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PISA Effective Teacher Policies

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Teachers are the most important resource in today’s schools. In every country, teachers’ salaries and training represent the greatest share of expenditure in education. And this investment in teachers can have significant returns: research shows that being taught by the best teachers can make a real difference in the learning and life outcomes of otherwise similar students. Teachers, in other words, are not interchangeable workers in some sort of industrial assembly line; individual teachers can change lives – and better teachers are crucial to improving the education that schools provide. Improving the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of schooling depends, in large measure, on ensuring that competent people want to work as teachers, that their teaching is of high quality and that high-quality teaching is provided to all students. This report, building on data from the Indicators of Education Systems (INES) programme, the Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), explores three teacher-policy questions: How do the best-performing countries select, develop, evaluate and compensate teachers? How does teacher sorting across schools affect the equity of education systems? And how can countries attract and retain talented men and women to teaching?

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PISA Effective Teacher Policies

  1. 1. Effective Teacher Policies – Insights from PISA Effective Teacher Policies: Insights from PISA Andreas Schleicher OECD Director for Education and Skills
  2. 2. Singapore Japan EstoniaChinese Tapei Finland Macao (China) CanadaViet Nam Hong Kong (China)B-S-J-G (China) KoreaNew ZealandSlovenia Australia United KingdomGermany Netherlands Switzerland Ireland Belgium DenmarkPolandPortugal NorwayUnited StatesAustriaFrance Sweden Czech Rep. Spain Latvia Russia Luxembourg Italy Hungary LithuaniaCroatia Iceland IsraelMalta Slovak Rep. Greece Chile Bulgaria United Arab EmiratesUruguay Romania Moldova Turkey Trinidad and Tobago ThailandCosta Rica QatarColombia Mexico MontenegroJordan Indonesia Brazil Peru Lebanon Tunisia FYROM Kosovo Algeria Dominican Rep. (332) 350 400 450 500 550 Meanscienceperformance Higherperfomance Science performance and equity in PISA (2015) Some countries combine excellence with equity More equityMore equity
  3. 3. Effective Teacher Policies – Insights from PISA Three teacher-policy questions for PISA How do the best-performing countries select, develop, evaluate and compensate teachers? How does teacher sorting across schools affect the equity of education systems? How can countries attract and retain talented men and women to teaching? Three questions:
  4. 4. Effective Teacher Policies – Insights from PISA Most findings are descriptive and correlational Image by Randall Munroe, CC BY-NC …and are described as such.
  5. 5. Main findings from the report: Are there qualities unique to teacher policies in high-performing countries and schools?
  6. 6. Effective Teacher Policies – Insights from PISA What teacher-related features are common… … to high performing countries and economies? … to countries that improved in PISA between 2006 and 2015? … to schools that, after accounting for the profile of students, have the best results and most positive school climate in PISA?
  7. 7. Effective Teacher Policies – Insights from PISA … also among high-performing systems Levels of school responsibility for selecting teachers vary… Figure 2.2 0 25 50 75 100 Slovenia Macao(China) Estonia NewZealand Norway ngland(UnitedKingdom) ishcommunity(Belgium) Switzerland Netherlands Finland Australia HongKong(China) Canada Germany ChineseTaipei Singapore B-S-J-G(China) Japan Korea % of students Percentage of students in schools where principals or school governing boards have considerable responsibility for… Selecting teachers for hire Firing teachers
  8. 8. Effective Teacher Policies – Insights from PISA …but opportunities for professional learning are pervasive Finland R² = 0.17 350 400 450 500 550 20 40 60 80 100 MeanscoreinScience Percentage of students in schools whose principal reported that professional development workshops are offered at their school % High-performing countries and economies Figure 2.4
  9. 9. Effective Teacher Policies – Insights from PISA Professional-development policies for teachers share much in common across high-performing countries: • a mandatory and extended period of clinical education as part of initial teacher education; • bespoke opportunities for in-service teachers’ professional development, such as workshops that address specific issues facing the school, are available in (almost) every school; • teacher-appraisal mechanisms with a strong focus on teachers’ continuous improvement. (other aspects of teacher policies vary among the high performers in PISA Common features of high-performing countries (1)
  10. 10. Effective Teacher Policies – Insights from PISA Over the 2006-2015 period, more teachers and better learning were largely unrelated… Common features of countries that improved in PISA (1) Figure 2.10 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 Changeinmeanperformancein science(2015-2006) Change in the overall student-teacher ratio in schools attended by 15-year-olds (2015-2006) Score-point difference Students per teacher
  11. 11. Effective Teacher Policies – Insights from PISA Australia Austria Chile Finland Germany Hungary Mexico Norway Portugal Qatar Romania Chinese Taipei Thailand R² = 0.19 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 Changeinmeanperformanceinscience (2015-2006) Change in the percentage of 15-year-old students in schools whose principal or the school governing board has considerable responsibility for selecting teachers for hire % dif. Score-point difference …but the countries that improved most rapidly often increased school autonomy for hiring teachers Common features of countries that improved in PISA (2) Figure 2.13
  12. 12. Effective Teacher Policies – Insights from PISA R² = 0.21 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 Meanscoreinmathematics Score-point difference in mathematics between students expecting a career in teaching and students expecting a career in other professions Teaching is a relatively attractive profession for talented 15-year-olds Common features of high-performing countries (2) Figure 1.3 High-performing countries and economies
  13. 13. Effective Teacher Policies – Insights from PISA On average across 18 countries/economies that administered the teacher questionnaire: Common features of successful schools Student achievement is… …positively related to… …negatively related to… • Mean experience among teachers • Teacher turnover rate Student behaviour and school climate are… …positively related to… • Mean experience among teachers • Share of fully certified teachers • Principal support for teachers (index of transformational leadership) (based on multi-level regression models that account for student demographic characteristics and socio-economic status) Figure 2.14 Figure 2.15
  14. 14. Main findings from the report: Can teacher sorting compensate for student disadvantage?
  15. 15. Low math performance High math performance Mathematics performance of the 10% most disadvantaged American 15-year-olds (~Mexico) Mathematics performance of the 10% most privileged American 15-year-olds (~Japan) Poverty need not be destiny: PISA math performance by decile of social background PISAmathematicsperformance
  16. 16. Comparing like with like – Learning outcomes by international deciles of the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) 280 330 380 430 480 530 580 630 DominicanRepublic40 Algeria52 Kosovo10 Qatar3 FYROM13 Tunisia39 Montenegro11 Jordan21 UnitedArabEmirates3 Georgia19 Lebanon27 Indonesia74 Mexico53 Peru50 CostaRica38 Brazil43 Turkey59 Moldova28 Thailand55 Colombia43 Iceland1 TrinidadandTobago14 Romania20 Israel6 Bulgaria13 Greece13 Russia5 Uruguay39 Chile27 Latvia25 Lithuania12 SlovakRepublic8 Italy15 Norway1 Spain31 Hungary16 Croatia10 Denmark3 OECDaverage12 Sweden3 Malta13 UnitedStates11 Macao(China)22 Ireland5 Austria5 Portugal28 Luxembourg14 HongKong(China)26 CzechRepublic9 Poland16 Australia4 UnitedKingdom5 Canada2 France9 Korea6 NewZealand5 Switzerland8 Netherlands4 Slovenia5 Belgium7 Finland2 Estonia5 VietNam76 Germany7 Japan8 ChineseTaipei12 B-S-J-G(China)52 Singapore11 Scorepoints Bottom decile Second decile Middle decile Ninth decile Top decile Figure I.6.7 % of students in the bottom international deciles of ESCS OECD median student
  17. 17. Effective Teacher Policies – Insights from PISA Three questions about teacher sorting • Do schools with high concentrations of disadvantaged students have more and better qualified teachers? • Are differences in teacher resources between advantaged and disadvantaged schools related to socio- economic achievement gaps among students? • Are teacher resource gaps larger or smaller in de- centralised systems of teacher allocation ?
  18. 18. Effective Teacher Policies – Insights from PISA Disadvantaged schools often have more teachers… Figure 3.1 24.2 25.8 27.0 27.7 23 24 25 26 27 28 Bottom quarter Second quarter Third quarter Top quarter Students per class Average class size in <9th grade>, by quarter of school socio-economic profile (OECD average)
  19. 19. Effective Teacher Policies – Insights from PISA …but teachers in disadvantaged schools are less qualified… Figure 3.5 Science teachers without a university major in science, by school socio-economic profile (OECD Average) 31 26 25 21 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 Bottom quarter Second quarter Third quarter Top quarter
  20. 20. Effective Teacher Policies – Insights from PISA … and less experienced Figure 3.7 15.6 16.7 16.6 16.7 14.0 14.5 15.0 15.5 16.0 16.5 17.0 Bottom quarter Second quarter Third quarter Top quarter Years of experience Average teacher experience, by quarter of school socio-economic profile (Average-18)
  21. 21. Effective Teacher Policies – Insights from PISA …and principals report more often a lack of teachers Figure 3.3 35.1 31.1 29.9 21.4 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Bottom quarter Second quarter Third quarter Top quarter % Principals' views on lack of teaching staff, by quarter of school socio-economic profile (OECD Average)
  22. 22. Effective Teacher Policies – Insights from PISA Teacher quantity: class size … smaller in the most disadvantaged schools …larger in the most disadvantaged schools Belgium Canada Czech Republic Estonia France Germany Hungary Iceland Israel Japan Korea Latvia Luxembourg MexicoNetherlands Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Rep. Slovenia Sweden Colombia Croatia Georgia Indonesia Kosovo Lithuania Macao (China) Countries/economies where language-of-instruction classes are… Romania Moldova Montenegro Peru Russia Chinese Taipei Thailand Trinidad and Tobago Qatar*Singapore* United Arab Emirates* *: no difference is observed among public and government-dependent schools in the sample Figure 1.2
  23. 23. Effective Teacher Policies – Insights from PISA Teacher quantity: class size … smaller in the most disadvantaged schools …larger in the most disadvantaged schools Countries/economies where language-of-instruction classes are… *: no difference is observed among public and government-dependent schools in the sample Figure 1.2
  24. 24. Effective Teacher Policies – Insights from PISA Teacher quality: science teachers with a science major … higher in the most disadvantaged schools …lower in the most disadvantaged schools United States* Countries/economies where the proportion of science teachers with a major in science is… AustriaAustraliaCzech Rep. IcelandLuxembourgMexico NetherlandsNorwaySlovenia SwitzerlandUnited Kingdom BrazilB-S-J-G (China)Bulgaria CABA (Argentina)Costa Rica FYROMIndonesiaMacao (China) Kosovo MaltaQatarRussiaSingapore* *: difference is driven by private, indepedent schools Figure 1.2
  25. 25. Effective Teacher Policies – Insights from PISA Teacher quality: science teachers with a science major … higher in the most disadvantaged schools …lower in the most disadvantaged schools Countries/economies where the proportion of science teachers with a major in science is… Figure 1.2
  26. 26. Effective Teacher Policies – Insights from PISA 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 Differenceinreadingperformance betweenstudentsinthetopquarterand studentsinthebottomquarterofsocio- economicstatus Average difference between advantaged and disadvantaged schools in the size of language-of-instruction classes Score-point difference Students per class What matters most: quantity or quality? (1) Socio-economic achievement gaps are unrelated to differences in class size between advantaged and disadvantaged schools Figure 3.12
  27. 27. Effective Teacher Policies – Insights from PISA R² = 0.13 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 Differenceinscienceperformance betweenstudentsinthetopquarterand studentsinthebottomquarterofsocio- economicstatus Average difference between advantaged and disadvantaged schools in the proportion of science teachers with a major in science Score-point difference % dif. What matters most: quantity or quality? (1) Socio-economic achievement gaps are larger in countries where teacher qualifications and experience are inequitably distributed between advantaged and disadvantaged schools Figure 3.13
  28. 28. Effective Teacher Policies – Insights from PISA United Arab Emirates Australia Brazil Chile Colombia Czech Republic Germany Dominican Republic Spain Hong Kong (China) ItalyKorea Macao (China) Peru Portugal B-S-J-G (China) Chinese Taipei United States R² = 0.39 0 20 40 60 80 100 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 Percentageofstudentsinschoolswhose principalortheschoolgoverningboardhas considerableresponsibilityfordetermining teachers'salaryincreases Difference betwen advantaged and disadvantaged schools in the proportion of non-science teachers who reported that the school's capacity to provide instruction is hindered by a lack of teaching staff at least to some extent % % dif. Does school autonomy relate to inequity? • Not necessarily : Where school responsibility for hiring/firing teachers and setting salaries is greater, inequitable teacher sorting appears LESS frequent! Figure 3.16
  29. 29. 3 1 31 Square school choice with equity Financial incentives for schools Assistance for disadvantaged parents Manage/ consolidate school network Formula- based approaches to school financing Admission policies, controlled choice Foster collaboration /pairing among schools Engaging parents and stakeholders What can policy do?
  30. 30. Main findings from the report: Who wants a career in teaching?
  31. 31. Effective Teacher Policies – Insights from PISA Do students know? 11% of students do not respond to this question -compared to only 3% for “number of televisions at home”, 9% for “attending a science club” (closed-response questions) How do we know about students career expectations?
  32. 32. Effective Teacher Policies – Insights from PISA 4.2% of all students expect to work as teachers Figure 4.3 2.7 5.8 4.5 3.1 3.7 4.3 4.2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Percentage of students expecting to work as teachers (OECD average), by ... ...gender ...Immigrant background ...parental education % 0 20 40 60 80 100 OECD average % In 2015, 50% of students across OECD countries on average expected to work as professionals (including as teachers) by age 30 4.2 % of all students expected to work as teachers
  33. 33. Effective Teacher Policies – Insights from PISA compared to other students who expect professional occupations (OECD average) …but are often relatively lower achieving Figure 4.4 ...teachers ...teachers ...other professionals ...other professionals 490 495 500 505 510 515 520 525 530 535 540 Mathematics Reading Mean score among students who expect to become... score points
  34. 34. 215 235 255 275 295 315 335 355 375 Spain Poland Estonia United States Canada Ireland Korea England (UK) England/N. Ireland (UK) Denmark Northern Ireland (UK) France Australia Sweden Czech Republic Austria Netherlands Norway Germany Flanders (Belgium) Finland Japan Numeracy score 36 Teachers’ skills Numeracy test scores of tertiary graduates and teachers Numeracy score Numeracy skills of middle half of college graduates
  35. 35. 215 235 255 275 295 315 335 355 375 Spain Poland Estonia United States Canada Ireland Korea England (UK) England/N. Ireland (UK) Denmark Northern Ireland (UK) France Australia Sweden Czech Republic Austria Netherlands Norway Germany Flanders (Belgium) Finland Japan Numeracy score 37 Teachers’ skills Numeracy test scores of tertiary graduates and teachers Numeracy score Numeracy skills of teachers
  36. 36. Effective Teacher Policies – Insights from PISA 3-level regression analyses, based on 34 countries that have PISA and TALIS data and system-level salary data: Overall share of would-be-teachers is • positively related to teachers’ salaries • Weakly related to the share of teachers who agree that the teaching profession is valued in society Share of boys, among would-be-teachers is • Positively related to teachers’ salaries Performance of would-be-teachers (relative to the country mean) is • Not related to teachers’ salaries Bottom line: increases in teachers’ salaries might not be enough to attract more high-achieving students. Targeted measures & promoting (and improving) the intrinsic factors that motivate teachers perhaps as important. Is the talent pool for teaching shaped by teacher salaries?
  37. 37. Conclusion What do these results imply for policy and practice?
  38. 38. Effective Teacher Policies – Insights from PISA Improving the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of schooling depends, in large measure, on ensuring that competent people want to work as teachers, that their teaching is of high quality and that the high-quality teaching is provided to all students, and in particular to the most disadvantaged among students.
  39. 39. Effective Teacher Policies – Insights from PISA Policy implications • High-performing systems don’t just enjoy a natural privilege due solely to a traditional respect for teachers; they have also built a high-quality teaching force as a result of deliberate policy choices • Greater independence of schools need not lead to greater disparities in student performance and greater inequities in teacher allocation • Countries need to keep a close eye on how teacher qualifications, experience and effectiveness match the needs of schools • Many countries need to do more to address the needs of all teachers, particularly novice teachers, in disadvantaged schools
  40. 40. Find out more about our work at www.oecd.org/pisa – All publications – The complete micro-level database Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org Twitter: SchleicherOECD Wechat: AndreasSchleicher Thank you

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