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Preparing our youth for an inclusive and sustainable world (PISA Global Competence Framework)

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Global competence is the capacity to examine local, global and intercultural issues, to understand and appreciate the perspectives and world views of others, to engage in open, appropriate and effective interactions with people from different cultures, and to act for collective well-being and sustainable development.

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Preparing our youth for an inclusive and sustainable world (PISA Global Competence Framework)

  1. 1. Preparing our youth for an inclusive and sustainable world PISA Global Competence Framework Andreas Schleicher and Mario Piacentini OECD Directorate for Education and Skills
  2. 2. PISA in brief Every three years since 2000, over half a million students… - representing 15-year-olds in now over 80 countries … take an internationally agreed 2-hour test… - that goes beyond whether students can reproduce what they were taught to assess students’ capacity to extrapolate from what they know and creatively use and apply their knowledge - Each assessment includes mathematics, science and reading - Innovative focus: Problem-solving, collaborative problem-solving, global competence … and respond to questions on… - their personal background, their schools, their well-being and their motivation Teachers, principals, parents and system leaders provide data on: - school policies, practices, resources and institutional factors that help explain performance differences
  3. 3. Creating new value connotes processes of creating, making, bringing into being and formulating; and outcomes that are innovative, fresh and original, contributing something of intrinsic positive worth. The constructs that underpin the competence are imagination, inquisitiveness, persistence, collaboration and self-discipline. In a structurally imbalanced world, the imperative of reconciling diverse perspectives and interests, in local settings with sometimes global implications, will require young people to become adept in handling tensions, dilemmas and trade-offs. Underlying constructs are empathy, adaptability, trust. Dealing with novelty, change, diversity and ambiguity assumes that individuals can ‘think for themselves’. This suggests a sense of responsibility, and moral and intellectual maturity, with which a person can reflect upon and evaluate their actions in the light of their experiences and personal and societal goals; what they have been taught and told; and what is right or wrong
  4. 4. PISA 2015 OECD Partners
  5. 5. PISA 2015 OECD Partners Environmental degradation Climate change Migration Middle class Polarisation of societies Renewable energy Loss of biodiversity Water and food shortages Natural disasters Financial crises Nationalism Democratisation Multinational companies Harmonization of values Interdependent markets Trade openness Emerging economies Poverty Ageing Radicalisation Tourism Inequality International governance Global integration
  6. 6. PISA 2015 OECD Partners Environmental degradation Climate change Migration Middle class Polarisation of societies Renewable energy Loss of biodiversity Water and food shortages Natural disasters Financial crises Nationalism Democratisation Multinational companies Harmonization of values Interdependent markets Trade openness Emerging economies Poverty Ageing Radicalisation Tourism Inequality International governance Global integration Contemporary societies call for complex forms of belonging and citizenship where individuals must interact with distant regions, people and ideas while also deepening their understanding of their local environment and the diversity within their own communities. Effective communication and appropriate behavior within diverse teams are keys to success in many jobs, and will remain so as technology makes it easier for people to connect
  7. 7. • Are students able to critically examine contemporary issues of local, global and intercultural significance? • Do students understand and appreciate multiple cultural perspectives (including their own)? • Are students prepared to interact respectfully across cultural differences? • Do students care about the world and take action to make a positive difference? • What inequalities exist in access to education for global competence between and within countries? • What approaches to multicultural, intercultural and global education are commonly used in school systems worldwide? • How are teachers being prepared to develop students’ global competence? Key questions for the PISA 2018 assessment
  8. 8. • The first place where children encounter the diversity of society • Provide students with opportunities to learn about global developments that affect the world and their own lives • Teach students to develop a fact-based and critical worldview • Equip students with an appreciation of other cultures and an awareness of their own cultural identities • Engage students in experiences that facilitate international and intercultural relations • Promote the value of diversity, which in turn encourages sensitivity, respect and appreciation A role for schools
  9. 9. Defining global competence in PISA
  10. 10. PISA’s definition of global competence Effectively combining knowledge and critical reasoning in order to establish an informed opinion on a global or intercultural issue. Material, social and subjective aspects of culture Requires higher order thinking skills such as selecting and weighing appropriate evidence, as well as media literacy. Globally competent students can draw on and combine the disciplinary knowledge and modes of thinking acquired in schools to ask questions, analyse data and arguments, explain phenomena, and develop a position concerning a local, global or cultural issue e.g. history course about industrialisation in the developing world
  11. 11. PISA’s definition of global competence Willingness and capability to understand global issues, and others’ perspectives and behaviours from multiple points of view. Recognising that perspectives and behaviours – including one’s own – are inherently shaped by various influences and concepts of reality Globally competent students can retain their cultural identity but are simultaneously aware of the cultural values and beliefs of people around them, they examine the origins and implications of others’ and their own assumptions e.g. student noticing culturally-related behaviour
  12. 12. PISA’s definition of global competence Understanding the cultural norms of different contexts and adapting behaviour and communication accordingly The capacity to interact with others in ways that are open (i.e. with sensitivity and engagement), appropriate (i.e. respectful) and effective. Globally competent students create opportunities to take informed, reflective action and have their voices heard e.g. effective collaboration with students in other countries
  13. 13. PISA’s definition of global competence Readiness to respond to a given local, global or intercultural issue. Being ready and willing to take informed, reflective action and an engagement to improve living conditions in one’s own communities and beyond.
  14. 14. PISA’s definition of global competence
  15. 15. PISA’s definition of global competence Knowledge of global issues and intercultural issues Content domains: • Culture and intercultural relations (as students engage in learning about other cultures they recognise multiple, complex identities and avoid categorising people through single markers) • Socio-economic development and interdependence • Environmental sustainability • Global institutions, conflicts and human rights Integrating global and intercultural issues into the curriculum - Many countries already integrating global competence into their curricula: through incorporating global competence content- knowledge in existing subjects or through specific courses - All subjects can integrate global competence: local, global and intercultural issues cut across all education levels and all academic disciplines - Teachers need preparation: have clear ideas about the global and intercultural issues they wish to address, carefully and collaboratively plan the curriculum across grades and develop the confidence to do so systematically.
  16. 16. PISA’s definition of global competence Global competence builds on specific cognitive and socio-emotional skills, including • Reasoning with information • Communication in intercultural contexts • Perspective-taking (the cognitive and social skills to understand how other people think and feel) • Conflict resolution • Adaptability Pedagogies for promoting global competence • Group-based co-operative project work: topic- or theme- based tasks in which students must work, learn and evaluate progress together • Organised discussions: a guided discussion, in response to a stimuli, in which students present evidence, comment and express their views • Structured debates: students are given instructions to join a team either supporting or opposing a polemic point of view • Service learning: learners participate in organised activities strongly linked to what they have learnt in the classroom and in ways that can benefit their communities. Afterwards, students critically reflect on their experiences to enhance their understanding and sense of role in the community.
  17. 17. PISA’s definition of global competence Openness towards people from other cultural backgrounds Respect for cultural differences Global-mindedness “A worldview in which one sees oneself as connected to the world community and feels a sense of responsibility for its members”
  18. 18. PISA’s definition of global competence Values go beyond attitudes as they transcend specific objects or situations People use them consciously and unconsciously as reference for judgements • Human dignity • Cultural diversity Teaching attitudes and values related to global competence - Mainstreaming the principle of respect for human dignity and for cultural diversity across all subjects - Using multi-ethnic, multi-cultural examples - Emphasising the contributions of people from different ethnic groups to collective knowledge and quality of life - Cultivating a teaching and whole-school environment that encompasses the values of global competence - Giving educators access to continual professional development so that they feel able to handle difficult conversations on ethics and discrimination, can take into account the diversity of learners’ needs, and have a command of basic methods and techniques of observation, listening and intercultural communication
  19. 19. Measuring global competence in PISA
  20. 20. Scope of the PISA instruments
  21. 21. Cognitive test • A test of “global understanding ”: background knowledge + cognitive skills necessary to successfully navigate global and intercultural issues Questionnaire • Students: self-reported data on the other components of global competence (e.g. openness, adaptability) • Principals and teachers: self-reported data on activities related to global and intercultural education The PISA instruments
  22. 22. Cognitive test • A test of “global understanding ”: background knowledge + cognitive skills necessary to successfully navigate global and intercultural issues Questionnaire • Students: self-reported data on the other components of global competence (e.g. openness, adaptability) • Principals and teachers: self-reported data on activities related to global and intercultural education The PISA instruments • Can be objectively scored in a cross-culturally valid way • Yield results that can be interpreted in educational policy terms
  23. 23. Cognitive test • A test of “global understanding ”: background knowledge + cognitive skills necessary to successfully navigate global and intercultural issues Questionnaire • Students: self-reported data on the other components of global competence (e.g. openness, adaptability) • Principals and teachers: self-reported data on activities related to global and intercultural education The PISA instruments • Self-reported data on attitudes and social skills from the questionnaire will not be used to position countries and students on a scale. • They will be used to analyse the relationships between the cognitive and behavioural elements of global competence • Also used to explore how school activities, approaches and environment relate to the students performance on the test, and on students’ self-reported knowledge, attitudes and skills
  24. 24. Measuring global competence in PISA Cognitive test
  25. 25. “Global Understanding” Misconceptions, prejudice and stereotypes can occur from a lack of information Once formulated, initial and deeply-held beliefs are difficult to change Yet access to information about the world and other cultures is not enough to ensure global understanding Oversimplification of complex knowledge, a lack of new knowledge or experiences or lack of deeper reflection  misconceptions Cognitive skills = necessary to find meaning and connections, to understand different views, to make conclusions and anticipate consequences of action
  26. 26. “Global Understanding”
  27. 27. Basic Intermediate Advanced Rubric for assessing cognitive processes Each cognitive process, and each sub-category of cognitive process, has a corresponding rubric for level of development
  28. 28. 1. Evaluate evidence and explain issues The student takes the information at face value without considering contextual factors. The student considers contextual factors to assess the reliability of a source. He/she can detect clear biases and inconsistencies, but shows a rather limited view of reliability. The student understands perspectives as intrinsic to sources. He/she can distinguish the communicative intentions of sources and claims (facts, opinions, propaganda). He/she can take into account stated and unstated premises in a statement about global or intercultural issues, evaluate whether the assumptions or premises are reasonable or well- grounded in evidence. Example: Selecting sources: Weighing their reliability and relevance
  29. 29. The student has a simplistic view of perspectives: one person, one perspective The student sees differences in perspectives as rooted in cultural, religious, socio- economic, regional and other backgrounds. He/she recognises that they also hold a particular worldview. The student can describe and interpret multiple perspectives, and articulate relationships among them. He/she also understands that an individual’s identity is complex (e.g. one can hold simultaneous identities). The student recognises that he/she also holds a particular worldview. 2. Identify and analyse multiple perspectives and world views Example: Recognising perspectives and world views
  30. 30. 3. Understand differences in communication The student lacks awareness of the social impact and effects on others of different communication styles. The student understands some of the social impact of different communication styles, including how linguistic choices may result in a breakdown of communication. The student can anticipate and manage breakdowns in communication. He/she can employ linguistic devices such as avoiding categorical claims, providing re- statements, connecting to what others said, sharing questions and puzzles, acknowledging contributions. Example: Understanding the norms of respectful dialogue
  31. 31. 4. Evaluate actions and consequences When evaluating complex issues, the student considers one course of action as obvious and unproblematic (e.g. “close all polluting factories”). The student understands that multiple courses of action are possible to address complex issues/situations. He/she can identify directions for future investigations if the available evidence is not sufficient for reaching conclusions. The student demonstrates an ability to identify and evaluate different courses of action to solve an issue/situation. He/she weighs these actions against one another, for example, by looking at precedents, considering and evaluating available evidence and assessing the conditions that may make actions possible. Example: Considering actions
  32. 32. A typical unit of the cognitive test • Scenarios • Depict real-life situations, in the form of case studies, from which various tasks (test items) are derived • Focus on issues and situations where different perspectives exist, and give voice to these different perspectives. • Categorised by: content domain, context and complexity. Four content domains (i.e. topic of the scenario) that can be considered relevant for all students. Each domain can be further split into several specific sub-domains. Content Domain 1: Culture and intercultural relations Content Domain 2: Socio-economic development and interdependence Content Domain 3: Environmental sustainability Content Domain 4: Institutions, conflicts and human rights Personal context (situations relating to the self, family and peer groups) Local context (wider social networks, the neighbourhood, city or country) Global context (life across the world) Complexity refers to the scenario’s requirements in terms of: Domain-specific knowledge General knowledge (ability to decipher text and language)
  33. 33. Example of scenario #1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Deviation from mean Global temperature In her science class, Mei reads a research article that was featured in the daily press. The author of the article uses the following graph to argue that popular claims about a rise in global temperatures are not supported by the data. In fact, global temperatures were lower in 2011 and 2012 than in 2008 and 2009. Classification • Content: Environmental sustainability • Context: Global • Complexity of background knowledge: Medium
  34. 34. In a YouTube video that reached over 2 million visualizations, Renata Flores sings in Quechua, her native tongue, to Michael Jackson's "The Way You Make Me Feel” against the backdrop of ancient Inca ruins. Renata is an activist in a project called ‘The youth, we speak Quechua too”. Example of scenario #2 Classification • Content: Culture and intercultural relations • Context: Local • Complexity of background knowledge: Medium
  35. 35. A typical unit of the cognitive test • Scenarios • Depict real-life situations, in the form of case studies, from which various tasks (test items) are derived • Focus on issues and situations where different perspectives exist, and give voice to these different perspectives. • Categorised by: content domain, context, complexity & format • Test items • Any individual task that students’ perform in relation to a given scenario. • The response format of test items can be either open- or closed-response questions. • Categorised by: cognitive process assessed Many different types of tasks can be used in order to assess students’ level of proficiency in each of the four interrelated cognitive processes . Students may be asked to: - Select the most reliable source among different options; - Evaluate whether a statement is based on evidence; - Choose among possible explanations for an issue; - Identify stereotypes, generalizations & insensitive language; - Analyse contextual and cultural drivers of different perspectives; - Select among possible actions for solving a problem
  36. 36. Example of test item for scenario #1 Mei's teacher asks the class to have a look at another chart she produced from the same source of data in the article. Classification • Cognitive process: Evaluate information, formulate arguments and explain complex situations (sub-category: weighing sources) -0.6 -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 1880 1884 1888 1892 1896 1900 1904 1908 1912 1916 1920 1924 1928 1932 1936 1940 1944 1948 1952 1956 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 Global temperatureDeviation from mean Question: What can you infer about the validity of the article's claim by comparing the two charts?
  37. 37. Question 1: What messages do you think Renata is trying to convey? Classification • Cognitive process: Identify and analyse multiple perspectives (sub-category: recognising perspectives and contexts) Example of test items for scenario #2
  38. 38. Measuring global competence in PISA The questionnaires
  39. 39. The student questionnaire on Global Competence will provide: 1. Self-reported data on the knowledge, skills and attitudes: Features of the student questionnaire Knowledge • Awareness of global issues (e.g. climate change, inequality) • Awareness of intercultural communication Skills • Proficiency in and study of foreign languages • Adaptability to different cultural environments • Perspective-taking Attitudes • Openness towards others (e.g. attitudes towards migration) • Interest in learning about other cultures • Global-mindedness
  40. 40. Example items in the student questionnaire: Openness towards others How well does each of the following statements below describe you? Very much like me Mostly like me Somewhat like me Not much like me Not at all like me I want to learn how people live in different countries. 01 02 03 04 05 I want to learn more about the religions of the world. 01 02 03 04 05 I am interested in how people from various cultures see the world. 01 02 03 04 05 I am interested in finding out about the traditions of other cultures. 01 02 03 04 05
  41. 41. The student questionnaire on Global Competence will provide: 1. Self-reported data on the knowledge, skills and attitudes not assessed in the cognitive test: Features of the student questionnaire Knowledge • Awareness of global issues (e.g. climate change, inequality) • Awareness of intercultural communication Skills • Proficiency in and study of foreign languages • Adaptability to different cultural environments • Perspective-taking Attitudes • Openness towards others (e.g. attitudes towards migration) • Interest in learning about other cultures • Global-mindedness 2. Information on opportunities students have at school to learn about global issues and other cultures. 3. Information on students’ participation in activities to solve global issues out of school (e.g. volunteering, eco-friendly habits…)
  42. 42. Example item in student questionnaire: Activities related to global competence Do you learn the following at school? Yes No I learn about the interconnectedness of countries’ economies. 01 02 I learn how to solve conflicts with other people in our classrooms. 01 02 I learn about different cultures. 01 02 We read newspapers, look for news on the internet or watch the news together during classes. 01 02 I am often invited by my teachers to give my personal opinion about international news. 01 02 I participate in events celebrating cultural diversity throughout the school year. 01 02
  43. 43. These questionnaires provide information about: • Teachers’ beliefs about diversity and inclusion policies at school • Curriculum coverage of global issues (e.g. climate change, conflicts) • Curriculum coverage of the histories and cultures (e.g. beliefs, norms, values, customs, or arts) of diverse groups • Schools’ activities for multicultural learning (e.g. cultural events, exchange programmes) • Teachers’ practices facilitating interactions and peer-to-peer learning between diverse students • School policies to facilitate the integration of foreign-born students and non-native speakers • Teachers’ professional experience and training in intercultural communication and teaching multicultural classes • Teachers’ self-efficacy in multicultural environments Features of the school and teacher questionnaires
  44. 44. Do the following statements reflect your education and training as a teacher? Yes No Have you received training on intercultural communication? 01 02 Have you received training on conflict resolution strategies? 01 02 Have you received training on the role education can play in confronting discrimination in all its forms? 01 02 Have you studied culturally-responsive teaching approaches and techniques? 01 02 Have you received training on issues related to teaching in multi-cultural classrooms? 01 02 Example items in the teacher questionnaire: Intercultural training
  45. 45. Example items in the teacher questionnaire: Self-efficacy in multicultural environments How do you judge your own competence to teach in a class with a high degree of cultural and ethnic diversity? Strongly disagree Disagree Agree Strongly agree I can cope with the challenges of a multicultural classroom. 01 02 03 04 I can adapt my teaching to the cultural diversity of students. 01 02 03 04 I can take care that students with and without migrant background work together. 01 02 03 04 I can raise awareness for cultural differences amongst the students. 01 02 03 04 I can contribute to reducing ethnic stereotypes between the students. 01 02 03 04
  46. 46. • Data for participating countries collected during 2018. • Data available for analysis at the OECD around June 2019. • International report published and all data available for more analysis around February 2020. Next steps
  47. 47. Find out more about our work at www.oecd.org/pisa – All publications – The complete micro-level database Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org Twitter: SchleicherOECD Wechat: AndreasSchleicher Thank you

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