OECD Conference Educating for Innovative Societies on 26 April 2012 - Session 3: STEM Education in Innovation-Driven Societies - Science Education for Innovation-Driven Societies by Francesco Avvisati, OECD
Indeed, this all teachersprobably know. Whenyou compare twopupilswithin the sameschool, the mostinterested of the twoisalsoprobably the one withacademicallybetterresults.This istruebasically in all countries.However, evenwhenwe look within countries, ataveragelevels of interest and score betweendifferentschools, half of the countries have a negativecorrelation. There mightbesome forces at the schoollevel – call themschool culture, or teaching culture – whichcreatethiswedgebetweenimprovingat tests and cultivatinginterests. What are these forces?
Note thatthesewereselected on the basis thatthey are observable by students, and thatthey are expected to be effective in one way or the other.
Science Education for Innovation-Driven Societies
Science Education for Innovation-Driven Societies Francesco Avvisati OECD Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI)Paris, Educating for Innovation-Driven Societies, 26 April 2012
Outline • How does science education contribute to individual skills for Education innovation? and training • Do education systems foster all skills forSkills innovation? • Are certain science Innovation pedagogies more effective in that respect? • How can technology and informal learning help?
HOW DOES SCIENCEEDUCATION CONTRIBUTE TOINDIVIDUAL SKILLS FORINNOVATION?
Innovation intensity by field of study• Traditional views emphasise role of STEM graduates, but... innovation intensity: any type 100 product or service 90 technology or tools & computing engineering social sciences 80 architecture knowledge or methods sciences & maths agriculture education 70 humanities business arts 60 health other 50 law 40 30 20 10 0 4
Non-disciplinary skills and innovation• Critical skills according to tertiary educated workers 1 2 4 come up with new ideas/solutions 4.1 willingness to question ideas 3.1 present ideas to audience 2.9 alertness to opportunities 2.8 coordinate activities 2.6 analytical thinking acquire new knowledge mobilize capacities of others make your meaning clear master of your own field write reports or documents work productively with others write/speak a foreign language use time efficiently use computers and internet perform under pressure Odds ratio (innovative negociate vs non-innovative knowledge of other fields graduates); based on assert your authority Reflex and Hegesco 5
Science education and Innovation Skills • need to consider learning outcomes that go beyond mastery of content knowledge and of procedural knowledge: – Skills in thinking and creativity, positive habits of mind (curiosity, perseverance,...) and social skills; • Science, as a subject, offers excellent opportunities for developing these... • ... but how far are they really fostered in today’s schools?
DO EDUCATION SYSTEMSFOSTER ALL SKILLS FORINNOVATION?
Do countries foster simultaneously subject-based and behavioural skills? Not necessarilyExample: Science scores and interest in science 640 LOW SCORE HIGH SCORE Interest in Science Topics HIGH INTEREST HIGH INTEREST 620 IDN MEX 600 BRA CHL 580 PRT 560 GRC 540 TUR RUS ESP HKG ITA FRA MAC 520 SVK DEU HUN ISR LUX AUT SVN JPN 500 POL BEL CHE EST CZE KOR 480 USA IRL NOR GBRAUS CAN ISL 460 DNK NZL LOW SCORE FIN HIGH SCORE SWE NLD LOW INTEREST LOW INTEREST 440 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 580 600 620 Source: OECD, based on PISA 2006 Science Score
Robustnesspartial correlation coefficents between science interest andscience score (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)partial correlation -0.74 -0.71 -0.66 -0.69 -0.74 -0.56controls:GDP p/c X X XLuxembourg X XSelf-concept (mean) X XSelf-efficacy (mean) X XCulture (Hofstede 4-dim) X XN 34 34 33 34 32 31
0 -1 1 -0.5 0.5 1E-15 0.3 -0.3 0.6 -0.6 CHL CHL USA POL PRT MEX ISR HUN ITA PRT POL USA BEL EST NZL TUR MEX SVK TUR CZE NLD ITA SVK ESP ESP ISR CZE GRC HUN LUX AUT AUTSource: OECD, based on PISA 2006 EST DEU GBR BEL SVN NZL GRC NLD CAN GBR DEU IRL FIN CHE IRL FRA AUS AUS CHE CAN LUX KOR FRA SVN DNK DNK SWE JPN NOR SWE ISL FIN JPN NOR between-school correlation of average interest and scores within-school correlation of individual interest and scores KOR ISL BRA BRA RUS RUS The Test-Score/Interest Paradox HKG IDN IDN MAC MAC HKG
ARE SOME PEDAGOGIESMORE EFFECTIVE INFOSTERING ALL SETS OFSKILLS FOR INNOVATION?
A within-country analysisTeaching indicators in PISA 2006 based on 4 clusters of activities: • Interaction • Hands-on – Collaboration and – Guided activities participatory around lab exchanges experiments • Application • Investigation – Drawing connections – Autonomous student between school inquiries science and the outside world
Effective Science Pedagogies• The current teacher has more impact on interest than on scores;• Structured inquiry (“hands-on”) dominates unstructured inquiry for scores• Interest and curiosity are nurtured with “applications”: i.e. when the teacher… – …explains how a school science idea can be applied to a number of different phenomena – …uses science to help students understand the world outside school – …explains the relevance of science concepts to our lives – … uses technological applications to show how school science is relevant to society