Over the past decades, both developed and developing countries have become concerned about the level of financial literacy amongst their citizens, and particularly amongst young people. This concern initially stemmed from worries about the potential impact of shrinking welfare systems and employment-related benefits, shifting demographics, and the increased sophistication and expansion of financial services. The indirect impact of the Covid-19 crisis on individuals’ income and savings (both current and future) and heightened uncertainty in the economic and financial landscape make financial literacy even more crucial for ensuring that citizens are financially resilient.Many 15-year-olds face financial decisions and are already consumers of financial services. They are likely to face growing complexity and risks in the financial marketplace as they move into adulthood. Since better knowledge and understanding of financial concepts and risks could help improve financial decision making amongst adults and young people, financial literacy is now globally recognised as an essential life skill.A growing number of countries provide financial education in school. To minimise curriculum overload, countries typically integrate financial literacy into other subjects and existing courses, rather than introducing an additional subject into an already crowded programme of study. Students may improve their financial skills by acquiring transversal competencies, such as problem solving and critical thinking, in other subjects; at the same time, financial problems can be used as a real-life context for teaching mathematics and other subjects.Thirteen OECD countries and economies and seven partner countries participated in the PISA 2018 assessment of financial literacy. Some 117 000 15-year-old students sat the test, representing around 13.5 million students.