Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

1

Share

Download to read offline

Scotland's Curriculum for Excellence: Into the future

Download to read offline

Scotland (United Kingdom) pioneered the approach to 21st-century curricula when it first conceived its Curriculum for Excellence (CfE). Rolled out in schools since 2010, CfE aims to provide students with a holistic, coherent, and future-oriented approach to learning between the ages of 3 and 18. In 2020, Scotland invited the OECD to assess the implementation of CfE in primary and secondary schools in order to understand the design and development of school curricula since 2015, aiming to uncover valuable lessons for other education systems and their own curriculum policies.

Scotland's Curriculum for Excellence: Into the future

  1. 1. SCOTLAND’S CURRICULUM FOR EXCELLENCE: INTO THE FUTURE An OECD report Launch webinar, 21 June 2021 The OECD team: Beatriz Pont, OECD Directorate for Education and Skills Romane Viennet, OECD Directorate for Education and Skills Anne Looney, Dublin City University Jan Van Den Akker, Twente University
  2. 2. 2 Today: Analysis and recommendations for the implementation of the Curriculum for Excellence Data collection • Document review • Scottish Government evidence pack • Previous OECD report (2015) Stakeholder consultation • 2 visits to Scotland • Video interviews • Webinars Analysis • Implementing Education Policies framework • Qualitative and quantitative • International comparison
  3. 3. Developing knowledge, peer learning and country support on policy implementation 3 Implementing Education Policies: an OECD project  How can education policy implementation processes be designed to ensure that policies bring about effective educational change in schools?  What types of implementation strategies can be pursued for school improvement policies?  What kind of information/data can help policy makers understand progress with implementation of their reforms? Austria 2019-20 EDU Monitoring Estonia 2019-20 EDU Monitoring Ireland 2019 Sr Cycle Review Mexico 2018 Education Strategy Norway 2019-20 Competence Development Scotland 2019-20 Curriculum Wales 2019-20 Curriculum Iceland 2020-21 Education Strategy Recent tailored country projects
  4. 4. 2020 2021 Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan1 Feb Mar Apr May Jun Scottish Practitioners Forum 1 Stakeholder consultation seminar Implementing Education Policies: Scotland SPF 2 & 3 SPF 5 SPF 6 Report launch June Initial analysis Evidence pack OECD data Document review 16/07 – 28/08 Fact-finding missions Policy 30 interviews, 50 stakeholders Schools 4 visits 6 group interviews 2 Nov - 6 Nov Draft report preparation 1st draft Feedback Report finalization Policy assessment Strategic advice Stakeholder seminar SPF 4 SPF 7 2nd draft
  5. 5. 5 An assessment focused on Curriculum for Excellence’s implementation Attention to both Broad General Education and Senior Phase Young people & learning at the centre Collaborative, inclusive approach with stakeholders Focus on implementation & effects on learning Is CfE implemented in such a way to contribute positively to the education of all young people in Scotland?
  6. 6. 6 Scotland in an international context: Declining PISA performance Average performance in reading, mathematics and science in Scotland (UK) and OECD average, PISA 2012-2018
  7. 7. 7 Scotland in an international context: Leading global competence proficiency 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 Philippines Indonesia Kazakhstan Morocco Panama Thailand Albania Brunei Darussalam Colombia Costa Rica Serbia Chile All countries average Malta Russia Slovak Republic Lithuania Greece Israel Latvia Croatia Spain Korea Scotland (United Kingdom) Chinese Taipei Hong Kong (China) Canada Singapore % Level 1 Below Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Students’ proficiency in global competence in Scotland and participating countries and economies, PISA 2018
  8. 8. 8 Scotland in an international context: Above-average equity in education [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 0 5 10 15 20 25 Reading performance (in score points) Percentage of variation in performance explained by social-economic status Strength of the relationship between performance and socio-economic status is above the OECD average Strength of the relationship between performance and socio-economic status is not statistically significantly different from the average Strength of the relationship between performance and socio-economic status is below the OECD average OECD average: 487 points OECD average: 12% Above-average in reading performance and equity in education Below-average in reading performance and equity in education Greater equity Above-average in reading performance Below-average in equity in education Below-average in reading performance Above-average in equity in education Equity and reading performance, PISA 2018
  9. 9. 9 Scotland in an international context: Teachers’ working time spent mostly in front of class Percentage of lower secondary teachers' working time spent teaching, EAG (2019)
  10. 10. • Of which 40.3% in higher education, 27.3% in further education, 22.9% in employment 95% positive destinations • Narrowing equity gap between most and least deprived areas 91.6% of 16-19 year-olds participate in education, employment, training or other forms of personal development In S3, 88% expected literacy and 90% expected numeracy levels • Attainment gaps decreased from 2009/10 to 2018/19 Improved attainment at SCQF 4-6 10 Scotland’s education outcomes : selected evidence 2018-19 2009—10 1+ pass Level 6 60% 50.4% 1+ pass Level 5 85% 77% 1+ pass Level 4 95.9% 94.4%
  11. 11. initial CfE statement published research, proposals, feedback, and publication of framework and guidelines all schools begin planning and implementing CfE development of new qualifications Developing the Young Workforce School improvement review (OECD) Attainment Challenge Streamlined CfE guidelines; Revised National Qualifications; Excellence and Equity delivery plan; National Improvement Framework RICs Joint Agreement; Empowerment agenda; Headteachers Charter; Refreshed CfE narrative CfE implementation assessment (OECD): Is CfE implemented in ways to contribute positively to the education of all young people in Scotland? Short chronology of Curriculum for Excellence 2004 2010 2012 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
  12. 12. A curriculum policy to help all learners thrive in the 21st century prepare children and young people for their future provide a broad competence- based education raise standards close the poverty-related attainment gap Priorities in Scottish education Main building blocks of CfE framework • 4 fundamental capacities • Children’s rights • 8 curriculum areas & 3 interdisciplinary areas • Assessment as an integral part • School-based curriculum design
  13. 13. Curriculum for Excellence: a pioneer among modern curricula 148 112 103 96 89 88 72 70 63 59 52 50 49 40 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Teachers and school leadership Evaluation (system/school/student levels) Curriculum, qualifications, standards Economic resources in education Quality of VET Quality of tertiary Transition between school and work Disadvantaged students ECEC Quality of secondary Organisation of decision making Students from specific population groups Learning environments System-level policies promoting or hindering equity Source: Education Policy Outlook Reforms Finder, OECD 2019 Note: Number of policies collected = 1 091 Curriculum reforms and revisions across the OECD (2006-2019) Scotland (UK) (2010) Norway (rev. 2016) Finland (2014-2016) Estonia New Zealand Japan (2018-2022) Wales (UK) (2020-2022)
  14. 14. 14 Curriculum for Excellence: underlying tensions with implications for the way it is implemented Flexibility System coherence Conceptualisation of learning Curriculum flexibility Interconnected focus Separated focus Knowledge, skills, competencies Student assessment and system evaluation Aligned to CfE Aligned to qualifications and system success measures Depth Breadth
  15. 15. 15 Assessment: how CfE works for learners and how to face the future • How has CfE been implemented, from a student’s perspective? Is the design working well for all students as they progress and transition through the system? Smart policy design • To what extent have stakeholders been involved and how can they engage most productively to continue delivering the best possible CfE? Inclusive stakeholder engagement • How are the policy and institutional environments contributing to CfE reaching all schools? Conducive environment Coherent and actionable implementation strategy Dimensions for success in achieving an education change What has been the implementation approach?
  16. 16. 16 Attributes and capabilities describing the four capacities Four capacities 8 curriculum areas 1. Science 2. Languages 3. Mathematics 4. Social studies 5. Expressive arts 6. Health and wellbeing 7. Religious and moral ed. 8. Technology. 4 contexts of curriculum, including Experiences and Outcomes (Es and Os) Benchmarks A multi-layered curriculum framework
  17. 17. 17 Inspiring curriculum design requiring a focus on learners’ journey  A driving force: CfE vision of excellence for all students recognized in Scotland and internationally. Relevant for its bold, aspirational, future- oriented approach.  CfE framework enacted coherently for learners in BGE and Advanced Highers: school curricula & learning activities consistent with CfE intentions, commitment to varied teaching and pedagogical practices  School based curriculum design: schools have implemented CfE across the country, with some evidence of success  Teachers are well-trained and respected professionals, committed, and school leaders have developed strong pedagogical leadership capacities Strengths to build upon
  18. 18. 18 Inspiring curriculum design requiring focus on learners’ journey  20 years on, opportunities to develop some of the vision’s core elements following new curriculum research, education and societal change. E.g.: student learning and role of knowledge in 21st century curricula  CfE’s framework, messages and core concepts are complex and spread over many instruments. Sometimes unclear for practitioners and leading to ambiguity in some key concepts.  Some structures, learning and assessment practices in secondary education, especially in Senior Phase, lack consistency with CfE’s vision and hinder 3-18 curriculum experience: qualifications, choice, breadth  Variable support from system for schools to access resources for curriculum design and teaching and pedagogical improvement: time, space, access to high-quality design-based research Education 2030: The OECD Learning Compass Issues to consider
  19. 19. • role of knowledge and indicators aligned to the vision to help understand student progress across the 4 capacities. Re-assess CfE’s aspirational vision against emerging trends in education: • consider how design of CfE can better help learners consolidate common knowledge base, skills and attitudes by end of BGE through to Sr Phase. Find a better balance between breadth and depth of learning throughout CfE: • adapt pedagogical and assessment practices to develop CfE 4 capacities. Adapt the Senior Phase to match the vision of CfE: • support around schools and collaboration for design and experimentation and with universities. Continue building curricular capacity at various levels of the system using research: 19 Recommendation 1: Balance Curriculum for Excellence so students can fully benefit from a coherent learning experience from 3 to 18 years
  20. 20. 20 Towards a shared ownership of Curriculum for Excellence
  21. 21. 21 Towards a shared ownership of Curriculum for Excellence  Significant efforts to engage stakeholders throughout CfE’s lifecycle, contributing to wide support for CfE as a direction of travel: consultation and collaboration at the core.  Conditions in place for wide support of CfE’s vision and shared ownership led by schools and profession, if system leaders fulfil their responsibilities to support others within a clear policy framework.  Language developed and shared successfully in support of CfE’s philosophy across schools, pivotal to ensure a shared understanding of CfE’s vision and the policy objectives. Priority to clarify the division of responsibility between levels of education system, EPO 2019 Strengths to build upon
  22. 22. 22 Towards a shared ownership of Curriculum for Excellence  Gap between intense involvement and effective impact on CfE implementation: lack of clarity on purpose of engagement and lack of consistence in use of stakeholder input  CfE ownership described as fragmented and in need of transparency : too many owners claimed ownership while lacking clarity about their responsibilities  Constant production and recycling of documentation described as “overwhelming” by practitioners, with terminology deemed too technical and lending itself to too much interpretation Public participation spectrum, IAP2 2014 Issues to consider
  23. 23. • System leaders can encourage involvement with better structuring of engagement approaches and clarifying purposes. Ensure stable, purposeful and impactful stakeholder involvement with CfE • allocation of responsibilities stable along shared ownership. Revise the division of responsibilities for CfE • to support developments of CfE: communication on next steps and collaborate. Structure a coherent communication strategy 23 Recommendation 2: Combine effective collaboration with clear roles and responsibilities
  24. 24. 24 Continued efforts towards alignment 24 Empowerment agenda DYW GIRFEC Attainment challenge NIF Policy cycle Governance
  25. 25. 25 Continued efforts towards alignment 25  Great progress in developing and supporting teachers’ curriculum- making capacity and school leaders’ leadership: inspiring CfE innovation now widely used as a curriculum design principle.  Other policies developed around CfE’s innovative philosophy, holding promises for alignment of student assessment, qualification practices and system evaluation and offering good practice internationally  Considerable educational data available to the public, with NIF’s attempt to further enhance data quality  Education widely seen as a source of pride and a priority, contributing to commitment to improvement and involvement, and intense political interest 2021 NIF and Improvement Plan, Scottish Government Strengths to build upon
  26. 26. 26 Continued efforts towards alignment  Continuous challenges to school-based curriculum design: multiple new local and central initiatives, high rate of teachers’ class contact time  Policy alignment: Some policies that aim to support CfE not aligned to CfE, such as qualifications from S1-3 onwards; and current system evaluation data limited to fully support CfE’s ambitions  Busy system at risk of policy and institutional overload; and reactive and political approach to CfE review in the absence of an identified cycle of policy review OECD: Czech Republic, Hungary Partner: India3 OECD: Australia, British Columbia (Canada), Chile1, Estonia, Finland, Japan, Korea, Lithuania1, Ontario (Canada) Partner: China (People’s Republic of), Costa Rica, Russian Federation, Singapore OECD: Québec (Canada)2 Partner: Viet Nam OECD:Denmark, Ireland, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)3, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, Turkey, United States3 Partner: Argentina, Hong Kong (China), South Africa as necessary/ when ap- propriate every 5-10 years every 2-5 years every 15-20 years Frequency of major curriculum reforms, 2020 Issues to consider
  27. 27. • Consider dedicated time for teachers for curriculum planning monitoring student achievement and moderation. Provide dedicated time to lead, plan and support CfE at the school level • Explore assigning leadership and development responsibilities for curriculum to a specialist stand alone agency; refreshing remit of inspectorate regarding CfE. Simplify policies and institutions for clarity and coherence • Identify modes of student assessment aligned to 4 capacities of CfE and redevelop sample based evaluation system to collect robust data to support decision making. Align curriculum, qualifications and system evaluation to deliver on the commitment of Building the Curriculum 5 • Developing review cycle with planned timeframe and review agenda led by agency. Develop a systematic approach to curriculum review 27 Recommendation 3: Consolidate institutional policy processes for effective change
  28. 28. 28 An implementation approach that requires a long-term perspective  A particular path to change: venues to engage many stakeholders, develop agreements allowing for responsiveness to implementation challenges with CfE  Significant autonomy in schools to design and shape CfE’s developments, possibly building capacity on the ground  No long-term strategy or structured and sequenced approach approach to look forward, plan and communicate CfE’s developments with a longer term perspective Issues to consider Strengths to build upon
  29. 29. 29 Recommendation 4: Lead the next steps for Curriculum for Excellence with a long-term coherent view Lead the next steps of CfE with a long-term focus  1.1. Re-assess CfE’s aspirational vision against emerging trends in education  1.2. Find a better balance between breadth and depth of learning throughout CfE  1.3. Adapt the Senior Phase to match the vision of CfE  1.4. Continue building curricular capacity at various levels of the system using research  2.1. Ensure stable, purposeful and impactful stakeholder involvement with CfE  2.2. Revise the division of responsibilities for CfE  2.3. Structure a coherent communication strategy to support developments of CfE  3.1. Provide dedicated time to lead, plan and support CfE at the school level  3.2. Simplify policies and institutions for clarity and coherence  3.3. Align curriculum, qualifications and system evaluation to deliver on the commitment of Building the Curriculum 5  3.4. Develop a systematic approach to curriculum review How will this be done? Who is responsibl e? Resource s? When? Measure progress?
  30. 30. 30 https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/scotland-s- curriculum-for-excellence_bf624417-en Available for download at:
  31. 31. THANK YOU! www.oecd.org/education/implementing-education-policies Beatriz Pont Sr. Education Policy Analyst, Directorate for Education and Skills beatriz.pont@oecd.org Romane Viennet Junior Analyst, Directorate for Education and Skills romane.viennet@oecd.org
  • MargaritaGalias1

    Jun. 22, 2021

Scotland (United Kingdom) pioneered the approach to 21st-century curricula when it first conceived its Curriculum for Excellence (CfE). Rolled out in schools since 2010, CfE aims to provide students with a holistic, coherent, and future-oriented approach to learning between the ages of 3 and 18. In 2020, Scotland invited the OECD to assess the implementation of CfE in primary and secondary schools in order to understand the design and development of school curricula since 2015, aiming to uncover valuable lessons for other education systems and their own curriculum policies.

Views

Total views

458

On Slideshare

0

From embeds

0

Number of embeds

1

Actions

Downloads

37

Shares

0

Comments

0

Likes

1

×