic Korea Israel Flemish(Belgium) Finland Latvia Estonia Slovenia CABA(Argentina) Hungary Belgium France Croatia Portugal Denmark Iceland Norway Lithuania Georgia CzechRepublic Austria Spain All teachers Teachers who completed their training in the past 5 years Table I.4.13 Younger generations of teachers are better prepared in the use of ICT for teaching Percentage of teachers for whom the use of ICT for teaching was included in their formal education or training, by year of completion %
  14. 14. Inclusion of ICT for teaching in initial education or training matters to use it 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 CABA(Argentina) Colombia Shanghai(China) Mexico Brazil Italy UnitedArabEmirates SouthAfrica Japan Latvia Lithuania Hungary Korea Austria England(UK) Iceland France Kazakhstan Slovenia Romania SaudiArabia Chile UnitedStates Sweden Bulgaria Turkey OECDaverage-31 Israel Georgia SlovakRepublic Belgium Croatia Singapore Finland Flemish(Belgium) Netherlands Spain Alberta(Canada) Malta Russia NewZealand Denmark CzechRepublic Estonia VietNam Portugal Australia Teachers for whom the use of ICT for teaching was included in formal education or training are more likely to report that they “frequently" or "always" let students use ICT for class work Table I.4.18 Likelihood of teachers reporting to “frequently" or "always" let students use ICT for class work related to the inclusion of the use of ICT for teaching in formal education or training Odds ratio Teachers for whom the use of ICT for teaching was included in formal education or training are less likely to report that they “frequently" or "always" let students use ICT for class work
  15. 15. Online courses/seminars for professional development could be mainstreamed in the new reality 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Courses and/or seminars attended in person Reading professional literature Education conferences Peer and/or self-observation and coaching as part of a formal arrangement Participation in a professional network Online courses and/or seminars Other types of professional development activities Percentage of teachers who participated in the following professional development activities % Fig I.5.3 OECD average-31
  16. 16. OWNERSHIP AND EMPOWERMENT
  17. 17. Most teachers feel control over their practice
  18. 18. 0 20 40 60 80 100 Sweden Iceland Norway Korea Netherlands Italy Brazil Israel France Denmark Shanghai(China) Kazakhstan Georgia Estonia Romania CzechRepublic SaudiArabia Hungary Chile Mexico VietNam Colombia FlemishComm.(BEL) SlovakRepublic SouthAfrica Lithuania CABA(Argentina) OECDaverage-31 NewZealand Croatia Finland Latvia RussianFederation UnitedArabEmirates Belgium Austria UnitedStates Slovenia FrenchComm.(BEL) Singapore Japan Turkey Australia Spain Bulgaria Alberta(Canada) England(UK) Malta Portugal Most teachers feel control over their practice Teachers' autonomy in determining course content in their target class Percentage of lower secondary teachers who "agree" or "strongly agree" that they have control over determining course content in their target class% Fig II.5.12
  19. 19. TEACHERS SEEM MORE OPEN TO INNOVATION THAN OUR INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL ORGANISATION SUGGESTS
  20. 20. Innovation in teaching
  21. 21. The vast majority of teachers have a positive attitude towards change and innovation... 0 20 40 60 80 100 Most teachers in the school strive to develop new ideas for teaching and learning Most teachers in the school provide practical support to each other for the application of new ideas Most teachers in the school search for new ways to solve problems Most teachers in the school are open to change Table I.2.35 Percentage of teachers who “agree” or “strongly agree” with the following statements (OECD-31)%
  22. 22. 0 20 40 60 80 100 Georgia VietNam Shanghai(China) Bulgaria UnitedArabEmirates Lithuania Latvia Romania SaudiArabia Kazakhstan RussianFederation Estonia Norway SlovakRepublic Hungary Brazil Slovenia Turkey Alberta(Canada) SouthAfrica Iceland Denmark Colombia Mexico England(UK) CABA(Argentina) Sweden Singapore Australia OECDaverage-31 NewZealand Chile Austria Croatia UnitedStates Japan Israel Italy Korea France Spain Finland CzechRepublic Netherlands Malta FlemishComm.(BEL) Belgium Portugal FrenchComm.(BEL) Most teachers in the school are open to change Most teachers in the school search for new ways to solve problems% The vast majority of teachers have a positive attitude towards change and innovation... Teachers’ views on their colleagues’ attitudes towards innovation Percentage of lower secondary teachers who "agree" or "strongly agree" with the following statements Table I.2.35
  23. 23. 0 20 40 60 80 100 Collaborating with teachers to solve classroom discipline problems Working on a professional development plan for the school Providing feedback to teachers based on principal's observations Observing instruction in the classroom Taking actions to ensure that teachers feel responsible for their students’ learning outcomes Taking actions to ensure that teachers take responsibility for improving their teaching skills Taking actions to support co-operation among teachers to develop new teaching practices Reviewing school administrative procedures and reports Resolving problems with the lesson timetable in the school Providing parents or guardians with information on the school and student performance Collaborating with principals from other schools on challenging work tasks OECD average-31 Direct instructional leadership activities Indirect instructional leadership activities Administrative tasks System leadership % Guidance from school leaders matters for innovation, but is not widespread across the board... Principals' leadership activities Percentage of low secondary principals who "often" or "very often" engaged in the following activities in their school in the 12 months prior to the survey
  24. 24. UPHOLDING THE SOCIAL FABRIC OF SCHOOLS
  25. 25. Teachers joined the profession to make a difference to society and children… 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Teaching allowed me to influence the development of children and young people Teaching allowed me to provide a contribution to society Teaching allowed me to benefit the socially disadvantaged Teaching was a secure job Teaching provided a reliable income The teaching schedule fit with responsibilities in my personal life Teaching offered a steady career path Percentage of teachers who report that the following elements were of "moderate" or "high" importance in becoming a teacher % Fig I.4.1
  26. 26. Special needs students are at particular risk, since schools lack teachers equipped to support them 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Shortage of support personnel Shortage of teachers with competence in special needs students Shortage or inadequacy of time for instructional leadership Shortage or inadequacy of physical infrastructure Shortage or inadequacy of time with students Shortage or inadequacy of instructional space Shortage or inadequacy of digital technology for instruction Shortage of qualified teachers Shortage of teachers with competence in a multicultural setting Insufficient Internet access Shortage or inadequacy of necessary materials to train vocational skills Shortage of teachers with competence in disadvantaged students Shortage or inadequacy of library materials Shortage of vocational teachers Shortage or inadequacy of instructional materials OECD average-30 Percentage of principals reporting that the following shortages of resources hinder the school's capacity to provide quality instruction "quite a bit" or "a lot" % Fig I.3.15
  27. 27. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Brazil Colombia Mexico Japan SouthAfrica Chile Croatia CABA(Argentina) Romania France SaudiArabia Spain Bulgaria Portugal Estonia SlovakRepublic VietNam Israel Shanghai(China) Slovenia OECDaverage-31 Hungary Georgia Lithuania Malta Singapore Latvia Denmark Belgium UnitedArabEmirates Sweden Norway Iceland Austria Turkey NewZealand Italy CzechRepublic Russia Kazakhstan Korea Flemish(Belgium) Finland Netherlands Australia Alberta(Canada) UnitedStates England(UK) And 1 in 5 teacher reports a high need for PD in teaching students with special needs Percentage of teachers who report a high level of need for professional development in teaching students with special needs % Fig I.5.10/A
  28. 28. 0 5 10 15 20 25 Fewer than or equal to 30% More than 30% Fewer than or equal to 10% More than 10% By concentration of immigrant studentsBy concentration of students from socio- economically disadvantaged homes Percentage of novice teachers, by school characteristics (OECD average-31)% Fig I.4.9 Novice teachers are also more likely to work in more challenging schools
  29. 29. … few (novice) teachers have a mentor 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 UnitedArabEmirates SouthAfrica Kazakhstan Singapore Brazil NewZealand Shanghai(China) Japan Israel Australia UnitedStates SaudiArabia VietNam England(UK) Netherlands Colombia Russia Alberta(Canada) Flemish(Belgium) Mexico Georgia Korea Malta OECDaverage-31 CzechRepublic Portugal Belgium Iceland Bulgaria Romania Turkey SlovakRepublic Sweden Hungary Chile Norway Denmark CABA(Argentina) Latvia France Estonia Finland Austria Croatia Spain Italy Lithuania Slovenia Novice teachers Experienced teachers Percentage of teachers who have an assigned mentor as part of a formal arrangement at the school, by teachers' teaching experience % Fig I.4.14
  30. 30. STRENGTHENING TEACHER COLLABORATION
  31. 31. How do teachers collaborate with their peers? Deeper form of collaboration are less prevalent than simple exchanges and co-ordination between teachers
  32. 32. 0 20 40 60 80 100 Austria Italy Japan Mexico Sweden Singapore Norway Denmark Finland SlovakRepublic Iceland Chile OECDaverage-31 Colombia UnitedArabEmirates Hungary FrenchComm.(BEL) Georgia Australia NewZealand Portugal Turkey CABA(Argentina) Alberta(Canada) Israel Estonia UnitedStates Spain Belgium Brazil Slovenia Korea FlemishComm.(BEL) Latvia Kazakhstan Netherlands France SaudiArabia England(UK) Romania VietNam SouthAfrica Shanghai(China) Malta Bulgaria CzechRepublic RussianFederation Lithuania Croatia Teach jointly as a team in the same class Observe other teachers' classes and provide feedback Participate in collaborative professional learning % Prevalence of deeper forms of professional collaboration Professional collaboration Percentage of lower secondary teachers who report engaging in the following collaborative activities in their school at least once a month Fig II.4.2/A
  33. 33. 0 20 40 60 80 Austria Italy Japan Mexico Sweden Singapore Norway Denmark Finland SlovakRepublic Iceland Chile OECDaverage-31 Colombia UnitedArabEmirates Hungary FrenchComm.(BEL) Georgia Australia NewZealand Portugal Turkey CABA(Argentina) Alberta(Canada) Israel Estonia UnitedStates Spain Belgium Brazil Slovenia Korea FlemishComm.(BEL) Latvia Kazakhstan Netherlands France SaudiArabia England(UK) Romania VietNam SouthAfrica Shanghai(China) Malta Bulgaria CzechRepublic RussianFederation Lithuania Croatia % Team teaching Professional collaboration Percentage of lower secondary teachers who report engaging in the following collaborative activities in their school at least once a month Fig II.4.2/A
  34. 34. -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 FlemishComm.(BEL) Romania Israel SlovakRepublic Colombia Belgium Korea Netherlands Spain FrenchComm.(BEL) Iceland Slovenia Finland Estonia RussianFederation Bulgaria Lithuania Denmark CABA(Argentina) England(UK) OECDaverage-31 SaudiArabia Malta Turkey Alberta(Canada) UnitedStates Japan Hungary Chile Portugal UnitedArabEmirates Latvia Australia Austria Brazil Italy Norway NewZealand CzechRepublic SouthAfrica VietNam Croatia Sweden Kazakhstan Georgia Singapore Mexico Shanghai(China) Regressioncoefficients(β) Note: Statistically significant results are marked in darker tones. Negative association between the use of cognitive activation practices and engaging in collaborative activities Positive association between the use of cognitive activation practices and engaging in collaborative activities Participate in collaborative professional learning at least once a month The adoption of effective teaching practices and professional collaboration go hand in hand Relationship between use of cognitive activation practices and different collaborative activities Results of linear regression based on responses of lower secondary teachers Fig II.4.6
  35. 35. 0 20 40 60 80 100 Romania SouthAfrica Korea Turkey Netherlands Hungary Finland Slovenia RussianFederation UnitedArabEmirates Croatia SaudiArabia Georgia Italy Lithuania Colombia Bulgaria Norway Kazakhstan Denmark FlemishComm.(BEL) SlovakRepublic OECDaverage-30 Shanghai(China) Latvia Iceland Belgium Mexico NewZealand France Brazil Austria UnitedStates FrenchComm.(BEL) England(UK) Alberta(Canada) Chile Portugal Sweden Estonia Israel VietNam Spain Singapore Malta Japan CzechRepublic CABA(Argentina) % Principals’ collaboration with other principals on challenging work tasks Principals' leadership activities Percentage of lower secondary principals who have "often" or "very often" engaged in collaborating with principals from other schools on challenging work tasks in the 12 months prior to the survey
  36. 36. REDUCING PRESSURE ON TEACHERS
  37. 37. Helping teachers focus on the core of their work is likely to be the most effective to mitigate the impact of the crisis on their well-being Relationship between teachers' experience of stress at work and task intensity Estimated percentage of teachers experiencing stress in their work "a lot", by task intensity (OECD average-31) 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Teaching Individual planning or preparation of lessons Marking/correcting of student work General administrative work Number of hours (i.e. 60 minutes) spent during the most recent calendar week doing a specific task (task intensity) Teachersexperiencingstressin theirwork“alot”(Estimated%) Note: the "X" in the figure represents the share of teachers experiencing stress in their work "a lot", given an average task intensity (OECD average-31) Fig II.2.10
  38. 38. RAISING THE SOCIAL STATUS OF TEACHERS
  39. 39. The same hold for the way parents and society view the profession, and teachers perceive this
  40. 40. 0 20 40 60 80 100 VietNam Singapore UnitedArabEmirates Korea Kazakhstan Alberta(Canada) SouthAfrica Shanghai(China) Finland SaudiArabia Australia RussianFederation Mexico Romania Georgia Colombia UnitedStates Norway Japan NewZealand Netherlands Israel England(UK) Estonia Turkey FlemishComm.(BEL) OECDaverage-31 Latvia Denmark Bulgaria Belgium Austria CzechRepublic Chile Malta Spain Lithuania Italy Hungary Brazil Sweden Iceland Croatia Portugal CABA(Argentina) France Slovenia FrenchComm.(BEL) SlovakRepublic 2018 2013 % Change in perceived societal value of teaching from 2013 to 2018 Percentage of teachers who “agree” or “strongly agree” that the teaching profession is valued in society Perceived status of teaching
  41. 41. Find out more about our work at www.oecd.org/education/TALIS – All publications – Country notes – Videos – The complete micro-level database Emails: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org and TALIS@oecd.org Twitter: SchleicherOECD and #OECDTALIS Wechat: AndreasSchleicher Thank you

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