National Higher Education Reform at the Crossroads of Global and European Challenges: A Case of Lithuania


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National Higher Education Reform at the Crossroads of Global and European Challenges: A Case of Lithuania

  1. 1. National Higher Education Reformat the Crossroads of Global and European ChallengesA Case of LithuaniaIMHE General Conference“Attaining and Sustaining Mass Higher Education”Paris, 18 September 2012
  2. 2. Attaining Mass Higher Education
  3. 3. Impact
  4. 4. HE Policies 1990-1999: ‘Non-intervention’• “Higher education shall be accessible to everyone according to his individual abilities. Citizens who are good at their studies shall be guaranteed education at State schools of higher education free of charge” (The Constitution, 1992)• …to “humanize education and studies, <…> to get involved more extensively in world science” … “the state always recognizes the priority of fundamental research of the Lithuanian language and the culture of Lithuania” (The Law on Science and Studies, 1991)• The Science Council, The Conference of Rectors, The Academy of Sciences & The Department of Science and Studies, State Science and Studies Foundation 1992, SKVC 1994, research assessmens of 1994- 1997, joining the Bologna Process in 1999
  5. 5. HE Policies 1995-2007: Economy-Driven Approach• The Law on Higher Education, 2000• Financing HE based on pre-planned number of students  ‘needs of the economy’• Research funding based on R&D outcome  Frascati Manual• Flat fees for students except of well-doing full time• Dual system of universities and colleges 2000-2001• Boards of HEIs• The White Paper on Science and Technology, 2001• Incorporation of research institutes 2000-2001• National research priorities 2002 FP6• R&D strategy 2003-2012, 2003• Commission for the Development of Science, Technology and Innovation, 2005
  6. 6. HE Policies 2007-2011: Liberal-Conservative Reform• National Reform Plan 2007 (implementation of EU structural support)• The Law on Science and Studies 2009• State  public universities• External boards (majority) appointing rectors• Student vouchers & student loans  public and private HEIs• Distribution of vouchers according to ‘needs of society & economy’• Research, HE and Business ‘Valleys’• Competitive research funding 7%  50%• Funding National Research Council & Agency for Science, Innovation and Technology• Merger of SRIs• Ruling of Constitutional Court of 22 December 2011: external governance of universities and public funding of private HEIs invalid
  7. 7. Momentum of 2012
  8. 8. New Policy Paradigm Smart society: happy society that is open [openness] to the ideas of each citizen [creativity], to innovations and challenges, demonstrating solidarity, self-governance and political maturity [responsibility]. Smart economy: economy that is flexible and able to compete globally [openness], generating high added value, based on knowledge, innovations entrepreneurship [creativity] and social responsibility as well as “green” growth [responsibility]. Smart governance: governance that is open and participatory [openness], delivering, meeting public demands and ensuring high quality services [responsibility], as well as competent government, able to take targeted strategic decisions [creativity]. (Lithuania’s Progress Strategy ‘Lithuania 2030’)Science and education in Lithuania in 2030 are at the core of the learning society. Theyfocus on the values of sustainable development and the creation of a social, economic,ecological and cultural coherence. Science and education develop integral,entrepreneurial and creative person with a broad cultural outlook, attitudes ofpartnership and a sustainable lifestyle. A universally accessible higher educationtogether with the integral and focused research system represent the major drivingforce of societys cultural, social and technological progress, the basis for theattractiveness of the country and the welfare of its citizens. (Learning Lithuania 2030)
  9. 9. The Quest for Sustainability• Declaration vs implementation• ‘Efficiency’ vs effectiveness of reforms• Economy & free market vs ‘grand challenges’; sustainable development; holistic approach• ‘Nordic’ sympathies vs ‘British’ policy orientation• Integration and stratification in ERA and EHEA vs ambitions of excellence vs limited resources & scarce political support• Creativity, entrepreneurship & general skills vs high level of external reglamentation & active participation of the state